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Colorado - Bird flu in mammals and livestock 2023-2024

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  • Colorado - Bird flu in mammals and livestock 2023-2024

    Source: https://www.denverpost.com/2023/02/0...ar-lion-skunk/

    Bird flu infects Colorado mountain lion, black bear and skunk, all now dead
    The highly pathogenic avian influenza has killed thousands of wild birds and has now infected more Colorado wildlife

    By Conrad Swanson | cswanson@denverpost.com | The Denver Post
    PUBLISHED: February 9, 2023 at 4:48 p.m. | UPDATED: February 9, 2023 at 7:23 p.m.

    Three animals in Colorado, each of them now dead, tested positive for the highly pathogenic avian influenza that’s sweeping across the country, state wildlife officials said in a release.

    The H5N1 variant of the bird flu is ravaging bird populations across the world. Mammals, including humans, can also catch it.

    State Parks and Wildlife officials first confirmed this strain of the bird flu among wild geese in northeast Colorado last March, agency spokesman Travis Duncan said in a release. Now they’ve confirmed three cases of the virus in mammals, which showed signs of neurologic symptoms, general weakness and organ damage before their deaths.

    First came a black bear in Huerfano County, which state wildlife officials euthanized after seeing it suffer from seizures, Duncan said. The animal’s remains froze in the wild until it thawed enough to be taken to a health lab for testing, which confirmed traces of H5N1.

    Then, a skunk from Weld County tested positive for the virus in November, Duncan said.

    And finally, in mid-January, a mountain lion was found dead in Gunnison County, Duncan said. The lion also tested positive for H5N1 and suffered liver damage and bronchointerstitial pneumonia.

    “Similar to many local species, mountain lions move through our communities on a regular basis as they travel between seasonal ranges throughout the year,” Brandon Diamond, a Parks and Wildlife manager, said in the release. “It was only a matter of time before the first (bird flu) case was confirmed in Gunnison County based on known cases in adjacent counties.”

    Other cases of the virus in Colorado mammals await testing confirmation, Duncan said. Mammals typically contract the virus after feeding on infected birds.

    Humans should avoid contact with sick or dead birds, Duncan added...

  • #2
    State release:


    2/9/2023
    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza linked to deaths of black bear and mountain lion in Colorado, adding to a growing list of susceptible species
    02/09/23
    Travis Duncan
    Public Information Supervisor
    720-595-8294 / travis.duncan@state.co.us
    Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza linked to deaths of black bear and mountain lion in Colorado, adding to a growing list of species susceptible to HPAI in the U.S.
    DENVER – Colorado Parks and Wildlife has identified several cases of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in free-ranging wildlife. A black bear from Huerfano County was affected by the disease in October, a skunk from Weld County was found to be positive for the disease in November, and a mountain lion that died in Gunnison County was recently confirmed to have the disease. Testing was conducted by Colorado State University in Fort Collins and the National Veterinary Services Laboratory in Ames, Iowa.

    HPAI has already killed thousands of wild birds in the U.S., including in Colorado. This strain of HPAI was first confirmed in wild geese in Northeast Colorado in March of 2022.

    All three of the confirmed cases showed signs of HPAI before or after death including neurologic symptoms such as seizures or circling, general signs of illness such as weakness or lack of responsiveness to human presence, and organ damage including encephalitis, hepatitis, and pneumonia. Other similar suspected mammalian cases have been detected in the state, with confirmatory testing pending.

    The Huerfano County black bear was euthanized Oct. 8, 2022, by a CPW wildlife officer after he saw it having seizures. Its remains were frozen until it could be transported to the health lab for testing. A necropsy revealed the bear had signs of HPAI, prompting CPW to test for HPAI. Later in October, a black bear in Alaska tested positive for HPAI.

    “The decision to humanely euthanize the animal by our wildlife officer was made following the abnormal behavior and knowledge that numerous infectious diseases cause neurological symptoms,” said CPW Area Wildlife Manager Mike Brown. “Extremely ill animals have difficulty moving and often act abnormally. While clinical signs of numerous diseases may be observed, diagnostic laboratory testing and necropsy services help determine the actual cause of death.”

    The Gunnison County mountain lion was found dead just outside of Gunnison city limits on Jan. 15, 2023, in an area where mountain lion activity is commonplace. The mountain lion had necrosis in the liver and bronchointerstitial pneumonia, which have been seen in domestic cats with HPAI, so this also warranted HPAI testing.

    “Similar to many local species, mountain lions move through our communities on a regular basis as they travel between seasonal ranges throughout the year,” said CPW Area Wildlife Manager Brandon Diamond. “It was only a matter of time before the first HPAI case was confirmed in Gunnison County based on known cases in adjacent counties. While this is an interesting case study with the lion, it’s important to point out that HPAI has been documented previously in a variety of mammals from across the country. In Gunnison County, CPW routinely investigates reports of sick and injured wildlife and is always interested in hearing from the public if they encounter something that doesn’t look quite right.”

    A number of mammalian wildlife species have been affected with the current strain of HPAI in the U.S. including skunks, foxes, black bears, bobcats, coyotes and raccoons among several others. It has even been detected in marine mammals. These mammals likely become infected by feeding on wild birds that are sick or have died of HPAI; however, not every mammal that consumes a sick bird will develop HPAI. These recent Colorado cases add to a growing list of affected wildlife species.

    Despite the variety of mammalian species susceptible to HPAI, the numbers of mammal cases are currently low. The majority of cases confirmed during this HPAI outbreak are in wild and domestic birds. The most commonly affected wild birds in Colorado have been geese, as well as the raptors and other scavenging birds that eat goose carcasses.

    CPW continues to stress the importance of keeping your distance from wildlife, and specifically not handling sick or dead birds. Although rare, some HPAI strains can infect people. Links to recommendations for hunters and risks to pets are included below. The main protection for the general public is to avoid handling sick or dead birds and keep your distance from wildlife. See the CDC website for more information on protective actions for people.

    This map lists confirmed wildlife mammalian cases that have tested positive for HPAI to date.

    Resources
    For more information on HPAI in Colorado
    https://cpw.state.co.us/learn/Pages/...Influenza.aspx
    https://ag.colorado.gov/animals/repo...vian-influenza

    For information on HPAI in pets
    https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avi...er-animals.htm

    For information on hunting and HPAI
    https://www.aphis.usda.gov/publicati...ai_hunters.pdf

    For information on HPAI in wild birds in the United States
    https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/our...pai-wild-birds
    https://www.usgs.gov/centers/nwhc/sc...erica-20212022

    For information on HPAI and human health
    https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-in-humans.htm
    https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-flu-summary.htm
    https://www.usgs.gov/centers/nwhc/sc...erica-20212022
    Colorado Parks and Wildlife is a nationally recognized leader in conservation, outdoor recreation and wildlife management. The agency​ manages 42 state parks, all of Colorado's wildlife, more than 300 state wildlife areas and a host of recreational programs. CPW issues hunting and fishing licenses, conducts research to improve wildlife management activities, protects high priority wildlife habitat through acquisitions and partnerships, provides technical assistance to private and other public landowners concerning wildlife and habitat management and develops programs to understand, protect and recover threatened and endangered species.

    Comment


    • #3
      Source: https://crestedbuttenews.com/2023/02...-had-bird-flu/

      Mountain lion near Gunnison found to have had bird flu
      February 15, 2023
      [ by Mark Reaman ]

      While rare that the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI), more commonly known as the bird flu, is discovered in mammals, count Gunnison County as a place to be marked with such a rare occurrence. A deceased mountain lion found near the city of Gunnison on January 15 was analyzed and determined to have HPAI. What that means is that it is still rare for mammals to contract the disease, but it does happen, and it could impact other wildlife and even pets and people in the area...

      ...The mountain lion, found near Gunnison in a place common for mountain lion habitat, had necrosis in the liver and broncho interstitial pneumonia which had been seen in domestic cats with HPAI. “Similar to many local species, mountain lions move through our communities on a regular basis as they travel between seasonal ranges throughout the year,” said CPW area wildlife manager Brandon Diamond of Gunnison. “It was only a matter of time before the first HPAI case was confirmed in Gunnison County based on known cases in adjacent counties. While this is an interesting case study with the lion, it’s important to point out that HPAI has been documented previously in a variety of mammals from across the country. In Gunnison County, CPW routinely investigates reports of sick and injured wildlife and is always interested in hearing from the public if they encounter something that doesn’t look quite right.”...

      Comment


      • #4
        Source: https://www.coloradoan.com/story/new...u/69996339007/

        Dead skunks in Larimer County test positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza
        Miles Blumhardt
        Fort Collins Coloradoan
        March 12, 2023

        Four dead skunks found within the last two weeks in Larimer County have tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza, marking a growing trend of the deadly disease showing up in mammals in Colorado.

        The county's four deaths are the most HPAI mammal deaths in the state.

        HPAI has devastated domestic poultry operations and killed countless wild waterfowl and raptors in Colorado and elsewhere in one of the most deadly outbreaks in years. In Colorado, it was first detected in the wild population in geese in March 2022.

        "We always suspected this transition (from wild waterfowl to mammals) would happen,'' Colorado Parks and Wildlife spokesperson Kara Van Hoose said. "Because it's so new and science takes time, we don’t know what kind of impacts it will have. The number of fatalities doesn't cause alarms to go off but we certainly are testing and monitoring.''

        The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention considers transmission to humans. pets and wild mammals as low.

        Colorado Parks and Wildlife confirmed the positive tests, one on March 2 and three on Feb. 28, but would not identify where in the county the skunks were located. It began testing for mammals Feb. 9.

        Among the mammal deaths in Colorado are five skunks, four mountain lions, two bobcats, two red foxes and one black bear, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture's website that tracks such deaths. Nationally, red foxes are by far the most impacted mammal, representing 60 of the 144 confirmed mammal deaths as of March 9.

        Colorado ranks tied for fourth in mammal deaths due to the disease. Wisconsin is first with 19 deaths.

        Van Hoose said the agency believes the mammals contracted the disease from eating infected birds.

        She said the agency believes there could be an uptick in deaths from the disease as the spring waterfowl migration draws more birds in higher concentrations along waterways in the state...

        Comment


        • #5
          USDA Confirms Detection of Avian Influenza in Dairy Cattle in Colorado

          Yesterday, the US Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Veterinary Services Laboratory (NVSL) confirmed a detection of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 in dairy cows in Northeast Colorado. This is the first detection of avian influenza diagnosed in cattle in Colorado. Detections of HPAI in dairy cattle have occurred in eight other states.

          On Monday, April 22, the Colorado State Veterinarian’s office received a notification of a dairy herd demonstrating clinical signs consistent with HPAI in cattle. Samples submitted to the Colorado State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory tested presumptive positive for HPAI on April 24, and were confirmed by the USDA's National Veterinary Services Laboratory on April 25.

          “We continue to see this ongoing HPAI outbreak evolve and over the last month have seen transmission of the virus now move into dairy cattle. While we don't yet completely understand the mechanism of transmission of this virus, we do know that it appears to be spreading from cow to cow and between herds,” said Colorado State Veterinarian Dr. Maggie Baldwin. “It is critically important that producers implement enhanced biosecurity measures to mitigate the spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza.”

          Dairy cattle affected by HPAI are reported to have decreased feed intake, decreased milk production, and abnormal colostrum-like milk. Affected cattle appear to recover after supportive care.

          The USDA tracks infections in livestock and provides additional resources on their website. Colorado’s HPAI response webpage will be regularly updated on the state’s response to the ongoing HPAI outbreak. Additionally, CDA is working with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment to provide disease control guidance for people exposed in the outbreak. Colorado has 106 dairies and approximately 200,000 dairy cows.

          Milk Safety and Public Health


          USDA and FDA have stated that because commercial milk products are pasteurized before entering the market, at this time there is no concern about the safety of the commercial milk supply, or that pasteurized milk poses a risk to consumer health. Pasteurization has continuously proven to inactivate bacteria and viruses in milk.

          Despite the detection of HPAI in dairy cattle, the risk to the general public remains low, per CDC. H5N1 remains mainly an agricultural issue in poultry and now in dairy cows. Two human cases of H5N1 have been reported in the United States, one in Colorado in 2022 and one in Texas in 2024. Both cases had minimal symptoms following exposure to infected animals. No person-to-person spread has been identified associated with the current H5N1 virus. More information is available on CDC’s website regarding the H5N1 Bird Flu Current Situation.

          USDA Federal Order


          In order to continue to monitor and understand the extent of this virus, and reduce the risk of further disseminating HPAI H5N1 virus, resulting in greater threats to poultry and livestock, the USDA issued a Federal Order requiring the following measures, effective Monday, April 29, 2024.
          • Mandatory reporting of HPAI cases in cattle to the USDA
          • Mandatory testing for all lactating dairy cattle moving interstate.

          Today, USDA published the accompanying guidance document to clarify those requirements.

          Biosecurity


          The USDA and other agencies are conducting testing and analysis to better understand the spread of HPAI H5N1 viruses in dairy cattle. Both dairy and poultry producers should practice enhanced biosecurity and be vigilant about monitoring for and controlling disease in their herds and flocks. Additional detailed actions can be found in the USDA’s livestock recommendations document, which will be updated as additional information is made available.

          The Secure Milk Supply website offers comprehensive materials on dairy biosecurity practices, including posters and information sheets in English and Spanish.

          Additional biosecurity resources can be found at the following links:Key biosecurity practices for livestock
          • Monitoring for Sick Animals. Producers should monitor herds closely for cattle with clinical signs of disease.
          • Limiting the Movement of Cattle. Movement of cattle should be minimized; pre-movement testing is required for lactating dairy cattle moving interstate and recommended for non-lactating dairy cattle; movement of cattle should be focused on preventing movement of disease.
          • Vehicles, Equipment, and People on the Farm. Producers should limit the movement of vehicles and visitors on and off livestock and poultry premises and establish dedicated routes for vehicles that do come onto the premises.
          • Wildlife Management. Producers should monitor and report any odd behaviors and die-offs in domestic and wild animals immediately. Report wild bird die offs to your local Colorado Parks and Wildlife office and any domestic bird mortalities to the Colorado State Veterinarian’s Office at 303-869-9130 or animalhealth@state.co.us.
          https://ag.colorado.gov/press-releas...le-in-colorado
          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
          -Nelson Mandela

          Comment


          • #6
            Bird flu has reached Colorado dairy cattle. Now what?
            ...
            John Ingold
            3:16 AM MDT on May 3, 2024

            Colorado is investigating a second possible outbreak of bird flu in a dairy herd, the state veterinarian said this week.

            The potential new outbreak — coming less than a week after Colorado identified its first outbreak — is an indicator of how rapidly health officials are trying to catch up to bird flu’s spread through dairy cattle.

            Dr. Maggie Baldwin, who manages the Colorado Department of Agriculture’s Animal Health Division, did not provide additional details on the dairy or where it is located. She said the state is awaiting test results from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to confirm whether bird flu, also known as highly pathogenic avian influenza, is involved.

            “USDA’s confirmatory testing is taking a little bit longer with the load that they’re getting currently for testing,” Baldwin said.
            ...

            Is it safe to drink milk? Will the virus jump to humans? Answers to questions about bird flu spreading in dairy cattle.


            -------------------------------------

            70 people being monitored for bird flu in Colorado

            Updated: 2 hours ago

            (Video)

            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela

            Comment


            • #7
              Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) Public Town Hall

              ​May 8, 2024

              Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA) and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) hosted a virtual Town Hall meeting to provide updates on the status of avian influenza in Colorado, discuss the pre-testing requirements for dairy cattle, and answer questions about the situation in Colorado.

              Speakers: - Dr. Maggie Baldwin, Colorado State Veterinarian and the Director of the Colorado Department of Agriculture’s Animal Health Division - Dr. Rachel Herlihy - CDPHE, State Epidemiologist and Deputy Chief Medical Officer at the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment
              Moderated by Olga Robak, CDA​

              Comment


              • #8
                Confirmed Cases of HPAI in Domestic Livestock

                *Data updated weekdays by 4 pm ET.
                ...
                State Species Date confirmed by NVSL

                Excerpt:

                Colorado Dairy Milking Cattle 5/8/2024
                Colorado Dairy Milking Cattle 4/25/2024

                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela

                Comment


                • #9
                  Bird flu detected in Colorado dairy cattle − a vet explains the risks of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus

                  Publié: 10 mai 2024, 08:26 EDT
                  auteur Jason Lombard
                  Associate Professor and Veterinarian, Colorado State University

                  Disclosure statement
                  Jason Lombard receives funding from USDA. He is affiliated with the National Mastitis Council and the American Association of Bovine Practitioners. He is a former USDA employee.
                  ...
                  Bird flu is not new to Colorado. The state experienced an outbreak in poultry that began in 2022. Since then, the USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service has reported that 6.3 million birds in nine commercial flocks and 25 backyard flocks have been affected by the virus. The most recent detection was in February 2024.

                  But this is the first time the disease has made cattle in Colorado sick.

                  I’m a veterinarian and epidemiologist at Colorado State University who focuses on infectious diseases in dairy cows. I spent many years on a USDA incident management team working on multiple cattle and poultry disease outbreaks, and I’m leading the efforts at Colorado State University to study this novel outbreak.
                  ...
                  Colorado State University faculty responded to the outbreak by forming a multistate group with state departments of agriculture, the USDA and other universities to gain a better perspective of how this virus is transmitted between farms and among cows. The team is coordinating the sampling and testing of sick and healthy cows on affected farms to understand which animals are shedding the virus, meaning they are more likely to spread the disease, and for how long.

                  We are also working to identify mitigation steps to help control this disease. Our network of animal health specialists is working with dairy producers and informing them of new data on a weekly basis.
                  ...
                  At this early stage of the outbreak in dairy cows, researchers don’t know exactly how bird flu spreads in cattle, so recommendations to contain it may shift as more is learned.

                  I have seen many infected cows and they look dull and depressed, similar to how humans feel during a viral infection. Many infected cows have signs similar to humans with the flu, such as a fever.

                  Many dairy producers separate sick cows in hospital pens, away from healthy ones, so sick cows can be easily monitored and treated.

                  Since the virus has been found in nasal secretions in early infection, it’s possible the water tanks for the herds’ drinking water could be a source of infection. Farmers should continue to clean these tanks at least weekly – and even more often in hospital pens – as a best practice.

                  Infected cows can recover
                  The good news is that most cows get better. Like a human with the flu, they respond to anti-inflammatory drugs and oral fluids.

                  A small percentage of cows do get secondary bacterial infections and die or are humanely euthanized. Some cows recover from the infection but stop producing milk and are removed from the herd and usually slaughtered for beef.

                  Because the virus is detected most often in milk from sick cows, our team recommends dairy producers continue following best milking practices on the dairy farm, including disinfecting the cow’s teats before and after milking, even healthy cows.

                  Just one case of human conjunctivitis due to bird flu was reported in a Texas dairy farmworker in late March. The worker was likely exposed through direct contact with milk from an infected cow or from rubbing their eyes with their hands or gloves that had come in contact with contaminated milk. The CDC recommends farmworkers wear personal protective equipment, including eye protection, when in direct or close physical contact with raw milk.
                  ...

                  A veterinarian and epidemiologist who studies infectious diseases in dairy cows discusses the outbreak, how cows recover and what the government is doing to keep the milk supply safe.
                  "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                  -Nelson Mandela

                  Comment


                  • #10

                    Hat tip Lance

                    United States of America - Influenza A viruses of high pathogenicity (Inf. with) (non-poultry including wild birds) (2017-) - Follow up report 50

                    Excerpt:

                    OB_134533 - CO 002 - COLORADO
                    Colorado
                    Broomfield
                    Farm
                    A commercial dairy premises. Clinical signs in lactating cattle included decreased feed consumption and colostrum-like milk. In order to protect data confidentiality, the second administrative division represents the approximate location of the Colorado Department of Agriculture.

                    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                    -Nelson Mandela

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      NEW OUTBREAKS

                      OB_134533 - CO 002 - COLORADO

                      OUTBREAK REFERENCE
                      CO 002

                      START DATE
                      2024/04/21

                      END DATE

                      DETAILED CHARACTERISATION


                      FIRST ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION
                      Colorado

                      SECOND ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION
                      Broomfield

                      THIRD ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISION


                      EPIDEMIOLOGICAL UNIT
                      Farm

                      LOCATION
                      Colorado

                      Latitude, Longitude
                      39.918 , -105.121

                      (Approximate location)

                      OUTBREAKS IN CLUSTER

                      MEASURING UNIT
                      Animal

                      AFFECTED POPULATION DESCRIPTION
                      A commercial dairy premises. Clinical signs in lactating cattle included decreased feed consumption and colostrum-like milk. In order to protect data confidentiality, the second administrative division represents the approximate location of the Colorado Department of Agriculture. SpeciesSusceptibleCasesDeathsKilled and Disposed ofSlaughtered/ Killed for commercial useVaccinated Bovine (DOMESTIC)NEW------TOTAL------

                      METHOD OF DIAGNOSTIC
                      Diagnostic test, Clinical


                      Comment

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