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Cost-Effective and Handmade Paper-Based Immunosensing Device for Electrochemical Detection of Influenza Virus

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  • Cost-Effective and Handmade Paper-Based Immunosensing Device for Electrochemical Detection of Influenza Virus

    Sensors (Basel). 2017 Nov 11;17(11). pii: E2597. doi: 10.3390/s17112597.
    Cost-Effective and Handmade Paper-Based Immunosensing Device for Electrochemical Detection of Influenza Virus.

    Devarakonda S1, Singh R2, Bhardwaj J3, Jang J4,5.
    Author information

    Abstract

    Although many studies concerning the detection of influenza virus have been published, a paper-based, label-free electrochemical immunosensor has never been reported. Here, we present a cost-effective, handmade paper-based immunosensor for label-free electrochemical detection of influenza virus H1N1. This immunosensor was prepared by modifying paper with a spray of hydrophobic silica nanoparticles, and using stencil-printed electrodes. We used a glass vaporizer to spray the hydrophobic silica nanoparticles onto the paper, rendering it super-hydrophobic. The super-hydrophobicity, which is essential for this paper-based biosensor, was achieved via 30-40 spray coatings, corresponding to a 0.39-0.41 mg cm-2 coating of nanoparticles on the paper and yielding a water contact angle of 150? ? 1?. Stencil-printed carbon electrodes modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes and chitosan were employed to increase the sensitivity of the sensor, and the antibodies were immobilized via glutaraldehyde cross-linking. Differential pulse voltammetry was used to assess the sensitivity of the sensors at various virus concentrations, ranging from 10 to 10⁴ PFU mL-1, and the selectivity was assessed against MS2 bacteriophages and the influenza B viruses. These immunosensors showed good linear behaviors, improved detection times (30 min), and selectivity for the H1N1 virus with a limit of detection of 113 PFU mL-1, which is sufficiently sensitive for rapid on-site diagnosis. The simple and inexpensive methodologies developed in this study have great potential to be used for the development of a low-cost and disposable immunosensor for detection of pathogenic microorganisms, especially in developing countries.


    KEYWORDS:

    carbon nanotubes; electrochemical immunosensor; influenza virus; label-free detection; paper sensor; silica nanoparticles; stencil printing

    PMID: 29137115 DOI: 10.3390/s17112597
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