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US - Dairy cows test positive for H5N1 avian flu in Texas, Kansas, Idaho, Michigan, New Mexico, Ohio, North Carolina, South Dakota, Colorado - March 24+ One known human case (Texas) April 1

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  • #61
    DSHS Reports First Human Case of Avian Influenza in Texas



    Person Had Direct Contact With Dairy Cattle

    April 1, 2024


    The Texas Department of State Health Services is reporting a human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in Texas. The case was identified in a person who had direct exposure to dairy cattle presumed to be infected with avian influenza.

    The patient, who experienced eye inflammation as their only symptom, was tested for flu late last week with confirmatory testing performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention over the weekend. The patient is being treated with the antiviral drug oseltamivir. The case does not change the risk for the general public, which remains low.

    According to the CDC, this is the second human case of H5N1 flu in the United States and the first linked to an exposure to cattle. In March, the Texas Animal Health Commission announced the first cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) in dairy cattle in the Texas Panhandle. DSHS is working with TAHC, CDC and other state and federal health agencies to investigate the human and animal cases and understand how the virus is spreading in order to protect livestock and people who work with it.

    Avian influenza A(H5N1) is a type of flu virus that usually infects wild birds and can spread to domestic birds and other animals. It occasionally infects people, though it is extremely rare for it to be transmitted from one person to another. Initial testing shows the virus has not changed in a way to make it more likely to spread among humans.

    The cattle infections do not present a concern for the commercial milk supply. Dairies are required to destroy or divert milk from any sick cows, plus pasteurization kills avian flu viruses.

    DSHS is providing guidance to affected dairies about how to minimize workers’ exposure and how people who work with affected cattle can monitor for flu-like symptoms and get tested. Illnesses in people with H5N1 flu infections have ranged from mild, such as eye infection and upper respiratory symptoms, to severe, such as pneumonia and death.

    DSHS has issued a health alert asking health care providers around affected dairies to be vigilant for possible human cases and is providing testing and treatment recommendations.

    Comment


    • #62
      Officials confirm 1st human case of bird flu in Texas

      The case was identified in a person who had direct exposure to dairy cattle presumed to be infected with avian influenza.
      .... : Texas Department of State Health Services
      Published: 12:14 PM CDT April 1, 2024
      Updated: 12:14 PM CDT April 1, 2024
      Facebook
      AUSTIN, Texas — The Texas Department of State Health Services is reporting a human case of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus in Texas. The case was identified in a person who had direct exposure to dairy cattle presumed to be infected with avian influenza.

      The patient, who experienced eye inflammation as th..

      According to the CDC, this is the second human case of H5N1 flu in the United States and the first linked to an exposure to cattle. In March, the Texas Animal Health Commission announced the first cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) in dairy cattle in the Texas Panhandle. DSHS is working with TAHC, CDC and other state and federal health agencies to investigate the human and animal cases and understand how the virus is spreading in order to protect livestock and people who work with it.

      Avian influenza A(H5N1) is a type of flu virus that usu.ally infects wild birds and can spread to domestic birds and other animals. It occasionally infects people, though it is extremely rare for it to be transmitted from one person to another. Initial testing shows the virus has not changed in a way to make it more likely to spread among humans.
      .
      The cattle infections do not pr....


      https://www.cbs19.tv/article/news/lo...s%20in%20Texas.

      ​​
      Last edited by sharon sanders; April 1, 2024, 12:43 PM. Reason: fixed link
      CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

      treyfish2004@yahoo.com

      Comment


      • #63
        Texas DSHS Health Alert: 1st Human Case of H5N1 Influenza In Texas



        #17,979

        Within the past hour the Texas Department of Health and Human Services has released a health alert on the first confirmed human H5N1 infection in Texas, which is linked to the recent outbreak in dairy cows.
        The patient reportedly has mild symptoms (conjunctivitis), but the Health Department is alerting clinicians to be aware of the potential for seeing more cases.

        The full health alert follows:

        HEALTH ALERT
        April 1, 2024

        Summary
        The Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) is reporting the first human case of novel avian influenza A(H5N1) in Texas. The patient became ill following contact with dairy cows presumed to be infected with avian influenza. The patient’s primary symptom was conjunctivitis. This is the second case of avian influenza A(H5N1) identified in a person in the United States and is believed to be associated with the recent detections of avian influenza A(H5N1) in dairy cows
        announced by the Texas Animal Health Commission. DSHS along with local, regional, state, and federal partners, is investigating this ongoing situation. Avian influenza A(H5N1) viruses have only rarely been transmitted from person to person. As such, the risk to the general public is believed to be low; however, people with close contact with affected animals suspected of having avian influenza A(H5N1) have a higher risk of infection.

        DSHS is issuing this health alert to provide awareness to healthcare providers and ask them to be vigilant for people with signs and symptoms of avian influenza A(H5N1). Suspicion for avian influenza A(H5N1) should be heightened for people who have had contact with animals suspected of having avian influenza A(H5N1).

        Background


        In March 2024, samples were collected and tested for influenza from several animals in Texas and Kansas. These animals, including wild birds, cats, and dairy cows, were tested because they exhibited signs of illness. Some of the animals tested positive for influenza. Further testing of these samples indicated the presence of avian influenza A(H5N1). This is the first time avian influenza A(H5N1) has been detected in cattle in the United States. DSHS, including regional staff have been working with other state and federal health agencies to investigate suspect cases of avian influenza A(H5N1) in both humans and animals.

        The USDA and state animal health agencies routinely conduct surveillance for avian influenza A viruses in poultry in the United States and have previously detected the same strain of influenza A(H5N1) in backyard poultry flocks in Texas.
        Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Detected in Moore County Birds (texas.gov); HPAI Confirmations in Commercial and Backyard Flocks (usda.gov)

        Recommendations for Clinicians

        Providers should consider the possibility of avian influenza A(H5N1) virus infection in people who have symptoms of influenza and relevant exposure history. This includes people who have had close contact with a person with suspected or confirmed avian influenza A(H5N1) infection, affected animals, or unpasteurized milk from dairy farms with suspected avian influenza A(H5N1). A close contact is defined as a person who is within 6 feet of a confirmed or probable avian influenza A(H5N1) case for a prolonged period of time, or who had direct contact with infectious secretions while the case was likely to be infectious (beginning 1 day prior to illness onset and continuing until the resolution of illness).

        Signs and symptoms of avian influenza A(H5N1) infection may include:
        • Fever (temperature of 100°F [37.8°C] or greater) or feeling feverish or chills
        • Cough
        • Sore throat
        • Runny or stuffy nose
        • Headaches
        • Fatigue
        • Eye redness (conjunctivitis)
        • Difficulty breathing/shortness of breath
        • Diarrhea
        • Nausea
        • Vomiting
        • Seizures
        Although not commonly associated with seasonal influenza, conjunctivitis has been observed in avian influenza A virus infections. Because of this, healthcare providers including optometrists and ophthalmologists, should be aware of the potential of individuals presenting with conjunctivitis who have had exposure to affected animals.

        Illness in humans with avian influenza A(H5N1) virus have ranged from mild to severe. Reports of severe avian influenza A(H5N1) illness in humans have included fulminant pneumonia leading to respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and death.

        If providers encounter a patient with symptoms compatible with avian influenza A(H5N1) infection and exposure to affected animals is suspected, they should immediately
        consult their local health department.
        Infection Control

        Facilities should follow their normal infection control procedures when assessing patients presenting with respiratory illness. Standard, contact, and airborne precautions are recommended for patients presenting for medical care or evaluation who have illness consistent with influenza and recent exposure to animals or humans potentially infected with avian influenza A(H5N1), and for patients with confirmed influenza A(H5N1). Additional guidance on infection control in healthcare settings can be found on the Center for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) website (
        Interim Guidance for Infection Control Within Healthcare Settings When Caring for Confirmed Cases, Probable Cases, and Cases Under Investigation for Infection with Novel Influenza A Viruses Associated with Severe Disease).
        Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis

        Initiation of antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor is recommended as soon as possible for any patient with suspected or confirmed infection with avian influenza A(H5N1). This includes patients who are presumed, confirmed, or probable cases, or persons under investigation (PUIs). A PUI is an individual with a documented exposure to avian influenza A(H5N1) and has developed symptoms compatible with avian influenza A(H5N1) infection. Treatment should be initiated even if more than 48 hours has elapsed since illness onset and regardless of illness severity (outpatients or hospitalized patients). Treatment with oseltamivir (twice daily for 5 days) is recommended regardless of time since the onset of symptoms. Antiviral treatment should not be delayed while waiting for laboratory test results. Providers should use their clinical judgement when determining treatment for patients whose symptoms are nearly resolved.

        Additional guidance on evaluating and managing patients can be found on the CDC’s websites:
        The recommendation for administration of chemoprophylaxis in asymptomatic individuals that have potentially been exposed to avian influenza A(H5N1) depends on the nature of the exposure. Chemoprophylaxis should be administered to individuals in the same household or close family members with unprotected, prolonged contact to a confirmed or probable case. Chemoprophylaxis may be considered in healthcare personnel or non-household members with prolonged unprotected close contact with a confirmed or probable case. Chemoprophylaxis is typically not considered for individuals who have had social contact of a short duration with a confirmed or probable case in a non-hospital setting. For asymptomatic individuals, the treatment frequency dosing for oral oseltamivir or inhaled zanamivir (one dose twice daily) is recommended instead of the typical antiviral chemoprophylaxis regimen (once daily).

        Chemoprophylaxis for symptomatic individuals that have had contact with a confirmed or probable case is recommended. Treatment should be started immediately and not be delayed while testing is pending.

        Additional guidance on chemoprophylaxis for individuals that have had contact with suspect or confirmed cases can be found on the CDC’s website (
        Interim Guidance on Follow-up of Close Contacts of Persons Infected with Novel Influenza A Viruses and Use of Antiviral Medications for Chemoprophylaxis).

        Recommendations for Public Health

        Novel influenza A including avian influenza A(H5N1) is a notifiable disease condition in Texas and must be reported immediately.

        Local and regional health departments should investigate all suspected, probable, or confirmed avian influenza cases and perform public health follow-up on close contacts. Please refer to the
        DSHS Emerging and Acute Infectious Disease Guidelines- Influenza A-Novel/Variant for conducting a case investigation and performing public health follow-up.

        A close contact is defined as a person who is within about 6 feet of a confirmed or probable avian influenza case for a prolonged period of time, or who had direct contact with infectious secretions while the case was likely to be infectious (beginning 1 day prior to illness onset and continuing until the resolution of illness).

        For information regarding the use of personal protective equipment during a probable or confirmed avian influenza case investigation visit the following website:
        Recommendations for Worker Protection and Use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) to Reduce Exposure to Novel Influenza A Viruses Associated with Severe Disease in Humans.

        Recommendations for the Public

        Although this is an evolving situation, the risk to the general public is low. People can protect themselves against flu by washing their hands often, covering their coughs and sneezes, not picking up dead birds and animals, and staying home if sick.

        Routine antiviral treatment, such as Tamiflu (oral oseltamivir), is known to be effective against flu. If you suspect you have influenza, discuss treatment options with your healthcare provider.

        Milk and milk products provide numerous health benefits. However, raw unpasteurized milk can make people sick. Pasteurization is the process of heating milk to a high enough temperature for enough time to kill harmful germs in the milk, including all kinds of flu viruses. Milk sold in stores is required to be pasteurized and is safe to drink.

        For More Information

        DSHS Influenza (Flu)
        CDC Avian Flu
        CDC Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Animals: Interim Recommendations for Prevention, Monitoring, and Public Health Investigations
        Texas Animal Health Commission 2022-2024 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza
        USDA Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)

        .

        #17,979 Within the past hour the Texas Department of Health and Human Services has released a health alert on the first confirmed human H5N1...
        All medical discussions are for educational purposes. I am not a doctor, just a retired paramedic. Nothing I post should be construed as specific medical advice. If you have a medical problem, see your physician.

        Comment


        • #64
          The United States H5N1 cumulative cases are:


          2024

          US - A contact of HPAI cattle in Texas, details pending - reported April 1​



          2022

          US - European strain - Male, 40, poultry worker, test confirmed on April, 27, mild case. Colorado state


          source: FluTrackers 2016+ Global H5N1 Human Cases List​​

          Comment


          • #65
            From:
            "Media (CDC)" <sohco@CDC.GOV>
            To: <MMWR-MEDIA@LISTSERV.CDC.GOV>
            Subject: Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection Reported in a Person in the U.S.
            Date: Apr 1, 2024 1:32 PM​



            Press Release

            For Immediate Release
            Monday, April 1, 2024


            Contact: CDC Media Relations
            (404) 639-3286               



            Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection Reported in a Person in the U.S.



            CDC’s Risk Assessment for the General Public Remains Low





            April 1, 2024—A person in the United States has tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) virus (“H5N1 bird flu”), as reported by Texas and confirmed by CDC. This person had exposure to dairy cattle in Texas presumed to be infected with HPAI A(H5N1) viruses. The patient reported eye redness (consistent with conjunctivitis), as their only symptom, and is recovering. The patient was told to isolate and is being treated with an antiviral drug for flu. This infection does not change the H5N1 bird flu human health risk assessment for the U.S. general public, which CDC considers to be low. However, people with close or prolonged, unprotected exposures to infected birds or other animals (including livestock), or to environments contaminated by infected birds or other animals, are at greater risk of infection. CDC has interim recommendations for prevention, monitoring, and public health investigations of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses.



            CDC is working with state health departments to continue to monitor workers who may have been in contact with infected or potentially infected birds/animals and test those people who develop symptoms. CDC also has recommendations for clinicians on monitoring, testing, and antiviral treatment for patients with suspected or confirmed avian influenza A virus infections.



            This is the second person reported to have tested positive for influenza A(H5N1) viruses in the United States. A previous human case occurred in 2022 in Colorado. Human infections with avian influenza A viruses, including A(H5N1) viruses, are uncommon but have occurred sporadically worldwide. CDC has been monitoring for illness among people exposed to H5 virus-infected birds since outbreaks were first detected in U.S. wild birds and poultry in late 2021. Human illnesses with H5N1 bird flu have ranged from mild (e.g., eye infection, upper respiratory symptoms) to severe illness (e.g., pneumonia) that have resulted in death in other countries.



            H5 bird flu is widespread among wild birds in the U.S. and globally. These viruses also have caused outbreaks in commercial and backyard poultry flocks, and sporadic infections in mammals. HPAI in dairy cows was first reported in Texas and Kansas by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) on March 25, 2024. Unpasteurized milk from sick cattle collected from two dairy farms in Kansas and one in Texas, as well as a throat swab from a cow in another dairy in Texas, tested positive for HPAI A(H5) viruses of the genetic clade 2.3.4.4b, which is the same clade that is widespread among birds globally. On March 29, 2024On March 29, 2024, USDA’s National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) confirmed HPAI in a Michigan dairy herd that had recently received cows from Texas. The USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) is providing regular updates on detections in dairy herds, as well as information on epidemiological findings and biosecurity guidance for farmers and veterinarians. Preliminary analysis of A(H5N1) viruses has not found changes that would make these viruses resistant to current FDA-approved flu antiviral medications, so these are believed to be effective against these viruses. Candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs) developed against related clade 2.3.4.4b viruses are available for vaccine manufacturing if necessary and preliminary analysis indicates that they may provide reasonable protection against H5N1 influenza viruses. Seasonal flu vaccines do not provide protection against these viruses. Analysis of virus samples is ongoing.





            CDC is working closely with state and federal agencies, including USDA, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and local health authorities to further investigate and closely monitor this situation.



            Prevention Measures



            According to CDC’s interim recommendations, people should avoid unprotected exposures to sick or dead animals including wild birds, poultry, other domesticated birds, and other wild or domesticated animals (including cattle), as well as with animal carcasses, raw milk, feces (poop), litter, or materials contaminated by birds or other animals with confirmed or suspected HPAI A(H5N1)-virus infection. People should not prepare or eat uncooked or undercooked food or related uncooked food products, such as unpasteurized (raw) milk, or products made from raw milk such as cheeses, from animals with confirmed or suspected HPAI A(H5N1)-virus infection (avian influenza or bird flu). Specific recommendations for farmers; poultry, backyard flock, and livestock owners; and worker protection are also available.



            People exposed to birds or other animals with confirmed or suspected HPAI A(H5N1) virus infection should be monitored for any signs and symptoms of illness for 10 days after the last known exposure, including people wearing recommended personal protective equipment (PPE). Additional information on protective actions around birds, including what to do if you find a dead bird, is available on CDC’s website.



            According to FDA and USDA, there are not concerns with the safety of the commercial milk supply at this time because products are pasteurized before entering the market. Dairies are required to send only milk from healthy animals into processing for human consumption; milk from impacted animals is being diverted or destroyed so that it does not enter the human food supply. In addition, pasteurization has continually proven to inactivate bacteria and viruses, like influenza, in milk. Pasteurization is required for any milk entering interstate commerce for human consumption. FDA’s longstanding position is that unpasteurized, raw milk can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks to consumers, and FDA is reminding consumers of the risks associated with raw milk consumption in light of the HPAI detections.



            CDC continues to work with USDA, FDA, and state health departments to monitor people exposed to animals infected with HPAI A(H5N1) viruses. Because influenza viruses constantly change, continued surveillance and preparedness efforts are critical, and CDC is taking measures in case the public health risk assessment changes. This is a developing situation, and CDC will share additional updates as new relevant information becomes available.

            Comment


          • #66
            https://www.cidrap.umn.edu/avian-inf...ick-cows-texas

            Avian flu infects person exposed to sick cows in Texas



            Lisa Schnirring


            Today at 3:43 p.m.

            Avian Influenza (Bird Flu) Federal and state health officials today reported that a person connected to a dairy farm in Texas has tested positive for H5N1 avian flu, the first known case linked to sick dairy cows and the nation's second since the virus began circulating in wild bird and poultry in 2022.

            Today's case announcement underscores new interim guidance that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released over the weekend on preventing, detecting, and responding to avian flu infections in humans, which are very rare and mainly pose a threat to people who are exposed to sick animals or contaminated environments.

            The day before the CDC posted its new guidance, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service announced that highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has now been confirmed in a dairy herd in Michigan, bringing the number of affected states to five.

            Eye redness the only symptom


            The CDC said today that the patient reported eye redness (conjunctivitis) as the only symptom and is recovering. The patient has been asked to isolate and is being treated with a flu antiviral drug.

            The Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS) said the person had contact with dairy cows, and it urged healthcare providers to be vigilant for people with symptoms of H5N1 flu, especially in those who have close contact with animals that have suspected infections.

            Though conjunctivitis isn't a common symptom of seasonal flu, the TDSHS said it has been seen before in people infected with avian flu viruses.

            In its new guidance, the CDC urged people exposed to H5N1 in birds or other animals to monitor themselves for new respiratory symptoms, including conjunctivitis, for 10 days following initial exposure. The monitoring is recommended even for people who wear recommended personal protective equipment.

            For patients with conjunctivitis symptoms, the CDC recommends that healthcare providers obtain both conjunctival and nasopharyngeal swab samples.

            "CDC is working with state health departments to continue to monitor workers who may have been in contact with infected or potentially infected birds/animals and test those people who develop symptoms," the agency said in its news release today.

            Current H5N1 clade can cause a range of illnesses


            Past experience with H5N1 suggests that people who have contact with sick animals are at highest risk. The CDC and its state partners routinely monitor people exposed to the virus, and from January 2022 through September 2023—a period when the US poultry industry was hit hard by the virus—had monitored about 6,500 people from 52 jurisdictions.

            Of those, illnesses were reported in 165 people, and of those, testing revealed H5N1 in only 1, a person who was involved with culling at a poultry farm in Colorado. Fatigue was the man's only symptom. Asymptomatic cases were reported in a few poultry workers in the United Kingdom and Spain who were positive for H5N1 in initial tests, and it's not clear if their results reflected true infection or surface contamination of the upper airway tract.

            The H5N1 clade circulating in the United States and several parts of the world, however, has resulted in severe and fatal infections. Globally, at least 12 cases involving the 2.3.4.4b H5N1 clade have been reported, according to CDC background data. The disease was fatal in a patient in China, and Chileans and Ecuadorians had critical illnesses. Nearly all had been exposed to sick or dead birds.

            An older H5N1 clade circulating in parts of Asia has been linked to a spate of recent H5N1 infections in Cambodia, most of which were severe or fatal. The cases typically involved people who had exposure to sick poultry.

            Federal and state officials in the United States emphasize that the overall risk to the public is very low. With strong safeguards in place for the commercial milk supply, including routine pasteurization, they have repeated their longstanding assertion that raw milk can harbor pathogens and pose serious health risks to consumers.

            Michigan findings add evidence of cow-to-cow spread


            APHIS said the Michigan dairy herd had recently received cows from Texas, where the virus had already been confirmed. "Spread of symptoms among the Michigan herd also indicates that HPAI transmission between cattle cannot be ruled out," the group said. Similarly, Idaho's agriculture department last week announced that HPAI was detected at a facility that had imported cattle from an earlier-affected state.

            The Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development said the dairy herd where HPAI was found is in Montcalm County, which is in the central part of the state. The cattle were moved from Texas before any animals on the source farm showed signs of disease, and they didn't have any symptoms or appear ill when they were moved to Michigan.

            Genetic sequencing suggests that the H5N1 virus found in Michigan is very similar to strains confirmed in Texas and Kansas and was probably initially introduced to the dairy herds by wild birds, according to APHIS. So far, sequencing shows no changes in the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans.

            Comment


            • #67
              Bird flu confirmed in Texas worker who had contact with dairy cows
              ...
              April 1, 2024, 5:09 PM CST
              By Kaitlin Sullivan
              ...
              Sid Miller, commissioner of the Texas Department of Agriculture, said it’s not yet clear whether the person was infected by a dairy cow or through the same source that infected the dairy cows, which appears to be dead waterfowl that were found on the property.
              ...
              Dr. Jeff Bender, a professor of public health and public health veterinarian at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis, said that as birds carry out their spring migrations, there will likely be more pockets of outbreaks in other animals.

              “That’s what is driving what we are seeing with the cattle, as these birds are doing their spring migration, they may be shedding the virus,” Bender said, noting that the birds’ feces could contaminate animals’ water sources.
              ...
              Right now, the H5N1 strain does not appear to be airborne, and the virus does not appear to have mutated to spread between cows, which is important, Bender said.

              “That is something that needs to be monitored at this early stage,” he said. “We know how influenza changes. We need to know, do we have cattle-to-cattle transmission? That means the virus is adapting and it means there are more chances for the virus to change.”
              ...
              If the virus begins to infect pigs, that would be cause for worry, he added.

              “Swine have the ability to mix influenza viruses and they are more similar to humans, so that would be more likely to spill over into humans,” he said.
              ...

              The person’s infection comes just days after it was reported that dairy cattle in five states, including Texas, tested positive for the virus.
              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela

              Comment


              • #68
                Source: https://www.aphis.usda.gov/news/agen...erd-new-mexico

                USDA Confirms Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in Dairy Herd in New Mexico

                Press Release
                Contact:
                APHISpress@usda.gov
                WASHINGTON, April 1, 2024 – The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has confirmed the detection of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in a dairy herd in New Mexico, as well as 5 additional dairy herds in Texas. APHIS shared on Fri., March 29 that its National Veterinary Services Laboratories (NVSL) in Ames, Iowa, was working to confirm presumptive positive test results from New Mexico, Texas and Idaho herds; this announcement is a follow up to that information.
                This marks the first known case of HPAI in cattle in New Mexico, and adds to the two detections in Texas that were first announced on Monday, March 25. To date, USDA has confirmed the detection of HPAI in dairy herds in Texas (7) Kansas (2), Michigan (1), and New Mexico (1). The presumptive positive test results for the Idaho herd are still pending analysis at NVSL.
                APHIS continues to work closely with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as state veterinary and public health officials, to investigate and diagnose activities regarding the illness in dairy cows causing decreased lactation, low appetite, and other clinical signs.
                USDA and federal and state partners will continue to share additional updates as information becomes available. APHIS has also prepared a Frequently Asked Questions document, which can be accessed here.
                In addition, today, the CDC reported that a person in Texas has tested positive for HPAI A(H5N1) virus; the CDC also stated in its announcement that this infection does not change the A(H5N1) bird flu human health risk assessment for the U.S. general public, which CDC considers to be low. However, people with close or prolonged, unprotected exposures to infected birds or other animals (including livestock), or to environments contaminated by infected birds or other animals, are at greater risk of infection. CDC has interim recommendations for prevention, monitoring, and public health investigations of HPAI A(H5N1) viruses.
                Federal and state agencies continue to conduct additional testing in swabs from sick animals and in unpasteurized clinical milk samples from sick animals, as well as viral genome sequencing, to assess whether HPAI or another unrelated disease may be underlying any symptoms.
                The NVSL has also confirmed that the strain of the virus found in subsequent states is very similar to the strain originally confirmed in cattle in Texas and Kansas that appears to have been introduced by wild birds (H5N1, Eurasian lineage goose/Guangdong clade 2.3.4.4b). Initial testing has not found changes to the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans. While cases among humans in direct contact with infected animals are possible, this indicates that the current risk to the public remains low.
                There continues to be no concern that this circumstance poses a risk to consumer health, or that it affects the safety of the commercial milk supply because products are pasteurized before entering the market. Dairies are required to send only milk from healthy animals into processing for human consumption; milk from impacted animals is being diverted from the commercial milk tank or destroyed so that it does not enter the human food supply. In addition, pasteurization has continually proven to inactivate bacteria and viruses, like influenza, in milk. Pasteurization is required for any milk entering interstate commerce for human consumption. FDA’s longstanding position is that unpasteurized, raw milk can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks to consumers, and FDA is reminding consumers of the risks associated with raw milk consumption in light of the HPAI detections.
                Because of the limited information available about the transmission of HPAI in raw milk, the FDA recommends that industry does not manufacture or sell raw milk or raw/unpasteurized milk cheese products made with milk from cows showing symptoms of illness, including those infected with avian influenza or exposed to those infected with avian influenza. At this time, the FDA is not aware that any milk or dairy product from symptomatic cows is entering interstate commerce. Furthermore, if milk from cows showing symptoms of illness or exposed to those infected with avian influenza, is intended to be used to feed calves or other animals, FDA strongly encourages that it be pasteurized or otherwise heat treated to kill harmful bacteria or viruses, such as influenza, before calf feeding. Food safety information from FDA, including information about the sale and consumption of raw milk, can be found here.
                Milk loss resulting from symptomatic cattle to date is too limited to have a major impact on supply and there should be no impact on the price of milk or other dairy products. Further, the U.S. typically has a more than sufficient milk supply in the spring months due to seasonally higher production.
                Federal agencies are also working with state and industry partners to encourage producers and veterinarians to report cattle illnesses quickly so that we can monitor potential additional cases and minimize the impact and risk to farmers, farmworkers, consumers and other animals. Producers are urged to work with their veterinarian to report cattle illnesses quickly and practice enhanced biosecurity measures. More information on biosecurity measures can be found here.



                Comment


                • #69
                  Bird flu spreads cow-to-cow and to one human in Texas

                  BY: JARED STRONG - APRIL 1, 2024 6:07 PM

                  Texas cows are believed to have directly transmitted an avian flu to other cows and one person, according to state agriculture and health officials.

                  The new evidence of mammal-to-mammal transmissions of a virus that is highly infectious and deadly for domestic birds is a troubling development in the years long outbreak. Research published last month by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention warned that the occurrences need to be closely monitored to prevent a potential health crisis.

                  The “virus may be changing and adapting to infect mammals,” researchers concluded. “Continuous surveillance is essential to mitigate the risk for a global pandemic.”....

                  But in Idaho, where another dairy herd received cows from Texas, at least eight cows of the preexisting herd have been infected, according to preliminary test results.

                  “That leads us to assume cow-to-cow transmission,” said Sydney Kennedy, a spokesperson for the Idaho State Department of Agriculture.....
                  https://kansasreflector.com/2024/04/...n-in-texas/​
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                  • #70
                    U.S. dairy farm worker infected as bird flu spreads to cows in five states

                    Unexpected H5N1 outbreaks in cattle raises difficult questions about how to protect herds and people​...Some evidence suggests the virus was transmitted between cows, but that remains unproven. And for now, USDA says it’s “initial testing has not found changes to the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans.” Still, the widespread occurrence of H5N1 in mammals has renewed worries that it may evolve to become more transmissible between people. And scientists are urgently trying to answer a host of questions, including how far the virus has spread among U.S. cows and how to prevent more herds and people from becoming infected...


                    ​​​​​​Antibody tests of herds should soon reveal how widespread the infection is and how long it has been infecting cattle. Lab experiments may clarify how a virus that typically causes respiratory disease wound up in cow udders, making it detectable in their milk, and whether other organs are infected. No evidence exists that the virus has infected beef cattle, but researchers say that could simply be because of a lack of surveillance, or because these animals show subtler symptoms than changes in milk production and its appearance.....

                    ....
                    ​​​​​​“We need to be advocating for our employees on these farms, providing them support and education in whatever language that it needs to be in,” says Joe Armstrong, a bovine veterinarian who works with University of Minnesota Extension. Dairy workers rarely wear protective gear, such as masks and goggles, Armstrong says. In the “dairy parlors” that commercial farms use to milk cows, floors are often cleaned using high-pressure water sprayers, which could aerosolize the virus, he notes....

                    ​​​​​​Although avian influenza viruses, first detected in humans in 1997, have caused outbreaks that killed hundreds of people, they have difficulty infecting human cells due to differences in the sugars that adorn human and bird cellular receptors for the virus. But humans have the bird version in our eyes, which explains why we can develop conjunctivitis.

                    “I think the conjunctivitis in itself is not so serious, but it points to the fact that those people have been exposed and that they might develop respiratory disease,” says Thijs Kuiken, a comparative pathologist at Erasmus Medical Center who specializes in avian influenza. “I am really concerned about the people who are looking after affected cattle because I've heard of really high levels of virus in the milk and people are milking these animals twice a day.”

                    snip

                    An experiment published in 2006 demonstrated that a different H5N1 clade could infect calves. Virologist Martin Beer of the Friedrich Loeffler Institute in Germany, who led that study, says “very special circumstances” might explain the spread of the virus in U.S. cattle, including the way the animals are milked or as-yet undetected genomic adaptations in the virus. “We need to wait for much better epidemiological data,” Beer says.


                    ​...But there is no talk of culling cows, which cost up to $2,500 each and are not becoming seriously ill.


                    There are no H5N1 vaccines for cattle. Poultry vaccines do exist and are used heavily in China, with some marked successes. A crash program to develop a cattle equivalent might make sense, says Carol Cardona, an avian influenza specialist and poultry veterinarian at the University of Minnesota. If vaccinations can reduce viral spread, they might offer some secondary protection to dairy workers. “The person-to-cow ratio is so much higher than the person-to-chicken ratio,” notes Cardona, putting many more workers at risk. The cattle infections are “a game changer,” she adds. “I think it's all hands on deck.”

                    ....
                    ​​​​​​The human infection in Texas has echoes of a massive outbreak of another highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, H7N7, in poultry flocks in the Netherlands in 2003 that Kuiken studied. Hundreds of people developed conjunctivitis, mainly during culling of infected flocks, and there was some evidence of human-to-human transmission. One veterinarian died.


                    ....Many bird species are currently moving north and may be taking the virus with them. “It would be very surprising if it wasn't already everywhere,” Armstrong says, noting how difficult it is to for farms to keep out birds. “We have to protect people, but we also have to … make sure we’re not crippling the industry,” he says.

                    As to H5N1’s future, Cardona says we should continue to expect the unexpected. “The virus is making up new dances,” she says. “It’s broken the rules on everything.”



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                    • #71
                      More from the link Sharon shared in the discussion thread:

                      H5N1 avian flu found in Texas individual who apparently was infected by dairy cows

                      By Helen Branswell April 1, 2024
                      ...
                      Nirav Shah, principal deputy director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said the infected individual is doing well and is being treated with the influenza antiviral oseltamivir, sold as Tamiflu. The individual was instructed to isolate to reduce the risk of infecting others, and to date there’s no indication of onward spread, Shah said.

                      “We are not aware of reports that any of this individual’s close contacts have developed any symptoms,” he told STAT.
                      ...
                      The CDC is not currently running any other confirmatory H5 tests, Shah said. “The fact that there are not other samples cooking right now is reassuring, insofar as that we’re not aware of other individuals who are symptomatic following an exposure to livestock,” he added.

                      “We are still out there looking, to be very clear,” he said.
                      ...
                      Richard Webby, an influenza virologist who heads the WHO Collaborating Center for Studies on the Ecology of Influenza in Animals at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tenn., called the infections in cows “a head scratcher,” saying he would not have figured cattle to be on the list of animals susceptible to this virus.
                      ...
                      Michael Osterholm, director of the University of Minnesota’s Center for Infectious Diseases Research and Policy, said the move into cows expands the virus’ range, “but I’m not sure what it portends for humans and swine.”

                      Osterholm said he would be more concerned if there were word that the virus had been found to be infecting pigs.
                      ...

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                      -Nelson Mandela

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                      • #72
                        Large dairy in Michigan tests positive for HPAI
                        ...
                        Jennifer Kiel, Editor, Michigan Farmer
                        April 2, 2024
                        ...
                        The Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development (MDARD) announced March 29 that it had confirmed HPAI in a “large” Montcalm County commercial dairy operation of more than 500 cows, with about 10% testing positive for the virus.
                        ...
                        The Michigan herd, as well as the herds from Idaho and Kansas, had recently received cows from an infected Texas operation before the animals exhibited clinical signs of illness. It’s not known if infected birds transmitted the disease, or if it was then transmitted between cows. Animal health officials are investigating whether the virus was spread through milking equipment.
                        ...
                        Officials have now looked at the whole genome sequence of the virus. The National Veterinary Service Lab has confirmed the H5N1 strain of influenza A in samples from Texas, Kansas and Michigan are similar and consistent with wild bird introductions. The lack of changes in the genome is good news, as it means it continues to be considered a low threat for mammals, Wineland says.
                        ...
                        This is the first time the disease has been found in dairy cattle, according to the American Veterinary Medical Association — but it’s not the first mammal, as many wild animals have come down with the disease.

                        Michigan has had 11 red foxes with the disease, as well as a coyote and a raccoon. The last red fox recorded ill was in Alpena in June 2023, according to USDA.
                        ...

                        Dairies in Michigan and Idaho confirm HPAI-positive cows with a virus strain similar to one in Texas and Kansas.
                        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                        -Nelson Mandela

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                        • #73
                          Bird flu confirmed in Michigan cattle, poultry


                          Renae King
                          April 2, 2024

                          At least one person who had contact with infected cows in Texas has been diagnosed with bird flu, health officials said Monday.
                          Avian influenza, also known as bird flu, has been detected in a mid-Michigan dairy herd.

                          Nora Wineland, Michigan’s state veterinarian, says the outbreak in Montcalm County originated in cows that were transported from Texas, where several outbreaks of the virus have been popping up in cattle populations across the Lone Star State. This marks the first time the virus has appeared in Michigan cattle.

                          The Michigan Department of Agriculture & Rural Development (MDARD) also confirmed an outbreak at a commercial poultry facility from Ionia County on Tuesday....
                          https://wdet.org/2024/04/02/bird-flu...​​​​
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                          • Pathfinder
                            Pathfinder commented
                            Editing a comment
                            Ionia County borders Montcalm County, where the outbreak in cows is happening.

                        • #74
                          Bird flu found at commercial poultry farm in Ionia County


                          by: Michael Oszust

                          Posted: Apr 2, 2024 / 11:23 AM EDT

                          Updated: Apr 2, 2024 / 12:02 PM EDT SHARE

                          GRAND RAPIDS, Mich. (WOOD) — The state has found avian influenza at a commercial poultry farm in Ionia County.

                          This is the fourth confirmed case of highly pathogenic avian influence (HPAI) at a commercial poultry operation in Michigan since 2022, and the first in Ionia County, according to a Michigan Department of Agriculture and Rural Development news release.
                          To protect other flocks, the state said the premises are under quarantine and “the birds will be depopulated.” The state did not release the name of the farm....
                          https://www.woodtv.com/news/ionia-co...​​​​
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                          • #75
                            Lots of sick birds in Texas also

                            ​​​​​​ Cal-Maine Foods, Inc. Reports Positive Test Result for Avian Influenza at Texas Facility

                            April 02, 2024 at 12:10 pm EDT
                            Share

                            Cal-Maine Foods, Inc. (NASDAQ: CALM) (“Cal-Maine Foods” or “Company”) today reported that one of the Company’s facilities located in Parmer County, Texas, tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza (“HPAI”), resulting in depopulation of approximately 1.6 million laying hens and 337,000 pullets, or approximately 3.6% of the Company’s total flock as of March 2, 2024...
                            https://www.marketscreener.com/quote...​​​​
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