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US - Dairy cows test positive for H5N1 avian flu in Texas, Kansas, Idaho, Michigan, New Mexico, Ohio, North Carolina, South Dakota, Colorado - March 24+ One known human case (Texas) April 1

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  • US - Dairy cows test positive for H5N1 avian flu in Texas, Kansas, Idaho, Michigan, New Mexico, Ohio, North Carolina, South Dakota, Colorado - March 24+ One known human case (Texas) April 1

    Curious Reports of Unknown Disease In Dairy Cows (Texas, Kansas & New Mexico)




    Credit Wikipedia



    #17,964

    While we tend to focus primarily on diseases infecting humans, we live in a diverse, and highly interconnected eco-system. Diseases that currently only affect other species have a bad habit of eventually spilling over into humans - and even when they don't - they can have huge impacts on our lives in other ways.

    In 2018 we watched as African Swine Fever swept across China, which led to the loss of more than 50% of China's pig production (African Swine Fever In China: Epizootic or An EpicZootic?), increasing food insecurity while causing tremendous economic losses.

    Although avian influenza remains primarily a disease of birds, we've seen a few thousand spillovers (H5, H7, H9, etc.) to humans over the past 30 years - and a growing number of mammalian infections - raising concerns that our current global HPAI H5 epizootic could eventually lead to a pandemic.

    The same can be said for the myriad of swine-influenza viruses circulating in pigs around the world (see EID Journal: Zoonotic Threat of G4 Genotype Eurasian Avian-Like Swine Influenza A(H1N1) Viruses, China, 2020).

    While most of these diseases will never successfully jump to humans, the WHO warns:

    It is estimated that, globally, about one billion cases of illness and millions of death occur every year from zoonoses. Some 60% of emerging infectious diseases that are reported globally are zoonoses. Over 30 new human pathogens have been detected in the last three decades, 75% of which have originated in animals [1].

    So reports, such as we are seeing this week from Texas, Kansas, and New Mexico of an as-yet-unidentified disease affecting dairy cattle in the American Midwest are worthy of our attention. There are no indications that it can infect humans at this time, but scientists are just beginning to recognize its presence.

    Dairy owners are reported their cows are suffering from a `flu-like' condition, with a concurrent drop in milk production. The disease was apparently first reported in the Texas Panhandle. The following notice appeared this week on the Texas Animal Health Commission's website.

    TAHC is aware of reports of a condition lending to a loss of milk production among some dairy cattle. Government, industry, and veterinary medical practitioners are working together to monitor reported cases, develop a case definition, and conduct additional diagnostics. TAHC and the Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory (TVMDL) urge dairies to promptly report affected animals to TVMDL-Canyon and submit samples for testing.

    Dairy Level Guidance:
    • In addition to biosecurity best management practices, it is recommended that dairies implement enhanced biosecurity measures to protect their facilities. It is recommended to limit persons coming onto dairies to employees and essential personnel only.
    • If you believe dairy cattle within your herd are showing signs of this condition, contact your herd veterinarian immediately. Veterinarians at the dairy facility level can best assess these animals, decide on appropriate supportive care, and determine the appropriate samples to be taken and diagnostics to be performed.
      • Veterinarians may call Dr. Alexis Thompson at TVMDL-Canyon, 806-651-7478, to make case specific diagnostic plans and receive guidance on sample collection.
    • General situational updates will be provided here, on the TAHC website. General and media inquiries should be directed to public_info@tahc.texas.gov, or 800-550-8242.

    New Mexico's Livestock board provides additional details:
    Illness impacting some dairy cattle in New Mexico and Texas is under investigation

    The New Mexico Livestock Board (NMLB), working in conjunction with other local, state and federal agencies, is aware of an ongoing Animal Health Situation at dairies in Texas and New Mexico. The NMLB is utilizing its vast resources to ensure the food supply chain remains safe and secure.

    Veterinarians in New Mexico are being urged to check with other states on receiving requirements of all cattle prior to shipment.

    Recently, dairy farms in the Texas Panhandle experienced a still undefined illness in some dairy cows. Affected dairy facilities are reporting that only a portion of the herd (an estimated 5% to 20%) is showing clinical signs. Observed symptoms include:
    • Reduced milk production
    • Unexpected drop in feed intake
    • Thick, colostrum-like milk
    • Tacky feces +/- diarrhea
    • Low-grade fever
    • Dehydration
    • Mild respiratory symptoms
    The New Mexico Agriculture Livestock Incident Response Team (NM-ALIRT) – a cooperative effort between NMLB, the New Mexico Department of Agriculture (NMDA), the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and New Mexico State University’s College of Agricultural, Consumer, and Environmental Sciences (NMSU ACES) – has been activated. Together they will help provide a timely response throughout this Animal Health Situation.

    Importantly, there is no known threat to the state’s milk supply nor have there been any known deaths of cattle linked to the illness. Furthermore, symptoms are only being reported primarily in mid-lactation cows and older milkers. Other livestock such as horses, beef cattle, sheep and goats are not being impacted. There is also no known threat to human health.

    In Texas, which was the first to report the illness, most dairy cows are recovering within two to three weeks. However, in some cases, milk production has been slow to return. This could cause a financial strain on some dairy producers in the state.

    Dairy producers are encouraged to implement enhanced biosecurity measures by limiting the amount of traffic into and out of their properties and restricting visits to employees and essential personnel only. Routine and quality testing continues to occur to ensure that only safe milk and meat enter the food supply. Impacted dairy cows are being segregated, as is normal practice with any animal health concern.

    New Mexico producers and veterinarians who observe any of the symptoms listed above are strongly encouraged to contact the New Mexico Livestock Board.

    Updates will be posted to the NMLB website.


    Even though it hasn't yet been reported in their state, we get the following from the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food, which (unlike New Mexico) suggests that some cattle deaths may have occurred.

    The Utah Department of Agriculture and Food (UDAF) has been made aware of several cases of an unusual disease in dairy cattle in Texas. UDAF is monitoring the situation and is working with our cattle industry groups to provide accurate information to producers and veterinarians. There are no restrictions on cattle imports from Texas at this time.
    The cause of this disease has not been determined, but, to date, dairies in Texas, Kansas, and New Mexico have reported cattle with the same or similar symptoms. This disease has only affected dairy cattle so far. Symptoms of this disease include a sudden drop in milk production, thickened colostrum-like milk, a drop in feed consumption, reduced rumen motility, tacky feces or diarrhea, and some fever. Some cows also developed pneumonia or mastitis. Older cows appear to be the most severely affected, while dry cows and heifers (non-milk producing) do not appear to be affected. Instances of death in these cattle have been rare.

    Likewise, the Pennsylvania State Extension office posteda reportlate last week, which included the following advice:
    The Texas Animal Health Commission, along with other organizations are investigating the epidemiology of this disease to determine how it spreads. Once this information is released, the next steps for dairy farms will be much clearer. Until that time, dairies should focus on watching for signs of this disease and ramping up biosecurity.
    A few important biosecurity practices are:
    • Provide boots or boot covers for visitors regardless of whether they will enter animal areas or not.
    • Provide all workers, both employees and family, work boots dedicated to the farm that do not go elsewhere.
    • Keep a log of visitors to the operation.
    • Should this spread beyond Texas, further biosecurity measures may be warranted including:
      • Limit visitors to those essential to the operation and exclude visitors from animal areas when possible.
      • Discuss biosecurity options with your veterinarian if new cattle enter the herd or heifers return from a mixed-source heifer grower.
    Whether this is just a flash in the pan, or the start of a wider outbreak is impossible to say. It has, however, captured the attention of dairy farmers and agricultural departments well beyond the 3 affected states.

    Hopefully we'll have better answers next week.


     Credit Wikipedia #17,964 While we tend to focus primarily on diseases infecting humans, we live in a diverse, and highly interconnected eco...

    All medical discussions are for educational purposes. I am not a doctor, just a retired paramedic. Nothing I post should be construed as specific medical advice. If you have a medical problem, see your physician.

  • #2
    I am not implying the above phenomena is HPAI but of interest is:

    "Young goats on a Stevens County farm recently tested positive for the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, according to the Minnesota Board of Animal Health." - March 19, 2024

    "This is the first U.S. detection of HPAI in a domestic ruminant (cattle, sheep, goats, and their relatives)."​

    Comment


    • #3
      From:
      "APHIS Stakeholder Registry" <aphis@subscribers.usda.gov>[Add to Address Book or Unsubscribe]
      To: "FluTrackers" <flutrackers@earthlink.net>
      Subject: Federal and State Veterinary, Public Health Agencies Share Update on HPAI Detection in Kansas, Texas Dairy Herds
      Date: Mar 25, 2024 3:52 PM​
      Wild migratory birds believed to be source of infection; viral testing and epidemiologic efforts continue

      Commercial milk supply remains safe due to both federal animal health requirements and pasteurization

      Contact:
      APHISpress@usda.gov

      WASHINGTON, March 25, 2024 – The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as state veterinary and public health officials, are investigating an illness among primarily older dairy cows in Texas, Kansas, and New Mexico that is causing decreased lactation, low appetite, and other symptoms.

      As of Monday, March 25, unpasteurized, clinical samples of milk from sick cattle collected from two dairy farms in Kansas and one in Texas, as well as an oropharyngeal swab from another dairy in Texas, have tested positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). Additional testing was initiated on Friday, March 22, and over the weekend because farms have also reported finding deceased wild birds on their properties. Based on findings from Texas, the detections appear to have been introduced by wild birds. Initial testing by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories has not found changes to the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans, which would indicate that the current risk to the public remains low.

      Federal and state agencies are moving quickly to conduct additional testing for HPAI, as well as viral genome sequencing, so that we can better understand the situation, including characterization of the HPAI strain or strains associated with these detections.

      At this stage, there is no concern about the safety of the commercial milk supply or that this circumstance poses a risk to consumer health. Dairies are required to send only milk from healthy animals into processing for human consumption; milk from impacted animals is being diverted or destroyed so that it does not enter the food supply. In addition, pasteurization has continually proven to inactivate bacteria and viruses, like influenza, in milk. Pasteurization is required for any milk entering interstate commerce.

      Federal agencies are also working with state and industry partners to encourage farmers and veterinarians to report cattle illnesses quickly so that we can monitor potential additional cases and minimize the impact to farmers, consumers and other animals. For the dairies whose herds are exhibiting symptoms, on average about ten percent of each affected herd appears to be impacted, with little to no associated mortality reported among the animals. Milk loss resulting from symptomatic cattle to date is too limited to have a major impact on supply and there should be no impact on the price of milk or other dairy products.

      This is a rapidly evolving situation, and USDA and federal and state partners will continue to share additional updates as soon as information becomes available. More information on biosecurity measures can be found here.

      Comment


      • #4
        Mystery Illness Impacting Texas, Kansas Dairy Cattle is Confirmed as Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Strain By TYNE MORGAN March 25, 2024
        A mystery illness that's impacted dairy herds in the Texas Panhandle now has a diagnosis: Influenza A. USDA says genetic sequencing revealed it's the same strain of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) that's been in the U.S. for two years.

        APHIS says the "National Veterinary Services Laboratories" detected Influenza "A" in samples from several impacted herds in Texas and Kansas. The virus is carried by wild waterfowl, which experts think is how the illness is spreading. Even with the diagnosis, USDA is still not recommending movement restrictions of animals.

        According to the Texas Department of Agriculture, Texas Agriculture Commissioner Sid Miller received confirmation from the United States Secretary of Agriculture, Tom Vilsack, and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) that the mystery disease has been identified as a strain of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) commonly known as Bird Flu. To date, three dairies in Texas and one in Kansas have tested positive for HPAI.



        USDA reports that affected dairy cows do not appear to be transmitting the virus to other cattle within the same herd. The Texas Department of Agriculture (TDA) says they are "vigilantly monitoring this outbreak."

        “This presents yet another hurdle for our agriculture sector in the Texas Panhandle,” Miller said in a statement. “Protecting Texas producers and the safety of our food supply chain is my top priority. The Texas Department of Agriculture will use every resource available to maintain the high standards of quality and safety that define Texas agriculture.”
        Related News: Minnesota Goat Confirmed to Have Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza


        Officials are strongly advising dairy producers to use all standard biosecurity measures. They note it's important for producers to clean and disinfect all livestock watering devices and isolate drinking water where it might be contaminated by waterfowl. Farmers are also being asked to notify their herd veterinarian if they suspect any cattle within their herd are displaying symptoms of this condition.

        “Unlike affected poultry, I foresee there will be no need to depopulate dairy herds,” Miller added. “Cattle are expected to fully recover. The Texas Department of Agriculture is committed to providing unwavering support to our dairy industry.”



        As AgWeb and AgDay first reported last week, dairy farmers in the Texas Panhandle, NewMexico and Kansas were dealing with quite the mystery. Something is causing milk production to nosedive, and veterinarians and state officials can’t pinpoint what it is. In affected cowherds, the issue impacts nearly 10% of the animals, causing reduced feed consumption and a 10% to 20% decline in milk production...
        https://www.bovinevetonline.com/news...nfirmed-highly
        CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

        treyfish2004@yahoo.com

        Comment


        • #5
          HPAI detected in dairy cattle

          March 25th, 2024 | Staff

          A mysterious disease has been working its way through the Texas Panhandle, puzzling the agriculture industry.

          Today, that the mystery disease has been identified as a strain of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) commonly known as Bird Flu.

          To date, three dairies in Texas and one in Kansas have tested positive for HPAI.

          Cattle impacted by HPAI exhibit flu-like symptoms including fever and thick and discolored milk accompanied by a sharp reduction in milk production averaging between 10-30 pounds per cow throughout the herd.

          Economic impacts to facilities are ongoing as herds that are greatly impacted may lose up to 40% of their milk production for 7 to 10 days until symptoms subside.


          USDA has confirmed that affected dairy cows do not appear to be transmitting the virus to other cattle within the same herd.

          At present, HPAI has not been detected in beef cattle. However, producers are encouraged to implement enhanced biosecurity measures on their farms and ranches to help protect their herds.

          Unlike affected poultry, it is not expected that the cattle will be depopulated.

          https://ruralradio.com/kneb-am/news/...-dairy-cattle/
          CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

          treyfish2004@yahoo.com

          Comment


          • #6

            I looked to the CDC site for direction and it appears they have not updated their avian flu situation page yet:


            H5N1 Bird Flu: Current Situation Summary


            Español | Other Languages

            Updated March 20, 2024

            H5N1 Detections in USA

            Spotlights
            more... https://www.cdc.gov/flu/avianflu/avian-flu-summary.htm

            Comment


            • #7
              COMMISSIONER MILLER SAYS MYSTERY DAIRY COW DISEASE HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED

              NEWS PROVIDED BY
              Texas Department of Agriculture
              March 25, 2024, 19:46 GMT
              SHARE THIS ARTICLE


              Confirmation of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza in the Texas Panhandle

              AUSTIN – A mysterious disease has been working its way through the Texas Panhandle, puzzling the agriculture industry. Today, Texas Agriculture Commissioner Sid Miller received confirmation from the United States Secretary of Agriculture, Tom Vilsack, and the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) that the mystery disease has been identified as a strain of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) commonly known as Bird Flu. To date, three dairies in Texas and one in Kansas have tested positive for HPAI. The Texas Department of Agriculture (TDA) is vigilantly monitoring this outbreak.

              “This presents yet another hurdle for our agriculture sector in the Texas Panhandle,” Commissioner Miller emphasized. “Protecting Texas producers and the safety of our food supply chain is my top priority. The Texas Department of Agriculture will use every resource available to maintain the high standards of quality and safety that define Texas agriculture.”


              The Texas dairy industry contributes roughly $50 billion in economic activity across the state. Texas also ranks fourth in milk production nationwide and continues to be a key player in the dairy industry.

              Commissioner Miller wants to assure consumers that rigorous safety measures and pasteurization protocols ensure that dairy products remain unaffected by HPAI. The Texas dairy industry maintains strict standards to ensure the safety of every product.

              “There is no threat to the public and there will be no supply shortages,” assured Commissioner Miller. “No contaminated milk is known to have entered the food chain; it has all been dumped. In the rare event that some affected milk enters the food chain, the pasteurization process will kill the virus.”


              Cattle impacted by HPAI exhibit flu-like symptoms including fever and thick and discolored milk accompanied by a sharp reduction in milk production averaging between 10-30 pounds per cow throughout the herd. Economic impacts to facilities are ongoing as herds that are greatly impacted may lose up to 40% of their milk production for 7 to 10 days until symptoms subside. It is vital that dairy facilities nationwide practice heightened biosecurity measures to mitigate further spread.

              Texas dairies are strongly advised to use all standard biosecurity measures including restricting access to essential personnel only, disinfecting all vehicles entering and leaving premises, isolating affected cattle, and destroying all contaminated milk. Additionally, it is important to clean and disinfect all livestock watering devices and isolate drinking water where it might be contaminated by waterfowl. Farmers are asked to notify their herd veterinarian if they suspect any cattle within their herd are displaying symptoms of this condition.

              “Unlike affected poultry, I foresee there will be no need to depopulate dairy herds,” Miller said. “Cattle are expected to fully recover. The Texas Department of Agriculture is committed to providing unwavering support to our dairy industry.”
              https://www.einnews.com/pr_news/6986...​​​​
              CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

              treyfish2004@yahoo.com

              Comment


              • #8
                Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza found in dairy cattle in the United States

                By Jody Heemstra
                Mar 25, 2024 | 3:10 PM

                Statement from the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF), the International Dairy Foods Association (IDFA), the U.S. Dairy Export Council (USDEC) and Dairy Management Inc. (DMI):
                The U.S. Department of Agriculture confirmed (March 25, 2024) highly pathogenic avian influenza has been found in two dairy cattle herds in Texas and two herds in Kansas. USDA also confirmed that there is no threat to human health and milk and dairy products remain safe to consume. Pasteurization (high heat treatment) kills harmful microbes and pathogens in milk, including the influenza virus. To provide context on the overall size of the U.S. dairy herd, there are more 9.3 million dairy cows in the United States.....

                ..Also, routine testing and well-established protocols for U.S. dairy will continue to ensure that only safe milk enters the food supply. In keeping with the federal Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO), milk from sick cows must be collected separately and is not allowed to enter the food supply chain. This means affected dairy cows are segregated, as is normal practice with any animal health concern, and their milk does not enter the food supply.

                Consumers in the United States and around the world can remain confident in the safety and quality of U.S. dairy.
                ​...About the Illness in Cows
                Dairy producers with affected cows are reporting a rapid onset illness in herds, specifically among older, lactating cows. Clinical signs include:
                • Decreased herd level milk production
                • Acute sudden drop in production
                • Decrease in feed consumption
                • Abnormal feces and some fever
                • Older cows may be more likely to be severely impacted than younger cows

                According to dairy farmers and veterinarians reporting on affected herds, most affected cows recover within two to three weeks.



                The National Cattlemen’s Beef Association (NCBA) is aware that the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in samples collected from dairy cattle in the United States. Importantly, the agency confirmed there is no threat to human health, and milk and meat remains safe to consume. USDA has confirmed that affected dairy cows do not appear to be transmitting the virus to other cattle within the same herd.

                At present, HPAI has not been detected in beef cattle. However, producers are encouraged to implement enhanced biosecurity measures on their farms and ranches to help protect their herds. For more information on animal health protocols and developing an effective biosecurity plan, cattle farmers and ranchers are encouraged to visit www.bqa.org, and complete or update their certification in Beef Quality Assurance practices. Producers can also visit usda.gov for resources on how to manage wildlife to limit exposure to HPAI.... https://drgnews.com/2024/03/25/highl...ted-states/​
                CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                treyfish2004@yahoo.com

                Comment


                • #9
                  Meat Institute: Properly Prepared Beef is Safe to Eat; HPAI is not a Food Safety Threat


                  . (GH)
                  By NORTH AMERICAN MEAT INSTITUTE
                  March 25, 2024
                  After the confirmed discovery of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) in dairy cows by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Meat Institute today said properly prepared beef is safe to eat and is not a food safety risk to humans.

                  “According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and USDA food safety experts, properly prepared beef is safe to eat,” said Meat Institute President and CEO, Julie Anna Potts. “HPAI cannot be transmitted to humans by eating meat or poultry products.

                  “The Meat Institute and its member companies will continue to be vigilant to aid in the efforts to stop the spread of the disease among animals in food production.

                  “We will support the nation’s dairy and livestock producers as they work to protect their herds.

                  “We call on Biden Administration officials to anticipate international trade concerns and encourage our trading partners to abide by internationally recognized scientific standards as determined by the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH).”

                  Background

                  Dairy cows make-up 6.8 percent of total beef production in the U.S.

                  The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 and the Poultry Products Inspection Act of 1957, along with the many regulations and policies put in place to implement those Acts, ensure the meat and poultry industry is among the most intensely regulated industries in the nation.



                  U.S. Department of Agriculture inspectors from the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) are present every day in meat packing plants and are trained to detect disease both prior to slaughter and after. For more information on the federal oversight of the meat and poultry industry, see the inspection information provided on FSIS’s website.

                  Meat Institute members have robust food safety programs that incorporate key elements such as employee training, pathogen or indicator organism tracking and analysis, foreign material control and prevention, sanitation and allergen control.

                  USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has a strong HPAI surveillance program. It tracks detections in mammals in addition to wild bird, commercial and backyard flocks.


                  APHIS Resources on Biosecurity

                  FSIS Resources on the Proper Preparation of Beef

                  FSIS Resources on the Proper Handling of Poultry
                  CDC Resources on HPAI

                  About the Meat Institute
                  The Meat Institute is the United States’ oldest and largest trade association representing packers and processors of beef, pork, lamb, veal, turkey, and processed meat products. Meat Institute members include over 350 meat packing and processing companies, the majority of which have fewer than 100 employees, and account for over 95 percent of the United States’ output of meat and 70 percent of turkey production.
                  https://www.dairyherd.com/news/busin...-safety-threat
                  CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                  treyfish2004@yahoo.com

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    JOINT DAIRY ORGANIZATION STATEMENT ON HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA IN COWS


                    March 25, 2024

                    Statement from the National Milk Producers Federation (NMPF), the International Dairy Foods Association (IDFA), the U.S. Dairy Export Council (USDEC), and Dairy Management Inc. (DMI)

                    Earlier today, the U.S. Department of Agriculture confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in two dairy cattle herds in Texas and two herds in Kansas.

                    Importantly, USDA confirmed that there is no threat to human health and milk and dairy products remain safe to consume. Pasteurization (high heat treatment) kills harmful microbes and pathogens in milk, including the influenza virus.

                    Also, routine testing and well-established protocols for U.S. dairy will continue to ensure that only safe milk enters the food supply. In keeping with the federal Grade “A” Pasteurized Milk Ordinance (PMO), milk from sick cows must be collected separately and is not allowed to enter the food supply chain. This means affected dairy cows are segregated, as is normal practice with any animal health concern, and their milk does not enter the food supply.

                    Consumers in the United States and around the world can remain confident in the safety and quality of U.S. dairy.

                    Enhanced Biosecurity Protocols Underway on U.S. Dairy Farms

                    As information related to an illness affecting dairy cows in several states began to circulate over the past two weeks, USDA’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) worked with state veterinary authorities as well as federal partners including the FDA to swiftly identify and respond to detections and mitigate the virus’ impact on U.S. dairy production. Dairy farmers also have begun implementing enhanced biosecurity protocols on their farms, limiting the amount of traffic into and out of their properties and restricting visits to employees and essential personnel.
                    Avian influenza is an animal health issue, not a human health concern. Importantly, mammals including cows do not spread avian influenza—it requires birds as the vector of transmission and it’s extremely rare for the virus to affect humans because most people will never have direct and prolonged contact with an infected bird, especially on a dairy farm. As a precaution, dairy farmers are taking important measures to protect their workers.

                    The National Dairy FARM Program (NDFP) offers several valuable biosecurity resources providing dairy farmers with tools to keep their cattle and dairy businesses safe, including:
                    Biosecurity practices guidance is available here.

                    Dairy farmers who observe clinical signs in their herd consistent with this outbreak, such as a significant loss of animal appetite and rumination or an acute drop in milk production, should immediately contact their veterinarian. Veterinarians who observe these clinical signs and have ruled out other diagnoses on a client’s farm should contact the state veterinarian and plan to submit a complete set of samples to be tested at a diagnostic laboratory.

                    What is Pasteurization?

                    Pasteurization is a process that kills harmful bacteria and pathogens, including viruses, by heating milk to a specific temperature for a set period of time. The processing of milk products involves pasteurization of the raw milk to a minimum of 161.5˚F for 15 seconds and then immediately cooling it. Ultra pasteurization is a process that heats milk at a higher temperature for specified times to extend a product’s shelf life.

                    What is Avian Influenza?

                    Detections of avian influenza in birds, including chickens, are common in the United States in the spring and fall due to wild birds spreading the virus as they migrate to and from their seasonal homes. While it is uncommon for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza to affect dairy cows, USDA APHIS has been tracking detections of HPAI in mammals for many years in the United States, leading dairy farmers and veterinarians in the United States to prepare for this eventuality. As a result, dairy farmers have taken immediate measures to enhance biosecurity measures in and around dairy farms to keep the food supply safe.

                    About the Illness in Cows

                    Dairy producers with affected cows are reporting a rapid onset illness in herds, specifically among older, lactating cows. Clinical signs include:
                    • Decreased herd level milk production
                    • Acute sudden drop in production
                    • Decrease in feed consumption
                    • Abnormal feces and some fever
                    • Older cows may be more likely to be severely impacted than younger cows

                    According to dairy farmers and veterinarians reporting on affected herds, most affected cows recover within two to three weeks.

                    Information for Affected Producers

                    Producers who believe dairy cattle within their herd are showing the clinical signs described above should report these signs immediately to state veterinarians. Animals may also be reported to APHIS’ toll-free number at 1-866-536-7593.

                    Trade and Exports

                    The U.S. dairy industry will continue to work with the U.S. federal government, trading partners and the World Organization for Animal Health (WOAH) to encourage adherence to WOAH standards and minimize all unnecessary or unfair trade impacts. It is essential that trading partners do not impose bans or restrictions on the international trade of dairy commodities in response to these and future notifications and rely on the science-based food safety steps taken in U.S. dairy processing, namely pasteurization, in preserving market access.

                    Additional Information
                    • To provide context on the overall size of the U.S. dairy herd, there are more 9.3 million dairy cows in the United States.
                    • S. dairy export value was $8.11 billion in 2023, the second largest value on record.
                    https://www.nmpf.org/joint-dairy-org...uenza-in-cows/
                    CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                    treyfish2004@yahoo.com

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Emerg Infect Dis. 2008 Jul; 14(7): 1132–1134.
                      doi: 10.3201/eid1407.071468
                      PMCID: PMC2600352
                      PMID: 18598640 Experimental Infection of Cattle with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1)

                      Donata Kalthoff,* Bernd Hoffmann,* Timm Harder,* Markus Durban,* and Martin Beer*
                      Author information Copyright and License information PMC Disclaimer
                      Go to: Abstract


                      Four calves were experimentally inoculated with highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/cat/Germany/R606/2006 (H5N1) isolated from a cat in 2006. All calves remained healthy, but several animals shed low amounts of virus, detected by inoculation of nasal swab fluid into embryonated chicken eggs and onto MDCK cells. All calves seroconverted.....

                      Conclusions


                      Our findings show that HPAIV (H5N1) has the potential to infect bovine calves, at least after high-titer intranasal inoculation, and that conventional HI tests may underestimate such infections. Furthermore, asymptomatic shedding of HPAIV (H5N1) by infected calves and subsequent seroconversion seem to be possible, and even low levels of HPAIV (H5N1) might be sufficient to induce a detectable antibody response in contact calves. However, the possibility that the infectivity detected in the contact calf at 1 dpi was the result of residual inoculum cannot be ruled out. Although the question whether calf-to-calf transmission of HPAIV (H5N1) occurs could not be definitely answered by our study, bird-to-calf transmission resulting in seroconversion is probable.

                      The incidence of clinical infections of cattle with HPAIV (H5N1) in disease-endemic regions should be low. However, our data indicate that serum from bovine species would be a valuable source of additional information about transmission events, especially in regions like Asia and Egypt, where HPAIV (H5N1) is endemic and probability of contact between poultry and cattle is high. The NP-ELISA is currently the assay of choice for the evaluation of bovine serum, and the VN test should be used for confirmation.
                      https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2600352/
                      CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                      treyfish2004@yahoo.com

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        3 herds in Texas
                        2 herds in Kansas
                        2 herds in New Mexico match the description of symptoms

                        ​​​​​​Idaho is the only state that has shut down imports of all cattle from Texas, New Mexico, and Kansas.
                        ​​​​​​As of March 20, Nebraska had no reported cases

                        I reckon this is about to expand and I guess all these states are having BF outbreaks in poultry right now?
                        CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                        treyfish2004@yahoo.com

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          American Association of Bovine Practitioners

                          CONTACT:
                          Dr. K. Fred Gingrich, II
                          AABP
                          1-800-COW-AABP


                          Strain of Avian Influenza Found in Dairy Cattle

                          (ASHLAND, OHIO) March 25, 2024–There has been a recent disease event in dairy cattle with reports of affected herds
                          in several states. Samples submitted from dairycattle affected with the current disease outbreak were recently
                          confirmed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to have highly pathogenic avian influenza
                          (HPAI). It is too soon to predict if all of the recent reports of unexplained illnesses in dairy cattle in the U.S. are
                          due to HPAI.
                          Veterinarians and the dairy industry are working collaboratively with state and federal officials
                          during the ongoing investigation.

                          H5N1 in Birds, Mammals

                          HPAI is most commonly found in birds and poultry; wild waterfowl are known carriers. According to the USDA,
                          48 states have had cases of HPAI in poultry and wild birds since the outbreak began in 2022. Over 82 million
                          birds have been affected. There have also been reports of over 200 mammals diagnosed with the virus. The
                          cases in dairy cattle are unique as it is only the second time it has been found in a U.S. ruminant (cattle,
                          sheep, goats). Earlier this month, HPAI was found in goats in Minnesota on a farm where poultry first tested
                          positive. According to the USDA, migratory birds appear to be the source of the infection in cattle.


                          Impact on Dairy Cattle

                          Veterinarians and animal caregivers first reported seeing decreased feed intake and milk production in affected
                          dairy cattle. Dairies are reporting that about 10% of the milking cows become sick. There have been no
                          confirmed deaths in cattle due to this disease.
                          Cattle appear to recover in two-to-three weeks with supportive
                          care.

                          Food Safety

                          Federal and state guidelines exist to ensure the safety of milk and meat products. Milk that is pasteurized and
                          meat that is properly cooked remains safe for human consumption.

                          AABP will continue to monitor this situation and provide reliable information to its members and the public.
                          For more information, see the USDA announcement at
                          https://www.aphis.usda.gov/aphis/new...24/hpai-cattle.
                          ...

                          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                          -Nelson Mandela

                          Comment


                          • #14

                            ......
                            The illness was first reported in late February and had affected 15 herds in the Texas panhandle area. Most veterinarians working on the problem had said they did not believe it was a novel disease – and that appears to have been confirmed this week. There were rumors blaming bioterrorism or a variant of avian influenza and the current information seems to have borne out the latter rumor. There are reports that some herds in New Mexico are also affected by the same problems.....



                            The tests come as the USDA, the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have worked with state veterinary and public health officials to investigate sick dairy cows in Kansas, Texas and New Mexico.

                            "Initial testing by the National Veterinary Services Laboratories has not found changes to the virus that would make it more transmissible to humans, which would indicate that the current risk to the public remains low," the USDA news release said.

                            The veterinary experts are moving quickly to conduct additional testing for HPAI and will do viral genome sequencing to better understand what’s been going on with these dairy cows.

                            In the affected herds, the disease appears to impact about 10 percent of the animals. The American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) held a conference call for members on March 22 and said that there are reports of some similar cases on Kansas dairies.

                            Dr. Fred Gingerich, a cattle vet who is executive director of American Association of Bovine Practitioners (AABP) told dairyherd.com that the disease appears to peak in about three to four days and lasts 10 days to two weeks. Older dairy cows appear to be more clinically affected and their lactation is more severely affected. “Although it’s not consistent with every herd, it appears that it’s mostly affecting animals that are in mid to late lactation. It’s pretty unusual that we have something going on in older animals and not in fresh cows.”​....

                            ​​​​​​He told the publication that there doesn’t appear to be deaths caused by the disease, however, the milk production drop adds up to a huge economic loss on these dairy farms. Cows affected by the virus recovered from the initial illness without any secondary signs and are slowly coming back into production....

                            https://www.wisfarmer.com/story/news...a/73099355007/
                            CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                            treyfish2004@yahoo.com

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              A Brief History Of Influenza A In Cattle/Ruminants




                              The host range for all four types (IAV, IBV, ICV, and IDV) of influenza viruses.




                              #17,967

                              The report yesterday that dairy cows in Texas, Kansas, (and likely) New Mexico have been infected with HPAI H5N1 - which followed the previous week's report of infected goat kids in Minnesota - is surprising, but not entirely without precedent.

                              As noted previously, in 2008 researchers at Germany's FLI successfully infected four calves with an older clade of HPAI H5N1 (see EID Journal Experimental Infection of Cattle with HPAI H5N1), but reports of natural infection have been rare.


                              Admittedly, cattle are only rarely tested for HPAI, but a 2013 an H5N1 seroprevalence study in Egypt found that - while some horses, donkeys, and swine in the region showed evidence of past infection - cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo did not (see Sero-prevalence of Avian Influenza in Animals and Human in Egypt).

                              Although not influenza A - for the past dozen years we've been following research on the newly discovered Influenza D virus - which was first detected in swine, but is now believed to primarily infect cattle (see Viruses: Influenza D in Domestic and Wild Animals).


                              While we haven't seen any evidence that Influenza D can cause symptomatic illness in humans, in the summer of 2016 - in Serological Evidence Of Influenza D Among Persons With & Without Cattle Exposure - researchers reported finding a high prevalence of antibodies against Influenza D among people with cattle exposure. They wrote:

                              IDV poses a zoonotic risk to cattle-exposed workers, based on detection of high seroprevalence (94–97%). Whereas it is still unknown whether IDV causes disease in humans, our studies indicate that the virus may be an emerging pathogen among cattle-workers.


                              Relatively little has appeared recently in the literature regarding influenza A infection in cattle and/or ruminants, but in 2019 the Journal Viruses carried a detailed review of the literature going back decades.

                              While some of these reports are spotty, they cite a number of papers on both influenza and influenza-like illnesses in cattle and goats. In some cases, viruses were identified, while in other cases they were not.


                              This is a lengthy and detailed review, and I've only reproduced some excerpts below, so you'll want to follow the link to read the report in its entirety. I'll have a postscript after the break.

                              Viruses. 2019 Jun; 11(6): 561.
                              Published online 2019 Jun 17. doi:
                              10.3390/v11060561
                              PMCID: PMC6631717
                              PMID:
                              31213032

                              Influenza A in Bovine Species: A Narrative Literature Review

                              Chithra C. Sreenivasan,1 Milton Thomas,2 Radhey S. Kaushik,1 Dan Wang,1,3 and Feng Li1,3,*
                              Abstract

                              It is quite intriguing that bovines were largely unaffected by influenza A, even though most of the domesticated and wild animals/birds at the human–animal interface succumbed to infection over the past few decades. Influenza A occurs on a very infrequent basis in bovine species and hence bovines were not considered to be susceptible hosts for influenza until the emergence of influenza D.

                              This review describes a multifaceted chronological review of literature on influenza in cattle which comprises mainly of the natural infections/outbreaks, experimental studies, and pathological and seroepidemiological aspects of influenza A that have occurred in the past.
                              The review also sheds light on the bovine models used in vitro and in vivo for influenza-related studies over recent years. Despite a few natural cases in the mid-twentieth century and seroprevalence of human, swine, and avian influenza viruses in bovines, the evolution and host adaptation of influenza A virus (IAV) in this species suffered a serious hindrance until the novel influenza D virus (IDV) emerged recently in cattle across the world.

                              Supposedly, certain bovine host factors, particularly some serum components and secretory proteins, were reported to have anti-influenza properties, which could be an attributing factor for the resilient nature of bovines to IAV. Further studies are needed to identify the host-specific factors contributing to the differential pathogenetic mechanisms and disease progression of IAV in bovines compared to other susceptible mammalian hosts.
                              (Excerpts)



                              5. Natural Cases of Influenza A in Bovines
                              First recorded evidence of influenza in cattle occurred in 1949, where 160,000 cattle were infected in the western and middle part of Japan [76]. This incidence of cattle influenza ran for a short course with recovery in 2–3 days and the documented symptoms included high temperature (40–42 °C), blepharitis, nasal discharge, anorexia, tympanites, pneumonia, joint problems, and a decrease in lactation.



                              This report also mentioned about some major cattle influenza outbreaks occurred previously in the Fall of 1889 and 1893, and some minor outbreaks in 1914–1916 in Japan [
                              76]. The same study also mentioned an experimental infection of 11 calves, using nasal discharge/defibrinated blood from diseased animals and the successful virus isolation in mice, characterized by few deaths and lung and liver lesions at the 20th serial passage.

                              The first report on influenza virus isolation from animals was documented by Romvary et al. [
                              88] from Hungary in 1962, which described the isolation of IAV strains similar to human H2 HA glycoprotein from pigs and sheep during 1959–1960. Romvary et al. [46] also isolated porcine IAV strains bearing human H3 HA glycoprotein.
                              Lopez and Woods reviewed influenza viruses from cattle and the first cattle-origin influenza isolate was reported by Barb et al., 1962, cited in [47]. Furthermore, there were reports on cattle influenza from several countries primarily from the old Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), and the publications were mostly in the Russian language, with the rare occurrence of English abstract and keywords.

                              Among these, the earliest report was on the seroepidemiological study of influenza in domestic species of animals in 1969 [
                              25]. During the period 1970–80, cattle isolates of influenza A have been reported from different parts of the world, post/around the time 1968 Hong Kong H3N2 pandemic occurred in humans.

                              In 1973, the isolation and identification of the A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (H3N2) virus from cattle suffering respiratory diseases were reported in Russia [
                              45]. The earliest cattle influenza A strain studied under experimental conditions was A/calf/Duschambe/55/71 (H3N2) from Russia. This strain was derived from a natural case of respiratory illness in a terminally ailing calf and was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs [45].

                              Both H1N1 and H3N2 strains were isolated from cattle later. Few of these isolated strains reported include Sw/Shope (H1N1) from Hungary and several H3N2 strains from the USSR. The two viruses isolated from Hungary and the USSR possessed type 2 neuraminidase; however, HA glycoproteins were unidentified [47]. The H3N2 strains were similar to the prototypic human H3N2 strain A/Hong Kong/1/1968 (Schild G, C., World Influenza Center, London).

                              (SNIP)

                              In 1997, an idiopathic condition manifested in dairy cows in Bristol, southwest England with a sporadic drop in milk production [
                              95]. Brown et al. [96,97] also reported seroconversion against influenza A in cattle from Great Britain, which was markedly associated with reduced milk yield and respiratory disease. However, the virus isolation from these seroconverted animals was unsuccessful. Interestingly, these cattle seroconverted to influenza A virus alone, with no detectable antibodies against BVD, IBR, PI3, and BRSV, suggestive of the etiological role of influenza A in the reduction of milk yield.

                              Furthermore, in
                              1999, Gunning et al. [98] also reported that the natural cases of influenza in milking cows increased with an annual incidence rate of 10–20% in some herds of England with a sudden drop in milk yield, mild pyrexia, anorexia, occasional respiratory signs such as nasal discharge and increased respiratory rate. High levels of neutrophils and haptoglobin were present in the blood in most of these cases. Serological screening of paired sera collected from five cattle herds with the same clinical history against IBR, PI3, BRSV, adenovirus, M. bovis, H. somnus, C. psittaci, C. brunetti, P. hemolytica, P. trehalosi, treponemes revealed antibodies against BRSV and PI3 in all herds, while BVD and IBR were detected only in some herds. On the other hand, these cattle sera demonstrated significantly high antibody titer to two human IAVs: 60% for A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and 65% for A/England/427/88 (H3N2) and only 5% of the cows were seronegative against both viruses [98].
                              These observations clearly indicated the exposure and natural susceptibility of cattle to human influenza A viruses.
                              Concurrently, Dr Ian Brown and his colleagues at Veterinary Laboratories Agency near Weybridge, United Kingdom reported the presence of influenza genes in cattle around the late 1990s (https://www.nature.com/news/1998/020107/full/news020107-4.html. accessed January 21, 2019). However, no related peer-reviewed records were available.

                              In Northern Ireland, a seroepidemiological study conducted on 84 paired acute and convalescent cattle sera collected from 17 outbreaks, against A/England/333/80 (HIN1) and A/England/427/88 (H3N2) during 1998–1999, with clinical manifestations of respiratory disease, diarrhea, and milk drop syndrome demonstrated seroconversion in 56.5 and 58.8% of the convalescent sera against H1N1 and H3N2 respectively. While H3N2 antibody titers were higher compared to H1N1 in general, this study also revealed a higher rate of seropositivity against human H3N2 over porcine H3N2 strains. However, virus isolation in specific pathogen-free chicken embryos was unsuccessful from 142 cattle with similar clinical manifestations [
                              99].

                              The association of human influenza A viruses with milk drop in cows was prevalent in the early 2000s.
                              In 2008, Crawshaw et al. [100] demonstrated rising antibody titers against same human influenza viruses, A/England/333/80 (H1N1) and A/England/427/88 (H3N2) from a Holstein Friesian herd suffering from acute fall in milk production and tested seronegative against BRSV, BVD, IBR, and PI3 viruses.


                              (SNIP)
                              11. Summary

                              Here, we conducted a comprehensive review of the literature available on the past influenza cases/studies occurring globally in ruminant (bovine, caprine, ovine) population, and have summarized the overall influenza A prevalence in bovines. In this review, we have discussed the host range of the four types of influenza, emphasizing the susceptibility/utility of bovine in vivo and in vitro models to influenza A studies over recent years.
                              Even though natural cases of influenza occurred in bovines causing influenza-like respiratory disease with bronchopneumonia, epizootic cough, nasal discharge, lacrimation, or other extrapulmonary signs such as milk drop, only a few cases culminated in successful virus isolation.
                              Cattle-origin IAV strains were isolated during the early 1970s, around the time when Hongkong/1968 human IAV strains (H3N2) were prevalent. Although the relatedness of HA glycoprotein of these cattle IAV strains to human H2 and H3 prototypes was reported, sufficient data/characterization studies were lacking to support the extent of genetic relatedness.
                              Pigs, which were domesticated by humans 1500 years after cattle, are naturally susceptible to all four influenza types and are excellent mixing vessels of influenza. Hence, the refractory nature of bovines against influenza A could be due to species-specific host-associated interference as discussed before. Compared to IAV and IBV (eight segmented genomes), bovines are naturally susceptible to IDV, and lately to ICV (seven segmented genomes) as indicated by the seroprevalence studies and isolation of complete viral genomes, thus contributing significantly to the bovine respiratory disease along with other bacterial/viral pathogens.
                              The transboundary occurrence of influenza D in bovines, compounded with its extraordinary thermal and pH stability [236] compared to other influenza types, demands further studies to study the pathobiological aspects of this virus and its predisposition in bovine species. The fact that bovines harbor some natural predisposing factors, amenable for the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of ICV and IDV, while detrimental to IAV and IBV, would make them a suitable model to delineate influenza type-specific host–pathogen interactions, and further studies are needed to address this differential disease pathogenesis at the cellular and molecular level.


                              (Continue . . . )



                              Exactly why HPAI H5N1 is suddenly turning up in ruminants after 20 years is unknown. Some of it may be due to testing bias; since cattle have long been assumed to be poor hosts for influenza A, they are less likely to be tested, which only helps perpetuate the belief.

                              But we've also seen a dramatic shift in HPAI H5N1's ability to infect mammals around the globe over the past 2 or 3 years. It does appear to be expanding its host range. A genomic analysis of the viruses isolated from these ruminants will hopefully yield some valuable clues.


                              An obvious concern now is, if H5N1 has adapted well enough to spillover into cattle and goats, are swine next? A year ago, the ECDC/EFSA Avian Influenza Overview December 2022 – March 2023 warned:

                              The additional reports of transmission events to and potentially between mammals, e.g. mink, sea lion, seals, foxes and other carnivores as well as seroepidemiological evidence of transmission to wild boar and domestic pigs, associated with evolutionary processes including mammalian adaptation are of concern and need to be closely followed up.


                              While we've seen scattered reports of H5N1 in pigs (see here , here, and here), the virus has yet to gain a foothold (see EID Journal: Low Susceptibility of Pigs against Experimental Infection with HPAI Virus H5N1 Clade 2.3.4.4b).

                              In swine, HPAI would potentially have access to a plethora of other influenza A viruses, which could greatly increase the risk of viral reassortment.


                              This is obviously a developing story, with investigations underway in several states. Right now, we have more questions than answers.

                              Stay tuned.

                              https://afludiary.blogspot.com/2024/...luenza-in.html

                              All medical discussions are for educational purposes. I am not a doctor, just a retired paramedic. Nothing I post should be construed as specific medical advice. If you have a medical problem, see your physician.

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