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Discussion thread: H5N1 avian flu in US Dairy Cows - March 24+ - 3 human cases (1 in Texas & 2 in Michigan)

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    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela


    • Wisconsin officials order influenza tests on dairy cows before fairs

      By WBAY news staff
      Published: Jun. 11, 2024 at 6:02 PM EDT|Updated: 2 hours ago MADISON, Wis. (WBAY) - Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade and Consumer Protection officials are requiring new tests for dairy cows to prevent the spread of bird flu.

      Starting June 19 all milking dairy cows must be tested for Influenza A, before being moved to fairs or exhibitions. This comes after the H5N1 pathogen has been detected in 12 states, including Iowa, Michigan, and Minnesota.

      In order to move cattle to such events, producers must receive a negative test for Influenza A at an approved National Animal Health Laboratory Network Lab, with samples collected no more than seven days prior to the event.

      The tests are available at no cost through the USD​....



      • JUNE 11, 2024

        8 MIN READ
        The Dairy Industry Must Act Faster to Keep H5N1 from Starting a Human Epidemic

        H5N1 is running rampant through dairy cows, putting humans at risk of an epidemic


        A mystery disease was ripping through the cattle in the Texas panhandle.

        In early March, roughly three weeks after veterinarians in the panhandle spoke about the first illnesses, one of us (Russo) texted a couple of veterinary colleagues in the thick of the outbreak a recent publication on how H5N1 bird flu was killing unusual numbers of sea lions throughout South America. The dairy cow symptoms sounded like influenza to me. One of those colleagues quickly replied.

        Over the next few days, he and I texted back and forth in a flurry about whether the mystery cow disease might be highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), more widely known as bird flu. When I asked about wild birds, this veterinarian noted that there were “a ton of dead pigeons” around the cattle pens and that now he was starting to second-guess his initial suspicion of poison as the cause. I told him to get the cows tested for HPAI, even if the lab laughed at him. As a dairy-poultry veterinarian, I also asked for pictures of the insides of some of the pigeons, trying to determine if I could observe the lesions characteristic of this kind of avian influenza.

        His last message to me that evening **** like a thick fog in my mind over the next several days.

        “I really hope this is all wrong because we have some pretty serious human exposure issues going on the cow side of this. How unbelievably unprepared would they be for 500,000 dairy cows with HPAI?,” he asked, referring to the dairy industry.

        They were extremely unprepared.

        The subtype of bird flu that is going around is more accurately called H5N1, and the current outbreak in dairy cows has escalated to an alarming level. The H5N1 virus is now infecting humans, with many field reports of human illness on dairy farms and three documented cases in people, including one with respiratory symptoms. Respiratory signs raise red flags: if the virus can be spread through coughing, this would be a significant step toward human-to-human spread. Yet, despite the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s best efforts, local health departments, urgent care facilities and emergency rooms still do not recognize H5N1 as now representing a human pathogen in the U.S........

        This outbreak in dairy cows has the potential to spiral into a human epidemic or even a catastrophic pandemic—the signals of which we may already be seeing.

        To prevent this next catastrophe, dairy producers must step forward to encourage the testing of dairy workers. They must increase testing in dairy cows and federal agencies need to report those results to allow us to track how many people and animals (including the cats, dogs and wild birds on farms) have contracted H5N1. There are many anecdotal reports of dairy workers feeling “hungover,” or having more pronounced flulike symptoms. But because symptoms have been generally mild, many people have minimized them and continued to go to work. Vigilant testing is critical to track any changes in the virus that may make it spread more easily among humans.
        The federal government requires that all animal testing for H5N1 must happen within a network of diagnostic labs that work with the USDA, which means they also control the sharing of the results. Historically, the USDA has promptly shared descriptive and sequence data with the scientific community during outbreaks to facilitate learning for all impacted individuals. During this outbreak, we have been aware of delays in disseminating viral sample location and date by at least 30 days in the name of producer privacy. The scientific community must have real-time access to the general (not specific) location and time data to track how H5N1 is spreading and changing. This information sharing is integral to assessing risk and driving relevant control tactics relative to animal movement and, most importantly, public health......



          No one wants another pandemic—but bird flu has already flown the coop

          BY Carolyn BARBER
          June 11, 2024 at 11:57 am

          At first glance, some of the expert reactions to the recent surge in bird flu virus cases, both in the U.S. and around the world, may appear contradictory. Isn’t a more urgent response required? How much livestock will be sacrificed? Is the risk to humans really so low that only moderate actions are called for?

          In truth, though, most of the basics are no longer in question among epidemiologists. This H5N1 virus is certainly spreading. Thousands of outbreaks have been documented in wild and farmed bird populations across all continents, spilling over into mammal populations. In the U.S. alone, bird flu has resulted in the death of more than 96 million birdsin commercial and backyard flocks since February 2022, according to a USDA database. The virus has proven its versatility’

          Since 1997, sporadic H5N1 infections have been reported in humans in 24 countries, though relatively few cases were reported in recent years. After only one case in the U.S. in the previous 25 years, three farmworkers here have become infected over the past two months.

          So where do we go from here? That depends significantly, the experts say, on whether …

          “I would like to see very widespread serologic testing done in humans—the farm workers, their family members, contacts,” says epidemiologist Michael Osterholm, director of the Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy. (Serologic testing looks for antibodies in the blood.) “That way, we can see if we’ve had more transmission in humans that we’ve missed. We don’t have that right now.”

          “There are just so many things we don’t know, and it’s the unknowns that concern us more than what we know so far,” says Rick Bright, a virologist, pandemic expert, and former head of the U.S. Biomedical Advanced Research and Development …,

          …The virus has now been confirmed in cows inmore than 85 herds with as many as 12 states affected. This geographic spread, along with high levels of exposure by workers at farms, slaughterhouses, milk processing facilities, and milk itself, is part of what has experts concerned that the virus will be found in more people. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) has warned against drinking unpasteurized raw milk, which the CDC says may contain the H5N1 virus.

          “The virus has proven its versatility to infect about any mammal it comes in contact with,” says Bright.


          “When you have a bird flu virus infecting mammal species, that raises the question of the virus becoming more adaptive for mammalian transmission,” says Amesh Adalja, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. “There are distinct barriers that bird flu viruses face when they’re infecting mammals in terms of which receptors they use. So that has raised the stakes……

          The respiratory piece concerns health experts because someone with H5N1 virus in their airways could be more likely to spread the virus, perhaps via cough. To date, there’s been no evidence of human-to-human transmission of H5N1 virus, and the CDC says the current health risk to the general public is low. But as CDC Principal Deputy Director Nirav Shah noted at a Council on Foreign Relations eventin May, “The risk here of something going from one or two sporadic [human] cases to becoming something of international concern (is) not insignificant…..

          Reuters recently reported that dairy cows in five states have died or been slaughtered-because they did not recover from their infections, though the USDA says the majority-of cows do recover. Should infection among cattle become more widespread, the potential cost to American farms is astronomical, as cows cost much more than chickens or turkeys to raise—ironically, one reason farmers may be reluctant to test them.

          “What we’re seeing right now in dairy cattle is just another situation where the potential for that virus to change is, I think, surely increased,” Osterholm says. The rise in severe illness among many of the species who’ve been infected by H5N1 is concerning, he notes, partly because it isn’t clear exactly why that has happened. “If you look at genetic sequences and look what the virus has done, we can’t explain that any one mutation has caused this to happen.” ‘We’re just sort of letting it go and spreading it in a very naive way’

          The CDC recently confirmed the lethality of the H5N1 virus, isolated from a human infection in Texas, in ferrets that were experimentally infected with the same virus. All of …..

          Osterholm and others are advocating for increased urgency on the testing front. This is a multifaceted ask; it includes more widespread and continuous testing of farm animals, workers, and their close contacts—and in the case of dairy herds, ongoing testing of the milk supply and any meat that is directed to the food supply for human or animal consumption.

          It’s important to also test the farm environment, including equipment, transport vehicles, milking machines, and water systems that may be contaminated by disposal of infected milk. Raw milk from cows infected with bird flu has been found to contain astounding amounts of viral particles, according to a non-peer-reviewed study. (The FDA says our commercial supply of pasteurized milk remains safe to ……

          “We’re not stopping it,” says Bright. “We’re not doing anything to keep that infected milk and infectious milk on the farm. We’re not testing these cows before they’re put back onto the milking line or sent to slaughter…We’re just sort of letting it go and spreading it in a very naive way.”

          At almost every turn, there are complications. Absent a federal mandate, most of the testing being done is voluntary. A USDA spokesman told me the agency provides voluntary testing and monitoring options, and has a program that reimburses dairy producers for collecting samples. But, Bright says, “we are finding that many farms don’t want to test because they are afraid that they’ll be shut down or suffer a significant economic loss that is not yet being compensated by federal programs.”

          ……As of June 7, the CDC reported that only 45 people had been tested-nationwide since March.

          A proactive testing and surveillance program would make rapid flu testing available at all farms, Adalja says. (Specific H5N1 tests don’t yet exist.) “We would be randomly testing cows all over, not just ones that appeared sick or ones that are transported from one state to another,” he adds. And experts have suggested pooled testing of milk from more cows on each farm in an effort to detect infected cows that might not show outward signs of infection.

          Sharing data quickly from cases of infected animals and people is critical, too, experts say. “The USDA is refusing to share the sequence data from the cows and the animals in a timely manner,” says Bright. “They have not shared a sequence that they collected from any infected animal in the last eight weeks.” And while the agency is sporadically submitting virus sequences to an international database, the data shared, Bright says, is largely from animals infected in March and early April…….

          The federal, state, and local arms investigating and monitoring this strain of bird flu “have very collegial, collaborative, candid, discussions,” says Paul Friedrichs, the White House director of the Office of Pandemic Preparedness and Response Policy. “We don’t always agree, which is exactly what you expect from a complex situation, but what we always do is get to a decision and move out on it.”

          For now, though, the researchers are consistent in their refrain about what’s needed: heightened surveillance and testing, testing, testing. “It is going to adapt,” Rick Bright says of H5N1. “We’ve watched it adapt over the years among bird species, and we know it’s what influenza viruses do.” The time to get ahead of that evolution, experts say, is now.

          The H5N1 virus, also known as bird flu or avian influenza, is surging among mammals and proving itself very versatile at jumping from species to species.


          • Square profile picture
            World Health Organization (WHO)
            "Since 2003, there have been 893 reported infections of #H5N1 in humans, including 11 so far this year: five in Cambodia, three in the U.S., and one each in Australia, China and Viet Nam. In that time, the virus has not shown signs of having acquired the ability to spread easily among humans." That remains the case, which is why, at this time, WHO continues to assess the risk to public health as low." -
            10:37 AM · Jun 12, 2024




            • …the virus has not shown signs of having acquired the ability to spread easily among humans."​… He left out the word “YET”.
              It certainly seems we are running out of time on this matter. Not a word of it on tv and YET it is now in 12 states at least and an unknown amount of cows or people. We’ve seen it in practically every animal on earth but elephants and horses. The more we look, the more we find which is why I think they refuse to look that hard.

              The twitter X feeds are saturated with naysayers, down players, conspiracy Tards and salesmen pitching everything from pills, horse paste to food buckets and MREs.
              The official government postings are veritably weeks or months behind on any information except for a very few.. this includes the scientific sites as well… which can be way behind current reports.

              Some states are still saying they have no sick cows or even birds and think if they don’t say anything, we don’t see them sticking out like a sore thumb. Other countries are watching us like hawks at the same time denying they have any sick animals.
              This “ Don’t talk-Don’t tell “ policy by all these states and countries and government and international organizations is making the whole fiasco a ticking time bomb waiting to blow up in our face.

              The current wait it out strategy is not going to work for us. Everyone here is doing a great job trying to follow this outbreak and it looks to be one of the biggest challenges we ever faced. I don’t see a good outcome so keep your heads down and stay ready. Too much hiding and denying for me.




              • after reading this, I believe it will be a long long road if the avian influenza virus should spread to a dairy cow in NY. Not one mention that it is in 95 herds across 12 States in our Country, as I type this.

                JUNE 11, 2024
                Albany, NY Governor Hochul Announces $21 Million Available to Help Dairy Farmers Protect Water Quality and Reduce Carbon Footprint

                ... Governor Hochul also highlighted the State’s overarching commitment to the dairy industry, including $34 million dedicated in the FY25 Enacted Budget for fluid milk storage technologies, the support of several major dairy manufacturing facility projects, and a number of promotional efforts designed to educate consumers about New York dairy products....

                ...“The dairy industry is a powerhouse of New York’s economy, creating thousands of local jobs while nourishing our communities statewide,” Governor Hochul said.​..

                ...The program will help CAFO-permitted farmers implement projects that enhance manure management systems that sequester carbon and conserve manure nutrients applied to fields and soil to benefit water quality and reduce greenhouse gas emissions....

                ...Since taking office, Governor Hochul has made significant strides in expanding the dairy manufacturing sector in New York. In the last few years, New York has celebrated investments across the State, including a $650 million fairlife production plant in Webster, $518 million Great Lakes Cheese packaging and manufacturing facilities in Franklinville, and $30 million expansion to the Agri-Mark cheese manufacturing facility in Chateaugay, helping New York continue to be the leading producer of milk in the Northeast. There are currently nearly 300 world-recognized dairy processing plants across New York.'''

                ...In recognition of Dairy Month, the Department of Agriculture and Markets Commissioner Richard Ball will tour several dairy farms and processing plants across New York State. The Department will also host Dairy Education Days to teach children across New York State about the importance of fresh, nutritious dairy products in their diets. Department staff will visit local elementary and middle schools...

                New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets Commissioner Richard Ball said, “As the state’s number one agricultural commodity, we certainly have a lot to be proud of when it comes to New York dairy.​


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                  "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                  -Nelson Mandela


                  • Global health leader critiques ‘ineptitude’ of U.S. response to bird flu outbreak among cows

                    By Andrew Joseph June 13, 2024

                    LONDON — Seth Berkley, a longtime and widely respected global health leader, said Thursday that it has been “shocking to watch the ineptitude” of the U.S. response to the avian influenza outbreak among dairy cattle, adding his voice to a chorus of critics.

                    In a presentation in London about vaccine development, Berkley, the former CEO of Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance, raised the issue of H5N1 bird flu when discussing whether the world was ready for another pandemic following its experience with Covid-19.

                    Are we better prepared?” he said. “We could have a long discussion about this, but I would make an argument that H5N1 has suggested that we’re not. I live in Switzerland, but in my home country of the United States, it’s been shocking to watch the ineptitude of just doing the surveillance, being able to talk about it, tracking the infections, understanding where we are. Do we have vaccines? Are they the right vaccines? It is really a challenge. So I’m not sure we have learned anything.”

                    Seth Berkley, a longtime and widely respected global health leader, said it has been “shocking to watch the ineptitude” of the U.S. response to #H5N1 bird flu.




                    • Bird Flu Tests Are Hard To Get. So How Will We Know When To Sound the Pandemic Alarm?

                      By Amy Maxmen and Arthur Allen JUNE 11, 2024​

                      ​Stanford University infectious disease doctor Abraar Karan has seen a lot of patients with runny noses, fevers, and irritated eyes lately. Such symptoms could signal allergies, covid, or a cold. This year, there’s another suspect, bird flu — but there’s no way for most doctors to know.
                      Scientifically speaking, many diagnostic laboratories could detect the virus. However, red tape, billing issues, and minimal investment are barriers to quickly ramping up widespread availability of testing. At the moment, the Food and Drug Administration has authorized only the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s bird flu test, which is used only for people who work closely with livestock.
                      The CDC has asked farmworkers with flu symptoms to get tested, but researchers are concerned about a lack of outreach and incentives to encourage testing among people with limited job security and access to health care. Further, by testing only on dairy farms, the agency likely would miss evidence of wider spread.

                      “It’s hard to not compare this to covid, where early on we only tested people who had traveled,” said Benjamin Pinsky, medical director of the clinical virology laboratory at Stanford University. “That left us open to not immediately recognizing that it was transmitting among the community.”
                      Chu notes this isn’t 2020 — not by a long shot. Hospitals aren’t overflowing with bird flu patients. Also, the country has the tools to do much better this time around, she said, if there’s political will.

                      For starters, tests that detect the broad category of influenzas that H5N1 belongs to, called influenza A, are FDA-approved and ubiquitous. These are routinely run in the “flu season,” from November to February. An unusual number of positives from these garden-variety flu tests this spring and summer could alert researchers that something is awry.

                      Doctors, however, are unlikely to request influenza A tests for patients with respiratory symptoms outside of flu season, in part because health insurers may not cover them except in limited circumstances, said Alex Greninger, assistant director of the clinical virology laboratory at the University of Washington.
                      Another obstacle is that the FDA has yet to allow companies to run their influenza A tests using eye swabs, although the CDC and public health labs are permitted to do so. Notably, the bird flu virus was detected only in an eye swab from one farmworker infected this year — and not in samples drawn from the nose or throat.

                      Overcoming such barriers is essential, Chu said, to ramp up influenza A testing in regions with livestock. “The biggest bang for the buck is making sure that these tests are routine at clinics that serve farmworker communities,” she said, and suggested pop-up testing at state fairs, too.
                      Other means of tracking the H5N1 virus are critical, too. Detecting antibodies against the bird flu in farmworkers would help reveal whether more people have been infected and recovered. And analyzing wastewater for the virus could indicate an uptick in infections in people, birds, or cattle.

                      As with all pandemic preparedness efforts, the difficulty lies in stressing the need to act before a crisis strikes, Greninger said.

                      “We should absolutely get prepared,” he said, “but until the government insures some of the risk here, it’s hard to make a move in that direction.”

                      If widely used, flu tests could be helpful now. In the meantime, the government needs to clear a path for H5N1 tests, researchers warn, to avoid the early missteps of the covid pandemic.
                      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                      -Nelson Mandela


                      • Originally posted by Treyfish View Post

                        Square profile picture
                        World Health Organization (WHO)
                        "Since 2003, there have been 893 reported infections of #H5N1 in humans, including 11 so far this year: five in Cambodia, three in the U.S., and one each in Australia, China and Viet Nam. In that time, the virus has not shown signs of having acquired the ability to spread easily among humans." That remains the case, which is why, at this time, WHO continues to assess the risk to public health as low." -
                        10:37 AM · Jun 12, 2024

                        WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing – 12 June 2024

                        12 June 2024
                        Now to the United States, and the outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza among dairy cattle.

                        Since our last update five weeks ago, the number of affected dairy herds has almost tripled to 92 in 12 states, the number of human cases has increased from 1 to 3, and the number of people being monitored has more than doubled to 500.

                        Since 2003, there have been 893 reported infections of H5N1 in humans, including 11 so far this year: five in Cambodia, three in the U.S., and one each in Australia, China and Viet Nam.

                        In that time, the virus has not shown signs of having acquired the ability to spread easily among humans.

                        That remains the case, which is why, at this time, WHO continues to assess the risk to public health as low.

                        In recent years, H5N1 has spread widely among wild birds, poultry, land and marine mammals on several continents.

                        WHO recommends that anyone working with any infected animals, in any country, should have access to, and use, personal protective equipment.

                        Follow-up, testing and care of people exposed to the virus should continue systematically.

                        Early medical care and support, and thorough and timely investigation of every human infection is essential to evaluate and interrupt potential onward transmission between humans.

                        WHO is monitoring multiple avian flu viruses in humans through the Global Influenza Surveillance and Response System.

                        Surveillance of flu viruses among animals globally must also be intensified to rapidly detect any changes to the virus that could pose a greater threat to humans.

                        These systems are only as good as the timely detection and the sharing of viruses and information.

                        Collaboration, communication and information sharing between the animal and human health sectors is essential in all countries. This is the meaning of One Health.


                        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                        -Nelson Mandela


                        • Pasteurization may not clear bird flu virus from heavily infected milk

                          By Nancy Lapid
                          June 14, 202412:03 PM EDTUpdated 15 min ago​

                          ​​​​​​June 14 (Reuters) - In raw milk samples spiked with high amounts of bird flu virus, small amounts of infectious virus were still detectable after treatment with a standard pasteurization method, researchers said on Friday.
                          The findings reflect experimental conditions in a laboratory and should not be used to draw any conclusions about the safety of the U.S. milk supply, according to the authors of the study from the U.S. government's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Rocky Mountain Laboratories.​....

                          ​​​​​​The virus used in the experiments had been isolated from the lungs of a dead mountain lion, mixed with raw, unpasteurized cow milk samples, and heat-treated at 63 degrees C (145.4 degrees F)and 72 degrees C (161.6 degrees F) for different periods of time.
                          After treatment at 72 degrees C for 20 seconds – five seconds longer than the industry standard for pasteurization at that temperature - very small amounts of infectious virus were detected in one of three samples, the study found.​....




                          • Pathfinder
                            Pathfinder commented
                            Editing a comment

                            Inactivation of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) Virus in Raw Milk at 63°C and 72°C
                            Published June 14, 2024
                            DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2405488

                          • sharon sanders
                            sharon sanders commented
                            Editing a comment
                            "This finding indicates the potential for a relatively small but detectable quantity of HPAI A(H5N1) virus to remain infectious in milk after 15 seconds at 72°C if the initial titer is sufficiently high, at least under these specific experimental conditions." at above link

                        • ...
                          CDC analyzed sera (blood) collected from people of all ages in all 10 HHS regions. Blood samples were collected during the 2022-2023 and 2021-2022 flu seasons. These samples were challenged with H5N1 virus to see whether there was an antibody reaction. Data from this study suggest that there is extremely low to no population immunity to clade A(H5N1) viruses in the United States. Antibody levels remained low regardless of whether or not the participants had gotten a seasonal flu vaccination, meaning that seasonal flu vaccination did not produce antibodies to A(H5N1) viruses. This means that there is little to no pre-existing immunity to this virus and most of the population would be susceptible to infection from this virus if it were to start infecting people easily and spreading from person-to-person. This finding is not unexpected because A(H5N1) viruses have not spread widely in people and are very different from current and recently circulating human seasonal influenza A viruses.
                          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                          -Nelson Mandela


                          • Source:

                            Infectious H5N1 influenza virus in raw milk rapidly declines with heat treatment
                            The amount of infectious H5N1 influenza viruses in raw milk rapidly declined with heat treatment in laboratory research.​


                            The amount of infectious H5N1 influenza viruses in raw milk rapidly declined with heat treatment in laboratory research conducted by scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. However, small, detectable amounts of infectious virus remained in raw milk samples with high virus levels when treated at 72 degrees Celsius (161.6 degrees Fahrenheit) for 15 seconds—one of the standard pasteurization methods used by the dairy industry. The authors of the study stress, however, that their findings reflect experimental conditions in a laboratory setting and are not identical to large-scale industrial pasteurization processes for raw milk. The findings were published today in the New England Journal of Medicine​...


                            F Kaiser et al. Inactivation rate of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus (clade in raw milk at 63 and 72 degrees Celsius. The New England Journal of Medicine DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc2405488 (2024).

                            Vincent Munster, Ph.D., and Emmie de Wit, Ph.D., senior investigators in NIAID’s Laboratory of Virology at the Rocky Mountain Laboratories in Hamilton, Mont., are available to discuss the findings.​..


                            • US Dairy Cows Dying and Being Culled Due to Avian Flu

                              Jun 10, 2024

                              .....​​​“In South Dakota, a 1,700-cow dairy sent a dozen of the animals to slaughter after they did not recover from the virus, and killed another dozen that contracted secondary infections, said Russ Daly, a professor with South Dakota State University and veterinarian for the state extension office who spoke with the farm,” Douglas and Polansek reported. “…A farm in Michigan killed about 10% of its 200 infected cows after they too failed to recover from the virus, said Phil Durst, an educator with Michigan State University Extension who spoke with that farm.”

                              ....“In Colorado, some dairies reported culling cows with avian flu because they did not return to milk production,
                              said Olga Robak, spokesperson for the state Department of Agriculture,” Douglas and Polansek reported. “…Ohio Department of Agriculture spokesperson Meghan Harshbarger said infected cows have died in Ohio and other affected states, mostly due to secondary infections. The Texas Animal Health Commission also confirmed that cows have died from secondary infections at some dairy operations with avian flu outbreaks.”

                              “New Mexico’s state veterinarian, Samantha Uhrig, said farmers increasingly culled cows due to decreased milk production early in the outbreak, before the U.S. even confirmed bird flu was infecting cattle. Culling decreased as farmers learned that most cows gradually recovered, she said,” Douglas and Polansek reported. “…Officials in North Carolina and Kansas said there have been few to no cow deaths associated with bird flu in their states. Idaho officials did not respond to requests for information.”