Announcement

Collapse
No announcement yet.

Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

Collapse
X
 
  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

    Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere

    Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere

    22 September 2008

    During the weeks 33?36 (10 August ? 6 September), overall influenza activity in the southern hemisphere declined, except for New Zealand where influenza activity remained widespread with
    predominating influenza B virus and co-circulating A(H3) virus.

    In Australia, local activity was reported during weeks 35-36 with co-circulation of A and B viruses.

    Between weeks 33 to 36, in the southern hemisphere, sporadic influenza activity was detected in Argentina (A,B), Brazil (A), Chile (B, A) and New Caledonia (H1). Activity was low in the rest of the world ? declining influenza activity (H1, H3) was reported from Hong Kong SAR, China and only sporadic influenza activity was reported from Canada (H1, B) and Japan (H3).

    WHO has received several reports from National Influenza Centres (NIC) in the southern hemisphere regarding influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir.

    In South Africa, a total of 283 A(H1N1) viruses have been isolated during the 2008 influenza season as of 9 September.

    Of those, 129 isolates have been tested for oseltamivir resistance by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) and 100% were found to be resistant to oseltamivir by genotypic
    analysis.

    Only one of these 129 patients was receiving oseltamivir at the time of sampling, and no unusual clinical features or underlying conditions were found.

    In Australia, 25 of 26, Argentina, 11 of 25, Chile, 6 of 44 A(H1N1) viruses analysed showed the specific neuraminidase mutation (H274Y) associated with oseltamivir resistance, respectively.

    WHO has also received reports from NICs in other parts of the world; In the Russian Federation, 9 of 20, and Philippines, 10 of 11 A(H1N1) viruses tested were found to be resistant, respectively.


    WHO is collecting global data about this phenomenon from multiple laboratories participating in Global Influenza Surveillance Network. Data from European countries participating in EISS were
    provided by the EISS and VirGil project. This summary table will be updated regularly (every four weeks).

    Oseltamivir resistance results were based on phenotypic and/or genotypic analyses.

    For background and summary until week 24, 2008, see Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir, Last quarter 2007 to first quarter 2008, Preliminary summary and future plans
    http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ.../en/index.html
    -
    -----

    Shot at 2008-09-29

    Shot at 2008-09-29

    Shot at 2008-09-29

    Shot at 2008-09-29
    -
    http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ...te20080922.pdf
    -----

  • #2
    Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

    Commentary

    http://www.recombinomics.com/News/09...ilippines.html

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

      Commentary

      Fixing H1N1 Tamiflu Resistance In the Philippines
      Recombinomics Commentary 19:07
      September 29, 2008

      In South Africa, a total of 283 A(H1N1) viruses have been isolated during the 2008 influenza season as of 9 September.

      Of those, 129 isolates have been tested for oseltamivir resistance by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) and 100% were found to be resistant to oseltamivir by genotypic analysis.

      In Australia, 25 of 26, Argentina, 11 of 25, Chile, 6 of 44 A(H1N1) viruses analysed showed the specific neuraminidase mutation (H274Y) associated with oseltamivir resistance, respectively.

      WHO has also received reports from NICs in other parts of the world; In the Russian Federation, 9 of 20, and Philippines, 10 of 11 A(H1N1) viruses tested were found to be resistant, respectively.

      The above comments provide additional updates on Tamiflu resistance in the southern hemisphere and indicate that resistance is at or near 100% in South Africa (129/129), Australia (25/26), and the Philippines (10/11).

      The levels suggest the Tamiflu resistance is becoming fixed in the above countries, and will likely become fixed in new versions of clade 2B that emerge in the upcoming season, in spite of targeting Brisbane/59 in the current vaccine for the northern hemisphere and the upcoming vaccine for the southern hemisphere.


      .
      "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

        Commentary

        http://www.recombinomics.com/News/09...Fix_World.html

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

          Commentary

          http://www.recombinomics.com/News/09...ld_Spread.html

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

            http://www.recombinomics.com/News/09290801/H274Y_Fix.html
            "... isolates from Africa and South America, which are largely evolving versions of the dominant Brisbane/59 (clade 2B) sub-clade with H274Y. ...
            ... evidence of additional independent introductions, indicating Tamiflu resistance is evolving through two mechanisms. One involves evolution of the dominant sub-clade, while he other involves movement of H274Y from the dominant sub-clade, to other clade 2B sub-clades, raising concerns that H274Y will soon be fixed in H1N1. ...
            The recent HA sequences from Seychelles have the same non-synonymous changes seen in isolates from South Africa, raising concerns that the effectiveness of the Brisbane/59 vaccine that is being introduced this season will have limited utility. ...
            ... dramatic increase in the H1N1 genetic reservoir with H274Y, which creates concern that the frequency of H274Y will continue to increase as H1N1 continues to evolve."

            So, in exception with maybe NewRelenza (in exper. quantities), we loosed any antiviral medication onto this kind of H1N1.
            Additionaly, the WHO 08/09 vaccine would not probably be enaugh effective.

            Acknowledging that the strains evolves, and we can't be sure if the northern flu strains would change much from the actual,
            exists at the moment some scientific reason why this one resistant, not well matched in a vaccine, seasonal H1N1 strain would not became shortly an serious pandemic virus instead of the dreaded H5N1?
            Low virulence, bland infection course, ...?

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

              resistance against Tamifly is no big indicator for a virus going pandemic.

              It's still H1N1 and thus no new serotype, which would be typical for panemics
              I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
              my current links: http://bit.ly/hFI7H ILI-charts: http://bit.ly/CcRgT

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                Originally posted by gsgs View Post
                resistance against Tamifly is no big indicator for a virus going pandemic.

                It's still H1N1 and thus no new serotype, which would be typical for panemics
                So the actual H1N1 can't spread enaugh good to infect vast parts of populations, but if it change raising virulence further, it would?
                The S.African epidemic cases seems enaugh serious, or not?

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                  Originally posted by tropical View Post
                  So the actual H1N1 can't spread enaugh good to infect vast parts of populations, but if it change raising virulence further, it would?
                  The S.African epidemic cases seems enaugh serious, or not?
                  This version of H1N1 can efficiently transmit human to human (but is in competition with H3N2 and influenza B). Many regions have a significant level of H1N1 (it was widespread in the US and Europe last season) and this upcoming season should be dominated by H1N1 with H274Y, which can be transfered to H5N1 if H5N1 becomes efficiently transmitted to humans.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                    So not pandemic from that H1N1 for now on the horizon, but we start to loose oseltamivir eficacy wider.

                    Thank You Dr. Niman, and gsgs.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                      Update on public sequences with H274Y

                      gb|FJ227689.1| Influenza A virus (A/HongKong/1313/2008(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|FJ227688.1| Influenza A virus (A/HongKong/1052/2008(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|FJ227687.1| Influenza A virus (A/HongKong/942/2008(H1N1)) ... 32.2 10
                      gb|FJ179363.1| Influenza A virus (A/Illinois/15/2007(H1N1)) s... 32.2 10
                      gb|FJ179362.1| Influenza A virus (A/Illinois/16/2007(H1N1)) s... 32.2 10
                      gb|FJ179361.1| Influenza A virus (A/Pennsylvania/13/2007(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914908.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/45/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914907.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/36/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914906.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/35/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914905.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/33/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914904.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/14/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914903.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/21/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914902.1| Influenza A virus (A/CapeTown/26/2008(H1N1)) n... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU914901.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/12/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU685788.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1170/2008(H1N1)) ne... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551826.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/749/2007(H1N1)) neu... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551824.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/847/2007(H1N1)) neu... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551821.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/963/2008(H1N1)) neu... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551815.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/577/2007(H1N1)) neu... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551814.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1157/2008(H1N1)) ne... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551813.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1208/2008(H1N1)) ne... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551812.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1154/2008(H1N1)) ne... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551811.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/341/2007(H1N1)) neu... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551810.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/910/2007(H1N1)) neu... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU551809.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/644/2007(H1N1)) neu... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU887035.1| Influenza A virus (A/South Carolina/01/2008(H1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU879082.1| Influenza A virus (A/Zhejiang/Xiangshan522/200... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU879064.1| Influenza A virus (A/Gansu/Chenguan/1129/2007(... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU851986.1| Influenza A virus (A/Minnesota/01/2008(H1N1)) ... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU851982.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/02/2008(H1N1)) seg... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU851980.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/01/2008(H1N1)) seg... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU779650.1| Influenza A virus (A/North Carolina/02/2008(H1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU779643.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/10/2008(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU779641.1| Influenza A virus (A/Memphis/03/2008(H1N1)) ne... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU681266.1| Influenza A virus (A/Bursa-TR/1231/2007(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU681265.1| Influenza A virus (A/Istanbul-TR/1219/2007(H1N... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU681264.1| Influenza A virus (A/Istanbul-TR/1198/2007(H1N... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU681263.1| Influenza A virus (A/Ankara-TR/170/2008(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU681262.1| Influenza A virus (A/Istanbul-TR/111/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU702755.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/17/2008(H1N1)) ... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU716587.1| Influenza A virus (A/Washington/01/2008(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU716580.1| Influenza A virus (A/Florida/02/2008(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU624316.1| Influenza A virus (A/England/557/2007(H1N1)) s... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU570806.1| Influenza A virus (A/Bursa-TR/28/2008(H1N1)) n... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU567014.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/06/2008(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU567011.1| Influenza A virus (A/Indiana/01/2008(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU567009.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/13/2007(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU567006.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/14/2007(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU566999.1| Influenza A virus (A/Wisconsin/01/2008(H1N1)) ... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU566998.1| Influenza A virus (A/Maryland/04/2007(H1N1)) s... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU566987.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/20/2007(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU566983.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/05/2008(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU566977.1| Influenza A virus (A/Pennsylvania/02/2008(H1N1... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU566968.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/15/2007(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516201.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/16/2007(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516200.1| Influenza A virus (A/Illinois/10/2007(H1N1)) s... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516199.1| Influenza A virus (A/Georgia/20/2006(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516198.1| Influenza A virus (A/Georgia/20/2006(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516197.1| Influenza A virus (A/Georgia/20/2006(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516196.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/03/2007(H1N1)) se... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516148.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/15/2007(H1N1))... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516141.1| Influenza A virus (A/Minnesota/23/2007(H1N1)) ... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516125.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/28/2007(H1N1)) seg... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516123.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/28/2007(H1N1)) seg... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516112.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/21/2007(H1N1)) seg... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516028.1| Influenza A virus (A/Massachusetts/05/2007(H1N... 32.2 10
                      gb|EU516027.1| Influenza A virus (A/Texas/31/2007(H1N1)) segm... 32.2 10
                      gb|CY027037.1| Influenza A virus (A/Kansas/UR06-0104/2007(H1N... 32.2 10

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                        One of the three Hong Kong partial (575 BP) sequences, A/HongKong/942/2008, is an exact match of the sequences below

                        gb|FJ227687.1| Influenza A virus (A/HongKong/942/2008(H1N1)) ... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU914903.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/21/2008(H1N1... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU914902.1| Influenza A virus (A/CapeTown/26/2008(H1N1)) n... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU685788.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1170/2008(H1N1)) ne... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU551826.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/749/2007(H1N1)) neu... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU551824.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/847/2007(H1N1)) neu... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU551813.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1208/2008(H1N1)) ne... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU551812.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1154/2008(H1N1)) ne... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU551811.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/341/2007(H1N1)) neu... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU551810.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/910/2007(H1N1)) neu... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU551809.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/644/2007(H1N1)) neu... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU887035.1| Influenza A virus (A/South Carolina/01/2008(H1... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU851980.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/01/2008(H1N1)) seg... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU779643.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/10/2008(H1N1))... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU702755.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/17/2008(H1N1)) ... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU716587.1| Influenza A virus (A/Washington/01/2008(H1N1))... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU624316.1| Influenza A virus (A/England/557/2007(H1N1)) s... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU566999.1| Influenza A virus (A/Wisconsin/01/2008(H1N1)) ... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU566987.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/20/2007(H1N1))... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU566983.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/05/2008(H1N1))... 1038 0.0
                        gb|EU516148.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/15/2007(H1N1))... 1038 0.0

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                          Two of the isolates from Hong Kong with H274Y are clade 2C:

                          gb|FJ227689.1| Influenza A virus (A/HongKong/1313/2008(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|FJ227688.1| Influenza A virus (A/HongKong/1052/2008(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU551807.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/6/2007(H1N1)) neura... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|CY034126.1| Influenza A virus (A/NYMC X-163(NYMC X-157-St.... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU879082.1| Influenza A virus (A/Zhejiang/Xiangshan522/200... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU879078.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hubei/Jiangan/1251/2006(H... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU879064.1| Influenza A virus (A/Gansu/Chenguan/1129/2007(... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU791308.1| Influenza A virus (A/Ulaanbaatar/1809/2007(H1N... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU791304.1| Influenza A virus (A/Orkhon/1901/2007(H1N1)) s... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU791302.1| Influenza A virus (A/Ulaanbaatar/1830/2007(H1N... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU791300.1| Influenza A virus (A/Sainshand/1142/2007(H1N1)... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU791298.1| Influenza A virus (A/Ulaanbaatar/1094/2007(H1N... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU779656.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/46/2007(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU779644.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/05/2008(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU716602.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/42/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU716592.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/43/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU716582.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/44/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU716529.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/45/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU097734.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denmark/110/2005(H1N1)) n... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU097730.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denmark/79/2005(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU097729.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denmark/22/2005(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU097725.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denmark/54/2005(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU097721.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denmark/226/2005(H1N1)) n... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU097719.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denmark/116/2005(H1N1)) n... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU097718.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denmark/184/2005(H1N1)) n... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU566972.1| Influenza A virus (A/Massachusetts/01/2008(H1N... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516282.1| Influenza A virus (A/Oregon/06/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516276.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/38/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516270.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/38/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516149.1| Influenza A virus (A/Minnesota/25/2007(H1N1)) ... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516146.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/19/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516140.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/17/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516137.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/16/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516120.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/19/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU516118.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/15/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU304359.1| Influenza A virus (A/Busan/08/2007(H1N1)) neur... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU304358.1| Influenza A virus (A/Busan/03/2007(H1N1)) neur... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|CY027709.1| Influenza A virus (A/Virginia/UR06-0549/2007(H... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|CY026565.1| Influenza A virus (A/Texas/UR06-0397/2007(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|CY026525.1| Influenza A virus (A/Colorado/UR06-0053/2007(H... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU199384.1| Influenza A virus (A/New York/08/2007(H1N1)) s... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|EU100488.1| Influenza A virus (A/Virginia/1e/2006(N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|CY022535.1| Influenza A virus (A/Auckland/605/2001(H1N1)) ... 34.2 2.5
                          dbj|AB286013.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hanoi/TX09/2006(H1N1)) g... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|CY009334.1| Influenza A virus (A/Fort Worth/50(H1N1)) segm... 34.2 2.5
                          gb|CY008990.1| Influenza A virus (A/Denver/57(H1N1)) segment ... 34.2 2.5

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                            October 13, 2008 update at: http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=83142

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Re: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere [WHO - NEW]

                              Commentary

                              http://www.recombinomics.com/News/10...dditional.html

                              Comment

                              Working...
                              X