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Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza

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  • Re: :::Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza :::

    Smoking gun travel log on H274Y emergence

    gb|EU551821.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/963/2008(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU879082.1| Influenza A virus (A/Zhejiang/Xiangshan522/200... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU879064.1| Influenza A virus (A/Gansu/Chenguan/1129/2007(... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU716580.1| Influenza A virus (A/Florida/02/2008(H1N1)) se... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516199.1| Influenza A virus (A/Georgia/20/2006(H1N1)) se... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516198.1| Influenza A virus (A/Georgia/20/2006(H1N1)) se... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516197.1| Influenza A virus (A/Georgia/20/2006(H1N1)) se... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516141.1| Influenza A virus (A/Minnesota/23/2007(H1N1)) ... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516125.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/28/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516123.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/28/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516112.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/21/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516028.1| Influenza A virus (A/Massachusetts/05/2007(H1N... 34.2 0.016
    gb|EU516027.1| Influenza A virus (A/Texas/31/2007(H1N1)) segm... 34.2 0.016
    gb|CY027037.1| Influenza A virus (A/Kansas/UR06-0104/2007(H1N... 34.2 0.016

    Comment


    • Re: :::Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza :::

      [NEW UPDATE]

      Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008 influenza season, southern hemisphere - 20 August 2008

      During weeks 28-32 (6 July -9 August), influenza activity is increased in the southern hemisphere.

      Widespread influenza activity was reported by New Zealand with influenza A(H3) and B viruses circulating.

      Sporadic influenza activity has been detected in Argentina A(H1), Brazil (A, B) and Chile (A, B), (see Seasonal influenza activity in the world, 2008
      http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ.../en/index.html ).

      WHO has received several reports from National Influenza Centres in the southern hemisphere regarding influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir.

      In South Africa, a total of 139 A(H1N1) viruses have been isolated during the 2008 influenza season to date.

      Of those, 107 isolates have been tested for oseltamivir resistance by the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD) and 100% were found to be resistant to oseltamivir by genotypic analysis.

      Only one of these 107 patients was receiving oseltamivir at the time of sampling, and no unusual clinical features or underlying conditions were found.

      From Australia, 10 of 10 A(H1N1) viruses tested, and from Chile, 4 of 32 A (H1N1) viruses tested showed the specific neuraminidase mutation (H274Y) associated with oseltamivir resistance.

      WHO is collecting global data about this phenomenon from multiple laboratories participating in Global Influenza Surveillance Network. Data from European countries participating in EISS were provided by the EISS and VirGil project.

      This summary table will be updated regularly (every four weeks).

      Oseltamivir resistance results were based on phenotypic and/or genotypic analyses.

      For background and summary until week 24, 2008, see Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir, Last quarter 2007 to first quarter 2008, Preliminary summary and future plans
      -
      http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ.../en/index.html
      ------



      Comment


      • Re: :::Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza :::

        Link to above chart:

        http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ...0082008_kf.pdf

        Comment


        • Re: :::Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza :::

          Fatal Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Virus Infection
          <table align="right" border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0" width="200"> <tbody><tr> <td width="20"> </td> <td bgcolor="#336699"> <table border="0" cellpadding="0" cellspacing="1"> <tbody><tr valign="top"> <td align="center" bgcolor="#e8e8d1" width="200">

          </td> </tr><tr> <td> <table bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody><tr valign="top"><td colspan="2"></td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td align="center" valign="top" width="15"></td><td valign="middle"> PDF</td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td align="center" valign="top" width="15"></td><td valign="middle">PDA Full Text</td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td colspan="2"></td></tr> </tbody></table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" bgcolor="#e8e8d1" width="200">

          </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <table bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody><tr valign="top"><td colspan="2"></td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td align="center" valign="top" width="15"></td><td valign="middle">Add to Personal Archive</td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td align="center" valign="top" width="15"></td><td valign="middle">Add to Citation Manager</td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td align="center" valign="top" width="15"></td><td valign="middle">Notify a Friend</td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td align="center" valign="top" width="15"></td><td valign="middle">E-mail When Cited</td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td align="center" valign="top" width="15"></td><td valign="middle">E-mail When Letters Appear</td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td colspan="2"></td></tr> </tbody></table> </td> </tr> <tr> <td align="center" bgcolor="#e8e8d1" width="200">

          </td> </tr> <tr> <td> <table bgcolor="#ffffff" border="0" cellpadding="2" cellspacing="0" width="100%"> <tbody><tr valign="top"><td colspan="2"></td></tr> <tr valign="top"><td colspan="2"></td></tr> </tbody></table> </td> </tr> </tbody></table> </td></tr></tbody></table> <!-- end of outer content box1 --> <!-- end of outer content box2 --> <!-- TEXT --> <!-- <CENTER> Fatal Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza Virus Infection

          </CENTER> --> To the Editor: The incidence of influenza A (H1N1) viruses that<sup> </sup>carry the neuraminidase H274Y mutation has increased by 30%<sup> </sup>this year in the Netherlands.<sup>1</sup> Influenza A (H1N1) viruses that<sup> </sup>carry this mutation are resistant to oseltamivir but remain<sup> </sup>sensitive to zanamivir.<sup>2</sup> However, these mutant viruses are considered<sup> </sup>to have attenuated pathogenicity.<sup>3</sup><sup>,</sup><sup>4</sup><sup> </sup>
          A 67-year-old man who had received a diagnosis of chronic lymphocytic<sup> </sup>leukemia 3 years earlier was admitted to the hospital because<sup> </sup>of dyspnea, dry cough, and fever. One week before admission,<sup> </sup>he had received a course of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and<sup> </sup>prednisolone chemotherapy. At admission, his white-cell count<sup> </sup>was 137,000 per cubic millimeter, with 99% lymphocytes and no<sup> </sup>neutrophils. Because of acute respiratory failure, empirical<sup> </sup>antibacterial therapy was initiated, and mechanical ventilation<sup> </sup>was required by the second hospital day (Figure 1). Computed<sup> </sup>tomography (CT) revealed patchy infiltrates in both lungs, and<sup> </sup>influenza A (H1N1) virus was detected in respiratory secretions.<sup> </sup>During the entire hospital course, no other respiratory pathogens<sup> </sup>were detected in bronchoalveolar-lavage specimens. The only<sup> </sup>other pathogens identified in blood cultures were Candida albicans<sup> </sup>and Enterococcus faecium, for which fluconazole and vancomycin<sup> </sup>were given.<sup> </sup>
          <!-- null --> <table cellpadding="0" cellspacing="0"><tbody><tr bgcolor="#e8e8d1"><td><table cellpadding="2" cellspacing="2"><tbody><tr bgcolor="#e8e8d1"><td align="center" bgcolor="#ffffff" valign="top">
          View larger version (29K):
          <nobr>[in this window]
          [in a new window]

          </nobr> </td><td align="left" valign="top"> Figure 1. Leukocyte Counts, Viral Loads, and Treatment during the Hospital Course in a Patient Infected with Influenza A (H1N1) Virus with the H274Y Mutation. Panel A shows the patient's granulocyte and monocyte counts. The gradual increase in the granulocyte count was consistent with bone marrow recovery. Panel B shows the viral load in the respiratory specimens. The dashed red line indicates the lower limit of detection. Various therapeutic and empirical antiviral therapies, shown in Panel C, and antibacterial and antifungal therapies, shown in Panel D, were given to the patient at different intervals (shaded bars). The red portions of the bars in Panel C indicate detection of resistance mutations for either oseltamivir (neuraminidase H274Y) or amantidine (M2-channel L26F), and the blue boxes indicate detection of the wild-type genotype. The L26F resistance mutation in the M2 protein was detected only on day 20, whereas the H274Y mutation was present before and after oseltamivir was administered.

          </td></tr></tbody></table></td></tr></tbody></table>
          Oseltamivir was administered for the influenza virus infection,<sup> </sup>beginning on the sixth hospital day, but it was discontinued<sup> </sup>on day 13 because sequence analysis revealed the H274Y mutation,<sup> </sup>and no decrease in the viral load was observed. In retrospect,<sup> </sup>the H274Y mutation was present in the specimen obtained before<sup> </sup>oseltamivir therapy was initiated. The patient's hospital record<sup> </sup>and his family indicated that he had had no contact with patients<sup> </sup>who had received oseltamivir. On day 15, amantadine was added<sup> </sup>to the patient's treatment regimen. Four days later, the neutrophil<sup> </sup>count increased, indicating bone marrow recovery. Mechanical<sup> </sup>ventilation was discontinued on day 20, and zanamivir by inhalation<sup> </sup>was initiated. However, respiratory failure occurred on day<sup> </sup>22, mechanical ventilation was reinstituted, and therapy with<sup> </sup>zanamivir was discontinued. On day 26, the influenza virus was<sup> </sup>no longer detectable. Because sequence analyses showed an amantadine-resistance<sup> </sup>mutation in the viral M2 protein (L26F) and zanamivir therapy<sup> </sup>had been limited to three doses, clearance of the virus was<sup> </sup>probably due to recovery of the immune system. A second CT scan,<sup> </sup>obtained on day 28, revealed progression of the pulmonary infiltrates.<sup> </sup>Because of the poor prognosis, mechanical ventilation was discontinued<sup> </sup>on day 34. The patient died 3 days later.<sup> </sup>
          It has been suggested that the H274Y mutation, which confers<sup> </sup>resistance to oseltamivir, leaves the influenza A (H1N1) virus<sup> </sup>severely compromised.<sup>3</sup><sup>,</sup><sup>4</sup> However, the case we describe suggests<sup> </sup>that this oseltamivir-resistant virus can be pathogenic, at<sup> </sup>least in an immunocompromised patient.<sup> </sup>
          <sup> </sup>
          <sup> </sup>
          Erhard van der Vries, M.Sc.
          Bart van den Berg, M.D., Ph.D.<sup> </sup><sup> </sup>
          Martin Schutten, Ph.D.
          Erasmus University Medical Center
          3015<sup> </sup>CE Rotterdam, the Netherlands


          http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/full/359/10/1074

          Comment


          • Re: :::Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza :::

            This demostrantes the fitness of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses but it shouldn't be drawn further conclusions that these viruses are more virulent than oseltamivir-susceptible ones.

            The patient was very ill with a severe blood disease and infected by other pathogens thus a poor outcome may be due to this complex situation rather than the presence of a H1N1-resistant virus.

            Noteworthy, the concurrent emersion of a sub-population of H1N1-oseltamivir and amantadine resistant viruses.

            Comment


            • Re: :::Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza :::

              Originally posted by ironorehopper View Post
              This demostrantes the fitness of oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses but it shouldn't be drawn further conclusions that these viruses are more virulent than oseltamivir-susceptible ones.

              The patient was very ill with a severe blood disease and infected by other pathogens thus a poor outcome may be due to this complex situation rather than the presence of a H1N1-resistant virus.

              Noteworthy, the concurrent emersion of a sub-population of H1N1-oseltamivir and amantadine resistant viruses.
              However, it should be noted that the viral load remained high for three weeks due to Tamiflu resistance prior to treatment and amantadine resistance which developed during treatment. Viral load fell to baseline 8 days after Relenza treatment, which began on day 20.

              Comment


              • Re: :::Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza :::

                Updated list of isolates with H274Y

                gb|FJ179363.1| Influenza A virus (A/Illinois/15/2007(H1N1)) s... 34.2 2.5
                gb|FJ179362.1| Influenza A virus (A/Illinois/16/2007(H1N1)) s... 34.2 2.5
                gb|FJ179361.1| Influenza A virus (A/Pennsylvania/13/2007(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914908.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/45/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914907.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/36/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914906.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/35/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914905.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/33/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914904.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/14/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914903.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/21/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914902.1| Influenza A virus (A/CapeTown/26/2008(H1N1)) n... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU914901.1| Influenza A virus (A/Johannesburg/12/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU685788.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1170/2008(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551826.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/749/2007(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551824.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/847/2007(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551821.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/963/2008(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551815.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/577/2007(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551814.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1157/2008(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551813.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1208/2008(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551812.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/1154/2008(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551811.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/341/2007(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551810.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/910/2007(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU551809.1| Influenza A virus (A/Paris/644/2007(H1N1)) neu... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU887035.1| Influenza A virus (A/South Carolina/01/2008(H1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU879082.1| Influenza A virus (A/Zhejiang/Xiangshan522/200... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU879064.1| Influenza A virus (A/Gansu/Chenguan/1129/2007(... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU851986.1| Influenza A virus (A/Minnesota/01/2008(H1N1)) ... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU851982.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/02/2008(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU851980.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/01/2008(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU779650.1| Influenza A virus (A/North Carolina/02/2008(H1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU779643.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/10/2008(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU779641.1| Influenza A virus (A/Memphis/03/2008(H1N1)) ne... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU681266.1| Influenza A virus (A/Bursa-TR/1231/2007(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU681265.1| Influenza A virus (A/Istanbul-TR/1219/2007(H1N... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU681264.1| Influenza A virus (A/Istanbul-TR/1198/2007(H1N... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU681263.1| Influenza A virus (A/Ankara-TR/170/2008(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU681262.1| Influenza A virus (A/Istanbul-TR/111/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU702755.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hong Kong/17/2008(H1N1)) ... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU716587.1| Influenza A virus (A/Washington/01/2008(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU716580.1| Influenza A virus (A/Florida/02/2008(H1N1)) se... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU624316.1| Influenza A virus (A/England/557/2007(H1N1)) s... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU570806.1| Influenza A virus (A/Bursa-TR/28/2008(H1N1)) n... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU567014.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/06/2008(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU567011.1| Influenza A virus (A/Indiana/01/2008(H1N1)) se... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU567009.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/13/2007(H1N1)) se... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU567006.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/14/2007(H1N1)) se... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU566999.1| Influenza A virus (A/Wisconsin/01/2008(H1N1)) ... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU566998.1| Influenza A virus (A/Maryland/04/2007(H1N1)) s... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU566987.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/20/2007(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU566983.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/05/2008(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU566977.1| Influenza A virus (A/Pennsylvania/02/2008(H1N1... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU566968.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/15/2007(H1N1)) se... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU516201.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/16/2007(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU516200.1| Influenza A virus (A/Illinois/10/2007(H1N1)) s... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU516196.1| Influenza A virus (A/Arizona/03/2007(H1N1)) se... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU516148.1| Influenza A virus (A/New Jersey/15/2007(H1N1))... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU516125.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/28/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU516123.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/28/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5
                gb|EU516112.1| Influenza A virus (A/Hawaii/21/2007(H1N1)) seg... 34.2 2.5

                Comment


                • Re: Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza

                  Roche Announces Tamiflu<SUP>?</SUP> Antiviral Flu Medication in Ample Supply for 2008-2009 Flu Season
                  • - Rapid Response Program Provides Pharmacies Quick Access During Winter Months -
                  Nutley, NJ, September 23, 2008 ? Roche announced today that ample supplies of its prescription antiviral medication Tamiflu<SUP>?</SUP> (oseltamivir phosphate) will be widely available throughout the U.S. this flu season. Tamiflu, cited by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an important second line of defense against flu, is indicated for the treatment and prevention of influenza in adults and children one year and older.
                  To help ensure the medication gets to the pharmacies and people who need it, Roche coordinates a rapid response system with distributors nationwide. Through the program, pharmacists can order additional Tamiflu through a toll-free number (1-800-526-0625) and have it delivered within 24 hours by a local distributor.
                  ?We understand that pharmacists do their best to stock appropriate amounts of antiviral medications, such as Tamiflu, for use during flu season,? said Dominick Iacuzio, Ph.D, medical
                  director at Roche. ?However, the incidence and severity of seasonal flu remains unpredictable from year to year, and some pharmacies still may be faced with greater-than-expected demand during the season.?
                  Roche also created an early signaling system called FluSTAR? and advises pharmacies when flu may be spreading in their local area.
                  Antiviral medications, such as Tamiflu, are one of three steps (along with vaccination and good hygiene) outlined in the CDC?s ?Take 3? influenza initiative. Available in a capsule and liquid suspension form, Tamiflu is the only oral antiviral medication recommended by the CDC for influenza treatment and prevention during the 2008-2009 flu season. Unlike the vaccine, which is reformulated each year to work against three specific strains of the virus, Tamiflu is designed to be active against all clinically relevant influenza virus strains.
                  ?Because Tamiflu prevents the influenza virus from spreading inside the body, it has to be given within the first 48 hours of flu symptoms in order to be effective,? said Iacuzio. ?People need to be aware of typical flu symptoms, and call the doctor quickly as soon as symptoms arise, for proper diagnosis.?
                  While not a substitute for vaccination, prescription antiviral drugs are an important adjunct, offering a second line of defense in preventing and treating seasonal influenza.
                  Flu Treatment
                  If a person does contract the virus, antiviral medications are available by prescription to treat the flu. According to the CDC, ?for treatment, influenza antiviral drugs should be started within two days after becoming sick and taken for five days.? Tamiflu can reduce flu symptoms and shorten the time of sickness.
                  Flu Prevention
                  Antiviral medications such as Tamiflu can also be given prophylactically to people who have been exposed to influenza to help contain the spread in certain settings, such as family members passing the virus to one another in a household.
                  Preventive doses of Tamiflu following exposure to the flu can also be considered for controlling outbreaks in closed or semi-closed settings, such as nursing homes or dormitories. Clinical trials indicate that Tamiflu is up to 92 percent effective in preventing flu in adults ? and 82 percent effective in preventing flu in children ? when taken within 48 hours of exposure.
                  About Tamiflu Tamiflu, co-developed by Gilead Sciences, Inc., based in Foster City, CA, is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated influenza caused by viruses types A and B in patients one year and older who have had flu symptoms for no more than two days. Tamiflu is also indicated for the prevention of influenza in patients one year and older. Tamiflu is not a substitute for annual early vaccination as recommended by the CDC. Prescribers should consider available information on influenza drug susceptibility patterns and treatment effects when deciding whether to use Tamiflu.
                  In post-marketing experience, rare cases of anaphylaxis and serious skin reactions have been reported. There have been post-marketing reports (mostly from Japan) of self-injury and delirium with the use of Tamiflu in patients with influenza. The reports were primarily among children. The relative contribution of the drug to these events is not known. Patients with influenza should be closely monitored for signs of abnormal behavior throughout the treatment period.
                  The most frequently reported adverse events in clinical studies were nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Tamiflu is available for the treatment of influenza in more than 80 countries worldwide. Prescribing information for Tamiflu is available at www.rocheusa.com/products/tamiflu.
                  About Roche
                  Hoffmann-La Roche Inc. (Roche), in Nutley, N.J., is the U.S. pharmaceuticals headquarters of the Roche Group, a leading, global healthcare company. For more than 100 years, Roche has been developing innovative products and services that address prevention, diagnosis and treatment of disease.
                  For more information, visit http://www.rocheusa.com. Product and treatment information for U.S. healthcare professionals is available at www.RocheExchange.com. Prescribing information for Tamiflu is available at www.rocheusa.com/products/tamiflu.

                  Comment


                  • Re: Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza

                    September 29 World Health Organization update at: http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=81154

                    Comment


                    • Re: Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza

                      Sequences with H274Y
                      emb|FM174468.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/456/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174467.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/421/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174466.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/402/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174465.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/382/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174464.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/373/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174463.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/285/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174462.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/278/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174461.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/273/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174460.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/265/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174458.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/215/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174457.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/187/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174456.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/182/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174455.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/132/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174453.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/164/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174430.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/022/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174428.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/019/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174427.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/016/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174426.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/006/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174425.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/098/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174424.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/090/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174423.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/086/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174420.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/286/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174419.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/279/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174418.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/261/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174416.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/249/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174415.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/234/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174414.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/222/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174411.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/176/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174407.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/116/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619
                      emb|FM174406.1| Influenza A virus (A/Luxembourg/115/2008(H1N1... 26.3 619

                      Comment


                      • Re: Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza

                        today at genbank :


                        these 2 viruses from July 2007
                        A/Kolkata/975/2007/07(H1N1)
                        A/Kolkata/985/2007/07(H1N1)
                        have C439T(8)
                        (only segments 2(partial) and 8 are given)
                        this mutation appears together with H274Y(6),
                        the tamiflu resistance that appeared in H1N1 in Europe in 2008.
                        This strain is now almost distinct due to the new pandemic.

                        Another example that new successful strains often
                        are first seen (emerge ?) in summer in Kolkata/India

                        and then maybe spread during the monsoon season
                        I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                        my current links: http://bit.ly/hFI7H ILI-charts: http://bit.ly/CcRgT

                        Comment


                        • Re: Emergence of seasonal influenza viruses type A/H1N1 with oseltamivir resistance in some European Countries at the start of the 2007-8 influenza

                          I think evidence grows that Tamiflu-resistance was not driven
                          by drug usage.

                          ---------------------------------------------

                          I think, we should expand the examination and sequencing of
                          viruses from India, i.e. Kolkata/West Bengalen in summer.
                          They are still rare as compared to flu-viruses from other regions
                          like USA,Europe,Singapore,Japan,HongKong,Australia,New Zealand,
                          South Korea,
                          Maybe USA,Europe,WHO,Gates Foundation,... can pay for it ?

                          If it turns out to be true and maybe monsoon plays a role,
                          then we could be able to "plant" new strains and mutations,
                          to "breed" viruses that are less virulent, better managable,
                          not resistant to drugs.

                          We could find out in summer, what strains will be circulating in
                          winter in USA,Europe and improve the vaccine.
                          Thi vaccine is usually decided in ~April, but maybe we could
                          improve it, speed up production, and wait until June
                          I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                          my current links: http://bit.ly/hFI7H ILI-charts: http://bit.ly/CcRgT

                          Comment

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