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Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

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  • Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

    <TABLE class=LayoutTable border=0 cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0><TBODY><TR><TD>Published Online May 22, 2009
    Science DOI: 10.1126/science.1176225
    </TD><TD>Science Express Index
    </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
    Reports

    <!-- BEGIN: legacy HTML content --><!--RESUMEHIGHLIGHT--><VARDEF id=TEXT><!-- Page created by HighWire's PIP system-->
    Submitted on May 12, 2008
    Accepted on May 22, 2009

    Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

    <NOBR>Rebecca J. Garten <SUP>1</SUP><SUP></SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>C. Todd Davis <SUP>1</SUP><SUP></SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Colin A. Russell <SUP>2</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Bo Shu <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Stephen Lindstrom <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Amanda Balish <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Wendy M. Sessions <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Xiyan Xu <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Eugene Skepner <SUP>3</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Varough Deyde <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Margaret Okomo-Adhiambo <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Larisa Gubareva <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>John Barnes <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Catherine B. Smith <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Shannon L. Emery <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Michael J. Hillman <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Pierre Rivailler <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>James Smagala <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Miranda de Graaf <SUP>4</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>David F. Burke <SUP>3</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Ron A. M. Fouchier <SUP>5</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Claudia Pappas <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Celia M. Alpuche-Aranda <SUP>6</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Hugo López-Gatell <SUP>6</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Hiram Olivera <SUP>6</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Irma López <SUP>6</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Christopher A. Myers <SUP>7</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Dennis Faix <SUP>7</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Patrick J. Blair <SUP>7</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Cindy Yu <SUP>8</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Kimberly M. Keene <SUP>9</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>P. David Dotson Jr.<SUP>10</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>David Boxrud <SUP>11</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Anthony R. Sambol <SUP>12</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Syed H. Abid <SUP>13</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Kirsten St. George <SUP>14</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Tammy Bannerman <SUP>15</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Amanda L. Moore <SUP>16</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>David J. Stringer <SUP>17</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Patricia Blevins <SUP>18</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Gail J. Demmler-Harrison <SUP>19</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Michele Ginsberg <SUP>20</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Paula Kriner <SUP>21</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Steve Waterman <SUP>22</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Sandra Smole <SUP>23</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Hugo F. Guevara <SUP>24</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Edward A. Belongia <SUP>25</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Patricia A. Clark <SUP>26</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Sara T. Beatrice <SUP>27</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Ruben Donis <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Jacqueline Katz <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Lyn Finelli <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Carolyn B. Bridges <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Michael Shaw <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Daniel B. Jernigan <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Timothy M. Uyeki <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Derek J. Smith <SUP>28</SUP><SUP>*</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Alexander I. Klimov <SUP>1</SUP>,</NOBR> <NOBR>Nancy J. Cox <SUP>1</SUP><SUP>*</SUP></NOBR> <SUP>1</SUP> WHO Collaborating Center for Influenza, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA.
    <SUP>2</SUP> Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK.; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, USA.
    <SUP>3</SUP> Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK.
    <SUP>4</SUP> Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK.; Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, NL.
    <SUP>5</SUP> Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, NL.
    <SUP>6</SUP> Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE) Prolongación de Carpio, México, DF.
    <SUP>7</SUP> Naval Health Research Center, USA.
    <SUP>8</SUP> Arizona State Public Health Laboratory, USA.
    <SUP>9</SUP> Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, USA.
    <SUP>10</SUP> Indiana State Department of Health Laboratories.
    <SUP>11</SUP> Public Health Laboratory, Minnesota Department of Health, USA.
    <SUP>12</SUP> Nebraska Public Health Laboratory, USA.
    <SUP>13</SUP> Westchester County Department of Laboratories & Research Public Health Laboratories, USA.
    <SUP>14</SUP> Wadsworth Center, New York State Dept of Health, USA.
    <SUP>15</SUP> Ohio Department of Health Laboratory, USA.
    <SUP>16</SUP> South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, USA.
    <SUP>17</SUP> Dallas County Health and Human Services, USA.
    <SUP>18</SUP> San Antonio Metro Health District, USA.
    <SUP>19</SUP> Diagnostic Virology Laboratory, Texas Children's Hospital, USA.
    <SUP>20</SUP> San Diego Public Health Laboratory, USA.
    <SUP>21</SUP> Imperial County Public Health Department, USA.
    <SUP>22</SUP> CDC Border Infectious Disease Surveillance Project, USA.
    <SUP>23</SUP> William A Hinton State Laboratory Institute Massachusetts Department of Public Health, USA.
    <SUP>24</SUP> California Department of Public Health, Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory, USA.
    <SUP>25</SUP> Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, USA.
    <SUP>26</SUP> Michigan Department of Community Health, USA.
    <SUP>27</SUP> Public Health Laboratory, NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, USA.
    <SUP>28</SUP> Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, UK.; Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, USA.; Department of Virology, Erasmus Medical Center, NL.

    <SUP>*</SUP> To whom correspondence should be addressed.
    Derek J. Smith , E-mail: dsmith@zoo.cam.ac.uk<SCRIPT type=text/javascript><!-- var u = "dsmith", d = "zoo.cam.ac.uk"; document.getElementById("em0").innerHTML = '<a href="mailto:' + u + '@' + d + '">' + u + '@' + d + '<\/a>'//--></SCRIPT>
    Nancy J. Cox , E-mail: njc1@cdc.gov<SCRIPT type=text/javascript><!-- var u = "njc1", d = "cdc.gov"; document.getElementById("em1").innerHTML = '<a href="mailto:' + u + '@' + d + '">' + u + '@' + d + '<\/a>'//--></SCRIPT>


    <SUP></SUP>These author contributed equally to this work. <ABS>Since its identification in April 2009 an A(H1N1) virus containing<SUP> </SUP>a unique combination of gene segments from both North American<SUP> </SUP>and Eurasian swine lineages has continued to circulate in humans.<SUP> </SUP>The lack of similarity between the 2009 A(H1N1) virus and its<SUP> </SUP>nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been<SUP> </SUP>circulating undetected for an extended period. Its low genetic<SUP> </SUP>diversity suggests the introduction into humans was a single<SUP> </SUP>event or multiple events of similar viruses. Molecular markers<SUP> </SUP>predictive of adaptation to humans are not currently present<SUP> </SUP>in 2009 A(H1N1) viruses, suggesting previously unrecognized<SUP> </SUP>molecular determinants could be responsible for the transmission<SUP> </SUP>among humans. Antigenically the viruses are homogeneous and<SUP> </SUP>similar to North American swine A(H1N1) viruses but distinct<SUP> </SUP>from seasonal human A(H1N1).<SUP> </SUP>

  • #2
    Re: Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

    http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/data/1176225/DC1/1

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

      Very last plot in this one (blue and green blobs). What am I looking at?

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

        thanks.

        maybe one of thee is the Thailand pig, I'll check

        A/Swine/Chachoengsao/NIAH587/2005(H1N1)
        A/Swine/Chonburi/NIAH589/2005(H1N1)
        A/Swine/Miyazaki/1/2006(H1N2)


        nothing special about the swine

        Code:
        52 >A/swine-flu/index/2009-02-01(H1N1)                  
          1:177,136,140,483,163,507, 22,188   A/swine/Hong Kong/5190/99(H3N2)
          2:158, 63,170,488,176,506,135,182   A/Texas/UR06-0356/2007(H3N2)
          3:153, 82,164,482,157,503,118,177   A/Russia/WO0200884/72(H3N2)
          4:148,105,165,364,154,509,114,163   A/Japan/305/57(H2N2)
          5:147,105,166,363,150,509,112,157   A/Index/1957(H2N2)
         17: 96,131, 66,468,164,430, 89,291   A/pintail/Alaska/779/2005(H3N8)
         21:151,106,118,484,162,496, 66,302   A/Ck/Germany/n/1949(H10N7)
         22:154,135,116,492,162,500, 80,148   A/fowl/Dobson/1927(H7N7)
        
         65:177,195,182,152, 99,515,121,128   A/swine/Miyazaki/1/2006(H1N2)
         24:164,145,143,146,166, 92, 42,195   A/swine/Chonburi/NIAH589/2005(H1N1)
         25:163,145,143,146,166, 92, 42,195   A/swine/Chachoengsao/NIAH587/2005(H1N1)
        
         31:158,127,125,245,158, 80, 49,166   A/swine/Germany/2/1981(H1N1)=1578
         32:153,144,110,358,170,148, 87,158   A/Bar-h Gs/Qinghai/62/05(H5N1)
         33:146,108,105,364,159,134, 71,156   A/Ck/Scotland/1959(H5N1)
         38: 48, 59, 57,250,  0,250,  0,  0   A/swine/Minnesota/SG-00241/2007(H1N1)
         39: 29, 35, 43, 47, 31,505,110, 41   A/Turkey/MO/24093/99(H1N2)
         40: 29, 33, 36,250,  0,250,  0,  0   A/mallard duck/South Dakota/Sg-00125/2007(H3N2)
         41: 32, 37, 43,502, 33,505,123, 34   A/Swine/Texas/4199-2/98(H3N2)
         42: 38, 37, 42,484, 32,505,121, 87   A/swine/Korea/CY04/2007(H3N2)
         43: 47, 50, 57,250,  0,250,  0,  0   A/swine/Minnesota/SG-00240/2007(H1N1)
         44: 46, 49,  0, 63,  0,204,127,  0   A/swine/Ohio/C62006/06(H1N1)
         45: 49, 50, 56, 62, 55,199,120, 54   A/swine/Ohio/24366/07(H1N1)
         46: 49, 50, 56, 61, 54,199,120, 50   A/swine/OH/511445/2007(H1N1)
         47: 48, 50, 56,250,  0,250,  0,  0   A/swine/Illinois/SG-00244/2007(H1N1)
         48: 50, 40, 59, 52, 36,101, 56, 39   A/******-match/1-2/07(H3N2)
         58: 50, 53, 53,250,  0,250,  0,  0   A/swine/Minnesota/SG-00238/2006(H1N1)
         59: 45, 47, 45, 91, 44,200,124, 51   A/Iowa/CEID23/2005(H1N1)
         60: 33, 30, 44, 52, 36,201,119, 43   A/Wisconsin/10/98(H1N1)
         61: 72, 44,182,131, 50,205,123,107   A/swine/Ontario/53518/03(H1N1)
         62:173, 58,190,123, 70,209,130, 98   A/swine/Ontario/23866/04(H1N1)
         71:135,180,157,172,109,162,103,128   A/swine/Jamesburg/1942(H1N1)
         72:141,182,154,167,104,174,106,131   A/swine/Ohio/23/1935(H1N1)
         73:136,182,156,175,112,158,107,131   A/swine/1931(H1N1)
         74:125,176,155,182,120,167, 88,143   A/Brevig Mission/1/1918(H1N1)
         76:145,177,157,216,150,192,110,157   A/Hickox/1940(H1N1)
         77:146,186,164,226,155,192,116,155   A/Denver/57(H1N1)
         78:147,182,165,222,151,192,106,155   A/Index/1977(H1N1)
         81:164,192,171,235,157,216,125,178   A/Kansas/UR06-0068/2007(H1N1)
        I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
        my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

          http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/rapidpdf/1176225v1.pdf
          page 2

          > A/Thailand/271/2005 contains genes from both North American and Eurasian
          > swine influenza lineages(29) indicating previous reassortment between
          > these two swine virus lineages

          --------edit---------

          that event however is very distant to ****** and has nothing to do with it.

          > Since the outbreak began, virologists have wondered how Eurasian genes got into a North American pig.
          > Live pigs are moved through the Americas fairly easily, but rarely are legally moved across oceans,
          > because they carry diseases. Even a single breeding boar must be tested and quarantined.
          > Now that the mixed genes have been found in Asia, it is possible that they came from a
          > North American pig that was taken there. There is little flu surveillance of pigs in much of
          > the world, and even in the United States it is “not very systematic,” Dr. Cox said.

          that conclusion may be right, but "Now that the mixed genes have been found in Asia, "
          does not support it.

          --------------------------------------

          2007: Komadina N; Roque V; Thawatsupha P; Rimando-Magalong J; Waicharoen S; Bomasang E; Sawanpanyalert P; Rivera M; Iannello P; Hurt A C; Barr I G
          Genetic analysis of two influenza A (H1) swine viruses isolated from humans in Thailand and the Philippines.
          Virus genes 2007;35(2):161-5.

          Influenza viruses A/Philippines/341/2004 (H1N2) and A/Thailand/271/2005 (H1N1) were isolated from two males, with mild influenza providing evidence of sporadic human infection by contemporary swine influenza. Both viruses were antigenically and genetically distinct from influenza A (H1N1 and H1N2) viruses that have circulated in the human population. Genetic analysis of the haemagglutinin genes found these viruses to have the highest degree of similarity to the classical swine H1 viruses circulating in Asia and North America. The neuraminidase gene and the internal genes were found to be more closely related to viruses circulating in European swine, which appear to have undergone multiple reassorting events. Although transmission of swine influenza to humans appears to be a relatively rare event, swine have been proposed as the intermediate host in the generation of potential pandemic influenza virus that may have the capacity to cause human epidemics resulting in high morbidity and mortality.

          -----------------------------------------------

          closest match in HA is A/swine/Tennessee/2/1977(H1N1)

          27 years ! The 11 years gap of ******-anchestry surveillance looks small
          compared to this. Swine viruses evolve and replicate on some farms
          for decades unsurveilled and almost isolated from the rest
          of swinefluhood. Thus avoiding these bottlenecks which we see
          in human influenza evolution and which limit the diversity in circulating
          human strains.
          Swine serve as a big genetic reservoir for influenza, from which occasionally
          new viruses can emerge and jump to humans.
          I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
          my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

            Originally posted by gsgs View Post
            http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/rapidpdf/1176225v1.pdf
            page 2

            > A/Thailand/271/2005 contains genes from both North American and Eurasian
            > swine influenza lineages(29) indicating previous reassortment between
            > these two swine virus lineages

            --------edit---------

            that event however is very distant to ****** and has nothing to do with it.

            > Since the outbreak began, virologists have wondered how Eurasian genes got into a North American pig.
            > Live pigs are moved through the Americas fairly easily, but rarely are legally moved across oceans,
            > because they carry diseases. Even a single breeding boar must be tested and quarantined.
            > Now that the mixed genes have been found in Asia, it is possible that they came from a
            > North American pig that was taken there. There is little flu surveillance of pigs in much of
            > the world, and even in the United States it is “not very systematic,” Dr. Cox said.

            that conclusion may be right, but "Now that the mixed genes have been found in Asia, "
            does not support it.
            I just saw a show on Discovery Channel called "Pig Bomb" that was about the explosion of wild pigs in the U.S. It turns out that someone brought Eurasian wild boars over and released them into the wild in the 1980's or 1990's. The infusion of Eurasian wild boars has made the U.S. wild pigs tougher and they're spreading very quickly.

            Could it be that swine flu is not from domestic pigs but from wild pigs in the U.S./Mexico?

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

              It turns out that someone brought Eurasian wild boars over and released them into the wild in the 1980's or 1990's.
              Wild boars have been in the US prior to the 80s. I remember them along the California coast in the mid 60s - in the Big Sur area. They might have caught human influenza from contents of the garbage cans they overturned. Nasty large animals.

              .
              "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: Antigenic and Genetic Characteristics of Swine-Origin 2009 A(H1N1) Influenza Viruses Circulating in Humans

                Originally posted by AlaskaDenise View Post
                Wild boars have been in the US prior to the 80s.
                Yes, they have been in the U.S. for hundreds of years but only recently has the Eurasian wild boar been introduced, (possibly re-introduced).

                From the previous posts...

                "Since the outbreak began, virologists have wondered how Eurasian genes got into a North American pig."


                ...it seemed that there is some mystery as to how the Eurasian genes appeared in North American pigs. I was just suggesting a method of transport.

                Comment

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