J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2019 Aug 29. pii: S1544-3191(19)30349-8. doi: 10.1016/j.japh.2019.07.011. [Epub ahead of print]
Evaluation of a community pharmacy-based influenza and group A streptococcal pharyngitis disease management program using polymerase chain reaction point-of-care testing.

Klepser DG, Klepser ME, Murry JS, Borden H, Olsen KM.


The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-waived real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) molecular test into a community pharmacy setting as part of a collaborative influenza and group A Streptococcus (GAS) disease management program.

Two community pharmacy sites in Tennessee.

Patients presenting to the pharmacy with symptoms consistent with influenza or GAS from November 1, 2016, to April 30, 2018.

Influenza and GAS management programs based on previously developed protocols occurred at 2 community pharmacies in Tennessee. Pharmacies used the Cobas Liat testing system (Roche Diagnostics). Based on test results and under a collaborative practice agreement, pharmacists dispensed prescription medications for patients with a positive test: oseltamivir for influenza and amoxicillin for GAS. Patients with negative tests were treated with over-the-counter (OTC) medications or referred. Patients testing negative for GAS were asked to consent to having a second throat swab sent for culture.

Number of patients tested, point-of-care test results, and treatment received.

Two hundred and two patients received care at the 2 pharmacies (116 for influenza, 46 for GAS, and 43 for both). Sixty (38%) tested positive for influenza, with 51 receiving an antiviral prescription, and 16 (18%) tested positive and were treated for GAS. No patient testing negative for either or positive for influenza was dispensed an antibiotic. For patients consenting to a follow-up culture, all GAS cultures sent for confirmatory testing were negative.

A protocol-driven community pharmacy-based disease management program using real-time PCR testing for influenza and GAS was able to offer appropriate treatment to patients without overuse of antibiotics.
Copyright © 2019 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

PMID: 31474527 DOI: 10.1016/j.japh.2019.07.011