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1918 pandemic influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae co-infection results in activation of coagulation and widespread pulmonary thrombosis in mice and humans

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  • 1918 pandemic influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae co-infection results in activation of coagulation and widespread pulmonary thrombosis in mice and humans

    Keywords: 1918 influenza; Streptococcus pneumoniae; co-infection; inflammation;extrinsic pathway of coagulation; pulmonary thrombosis


    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...path.4638/full
    The Journal of Pathology Volume 238, Issue 1, pages 85?97, January 2016
    1. Kathie-Anne Walters1,
    2. Felice D'Agnillo2,
    3. Zong-Mei Sheng4,
    4. Jason Kindrachuk3,
    5. Louis M Schwartzman4,
    6. Rolf E Kuestner1,
    7. Daniel S Chertow3,4,
    8. Basil T Golding2,
    9. Jeffery K Taubenberger4,* and
    10. John C Kash4,*

    Article first published online: 14 OCT 2015


    1918 pandemic influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae co-infection results in activation of coagulation and widespread pulmonary thrombosis in mice and humans Abstract

    To study bacterial co-infection following 1918 H1N1 influenza virus infection, mice were inoculated with the 1918 influenza virus, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) 72 h later. Co-infected mice exhibited markedly more severe disease, shortened survival time and more severe lung pathology, including widespread thrombi. Transcriptional profiling revealed activation of coagulation only in co-infected mice, consistent with the extensive thrombogenesis observed. Immunohistochemistry showed extensive expression of tissue factor (F3) and prominent deposition of neutrophil elastase on endothelial and epithelial cells in co-infected mice. Lung sections of SP-positive 1918 autopsy cases showed extensive thrombi and prominent staining for F3 in alveolar macrophages, monocytes, neutrophils, endothelial and epithelial cells, in contrast to co-infection-positive 2009 pandemic H1N1 autopsy cases. This study reveals that a distinctive feature of 1918 influenza virus and SP co-infection in mice and humans is extensive expression of tissue factor and activation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway leading to widespread pulmonary thrombosis. Copyright ? 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Full text at link.
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