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World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

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  • #16
    Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

    Commentary

    http://www.recombinomics.com/News/01..._Japan_US.html

    Comment


    • #17
      Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

      Commentary

      http://www.recombinomics.com/News/01...4Y_UK_100.html

      Comment


      • #18
        Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)


        <News> cases were isolated from outbreaks of influenza virus subtype A/H1N1 - Sendai

        http://idsc.nih.go.jp/iasr/rapid/pr3481.html

        http://blog.goo.ne.jp/publichealth/e...ab4914b9118a16

        2008年10月下旬に仙台市内の小学校1クラスでインフルエンザによる学級閉鎖が報告され、患者の咽頭ぬ ぐい液を採取し検査した結果、 A/H1N1亜型インフルエンザウイルスを分離したので報告する。

        10 elementary schools in Sendai in 2008 to end a class is closed due to flu reported in the class tests and throat swab samples of the patient, A/H1N1 viruses isolated since reporting flu subtype.

        患者発生状況

        Situation caused patient

        2008年10月28日に小学校3年生の1クラス(在籍者数40名)の25名がインフルエンザ様症状を呈し 、うち14名が欠席したため、学級閉鎖の措置がとられた。

        October 2008 to 28 elementary school students three years of a class (enrollment 40) of 25 influenza-like symptoms, but missed out for 14, was taken in closed classes.

        このうち2名が医療機関を受診し、迅速診断キットによりA型インフルエンザであることが確認されたため、調 査を実施した。

        The doctor and two medical institutions, the A rapid diagnostic kits for avian flu was confirmed that the type of research.

        ウイルス検査結果搬入された患者5名(医療機関で迅速キットによりA型インフルエンザ陽性と確認された小学 生4名と生徒の母親1名)の咽頭ぬぐい液5検体を、MDCK細胞に接種し、初代および2代継代培養で3検体 からウイルスが分離された。

        Patient test results were carrying the virus 5 (by medical kit A quick and elementary school students were confirmed to be flu-positive mother of four students and one name) of the five swab samples from the throat, MDCK cells and inoculation, and the first subcultured three generations in an isolated the virus from the samples.

        分 離ウイルスについて国立感染症研究所より分与された2008/09シーズン用インフルエンザウイルス同定キットを用いてHI試験を行ったところ、抗A /Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1)血清(ホモ価640)に対しHI価320、抗A/Uruguay/716/2007(H3N2)血清(同 640)、抗B/Brisbane/3/2007血清(同2,560)および抗B/Malaysia /2506/2004血清(同640)に対しては、いずれもHI価<10であった。

        Sharing from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases Virus isolation using the 2008/09 influenza virus identification kits for the season HI test, the anti A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1) Serum (Homo number 640) HI titer against 320 anti A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) serum (the 640), B/Brisbane/3/2007 anti-serum (in 2560) and anti-B / Malaysia / 2506/2004 serum (the 640) for the HI titer of <10 was.

        HA遺伝子(1,014bp)、NA遺伝子(1,044bp)、MP遺伝子(926bp)の相同性解析を行 った結果では、分離ウイルス3株の塩基配列は100%一致した。

        HA gene (1014bp), NA gene (1044bp), MP gene (926bp) in the results of homology analysis, three separate sequences of the virus stocks is 100 percent match.

        一方、今シーズンのワクチン株であるA/Brisbane/59/2007に対するHA遺伝子、NA遺伝子およびMP遺伝子の相同性はそれぞれ99.2、99.1、99.6 %であった。

        Meanwhile, the vaccine strain of the season for the HA gene A/Brisbane/59/2007, NA genes and genetic homology of each MP 99.2,99.1,99.6%.

        また,HA遺伝子では3カ所のアミノ酸置換(G204V、A208T、H211R)が、NA遺伝子ではオセ ルタミビルの耐性株の指標となるH275Yのアミノ酸置換が認められたが、M2遺伝子上のアマンタジン耐性 株の指標となるS31Nのアミノ酸置換は認められなかった。

        In addition, HA gene is one of three amino acid substitution (G204V, A208T, H211R) are, NA gene is an indicator of the stock H275Y oseltamivir resistance is recognized by amino acid substitution, M2 and the stock index of amantadine-resistant gene S31N amino acid substitution could not be accepted.

        NA遺伝子の系統樹解析の結果、今回の分離株はサブクレード2Bに属しており、HA遺伝子やMP遺伝子の系 統樹解析でも同じクラスターに分類された(図1、図2、図3)。

        Phylogenetic analysis of the NA gene of the isolates belong to the SABUKUREDO 2B, HA and MP gene clusters that are classified in the same family tree of genetic analysis (Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3).

        仙台市内でのインフルエンザウイルスの分離は、これが今シーズン初めてであり、昨シーズンよりも約1カ月早 い分離となった。

        Separation of influenza virus in the city of Sendai is the first time this season, than last season was a month early separation.

        また、オセルタミビルの耐性株の指標となるH275Yの変異を有するインフルエンザウイルスの分離は仙台市 内では初めてであり、今後の分離株についても継続して調査していく必要があると思われる。

        The index of shares and separating the H275Y oseltamivir resistance mutations of the flu virus in the city of Sendai is the first time that we need to continue to investigate the separation of the shares.

        仙台市衛生研究所勝見正道 大山 文 関根雅夫 小黒美舎子 熊谷正憲太白区保健福祉センター浅野惠美子  野崎 文 工藤信子 渡辺洋一 永山雄一 吉田菊喜

        Ju Hee Yuuiti Yoshida Nobuko Watanabe Hirokazu Nagayama Emiko Nosaki Asano Aya Kudou Taihaku District Health Center Masanori Kumagai Masao Oguro child beauty Aya Sekine cages Katsumi Masamiti Ooyama Health Laboratory in Sendai

        http://idsc.nih.go.jp/iasr/rapid/pr3481.html

        Comment


        • #19
          Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

          News> from the 2008/09 season's first cold AH1 separate group of influenza virus subtype - SHIGA


          2008年11月、滋賀県において2008/09シーズン初となる小学校での集団かぜ事例から、オセルタミビル耐性のAH1亜型インフルエンザウイルス が分離されたので、その概要を報告する。
          November 2008 in Shiga Prefecture in the group of cold cases from the 2008/09 school's first season, it was AH1 oseltamivir-resistant influenza virus subtype are separated, the report summary.

          2008年11月13日、滋賀県内の小学校3クラスで集団かぜが発生し、学級閉鎖が実施された。
          2008 November 13, three elementary schools in Shiga Prefecture occurred in the cold group classes, classes were conducted closed.
          受診した医療機関において迅速診断キットでA型インフルエンザと診断されたという連絡があり、保健所が調査 に入った。
          The rapid diagnostic kit A medical doctor who was in contact with pandemic flu diagnosis, research into the health center.
          協力の得られた5名のうがい液が当所に搬入された。
          Cooperation by bringing to five the fluid exchange of gargling.
          5名の発病日は11月8~12日、主症状は発熱(38.2~39.8℃)および 上気道症状で、その他頭痛、嘔吐、筋肉痛・関節痛が認められた。
          5, 2007 onset of the November 8-12, the main symptoms are fever (38.2 ~ 39.8 ℃) and upper respiratory symptoms, headache, vomiting, joint pain muscle pain recognition.

          当所においてMDCK細胞を用いたインフルエンザウイルスの分離を行ったところ、5名中2名については、M DCK細胞初代培養4日目から細胞変性効果が認められた。
          The premise of the separation of the MDCK cell influenza virus, while two of five people, MDCK cell primary culture were allowed four days from the cytopathic effect.
          それらの培養上清はモルモット赤血球(0.6%)を用いた赤血球凝集(HA)試験でHA価64~128を示 した。
          These culture supernatant guinea pig red blood cells (0.6&#37 using hemagglutination (HA) in the HA titer test showed 64-128.
          そこで、これらの分離株について、国立感染症研究所から配布された2008/09シーズン用インフルエンザウイルス同定キットを用いて赤血球凝集抑制(HI)試験を行ったとこ ろ、抗A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1)血清(ホモ価1,280)に対してはHI価320を示したのに対し、抗A/Uruguay/716/2007(H3N2)血清(同1,280) 、抗B/Malaysia/2506/2004血清(同2,560)および 抗B/Brisbane/3/2007血清(同2,560)にはいずれもHI価<10であったことから、分離株をAH1亜型インフルエン ザウイルスと同定した。
          Therefore, these isolates were distributed from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, using the hemagglutination inhibition 2008/09 identification kits for the flu season (HI) test the anti A/Brisbane/59/2007 ( H1N1) Serum (Homo number 1280) for the HI titer of 320 against the anti A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) Serum (in 1280), B/Malaysia/2506/2004 anti-serum (the 2560) and anti-serum B/Brisbane/3/2007 (in 2560) are both HI titer <10 was, and identified the virus isolate AH1 flu subtype.
          また、分離された2株についてNA遺伝子の部分的な遺伝子解析を行ったところ、2株ともオセルタミビル耐性 株に特徴的なH275Y耐性マーカーがみられた。
          In addition, the separation of the two NA shares were part of the genetic analysis of genes, that are characteristic of stocks and shares H275Y oseltamivir resistance were resistant marker.
          国立感染症研究所ウイルス第三部第一室に確認検査を依頼したところ、耐性株であることが確定さ れた。
          After the inspection request to the third room of the Ministry of National Institute of Infectious Diseases, the virus was confirmed to be resistant stocks.

          今回インフルエンザウイルスが分離された2名中1名は11月10日から発病し、11日からタミフルを内服し ていたが、もう1名は内服していなかった。
          Influenza virus isolated in one of the two people getting sick from November 10 to Sunday, 11 were from the mouth to Tamiflu, the other one did not take.

          2008年1~3月に滋賀県内で採取された検体から分離されたAH1亜型インフルエンザウイルス分離株16 株については、オセルタミビル耐性株は認められなかった。
          2008 1-3 were isolated from samples taken in Shiga prefecture AH1 to isolate influenza virus subtype 16 shares, the shares oseltamivir resistance was not allowed.
          今回、滋賀県で初めて耐性株が分離されたが、2007/08シーズンでは神奈川県や兵庫県などでも耐性株が出現しており、鳥取県においては32.4%が耐性株であ ったと報告されている(IASR 29: 334-339, 2008 )。
          The separation was the first time in Shiga-resistant stocks, in the 2007/08 season is the emergence of resistance in the stock and Kanagawa and Hyogo, Tottori Prefecture in 32.4% of the shares had been reported and are resistant (IASR 29: 334-339, 2008).

          滋賀県感染症発生動向調査におけるインフルエンザ定点当たり患者数によると、2008年第50 週(12/8~14)に患者数が1.0以上となり流行が始まった。
          The number of patients in each survey point flu infection occurred, Shiga, 2008, the first 50 weeks (12 / 8 to 14) the number of patients in the epidemic began more than 1.0.
          これから本格的なインフルエンザの流行期に入るとみられ、AH1亜型だけでなくAH3亜型およびB型につい ても耐性株の動向に注目していきたい。
          Believed to enter the flu season in full swing now, AH1 as well as subtype B and subtype AH3 want to look at trends in the shares on-resistance.

          滋賀県衛生科学センター松本文美絵 大内好美 南 祐一 田中千香子 吉田とも江 藤田直樹
          Huzita Naoki Yoshida Tomoe Minami Yuuiti Oouti Yoshimi Tanaka Tikako Matsumoto Aya Mie, Shiga Health Science Center

          <HR> Article flash (virus) back to the page

          Articles news (bacteria) to the page



          Comment


          • #20
            Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

            Map of H1N1 outbreaks closing schools in Japan

            http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UT...9f94daf30e7c2d

            Comment


            • #21
              Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

              Commentary

              http://www.recombinomics.com/News/01...n_Schools.html

              Comment


              • #22
                World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                <o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"></o:shapelayout><o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"></o:idmap>
                Antiviral resistance among influenza A viruses and interim guidance for use of antivirals
                Anthony Fiore, MD, MPH
                Influenza Division
                National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases
                CDC
                Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Teleconference
                January 8, 2009


                pdf file of full presentation below (large file). Also see this thread: http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=90718
                Attached Files
                http://novel-infectious-diseases.blogspot.com/

                Comment


                • #23
                  Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                  Originally posted by Laidback Al View Post
                  <?xml:namespace prefix = o /><o:shapelayout v:ext="edit"></o:shapelayout><o:idmap v:ext="edit" data="1"></o:idmap>

                  Antiviral resistance among influenza A viruses and interim guidance for use of antivirals


                  Anthony Fiore, MD, MPH


                  Influenza Division


                  National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases


                  CDC


                  Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Teleconference


                  January 8, 2009



                  pdf file of full presentation below (large file). Also see this thread: http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=90718
                  A transcipt of the Q&A will be available within a week at the COCA website.

                  Comment


                  • #24
                    Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                    Originally posted by niman View Post
                    Map of H1N1 outbreaks closing schools in Japan

                    http://maps.google.com/maps/ms?ie=UT...9f94daf30e7c2d
                    http://precedings.nature.com/documen...ion/1#comments

                    Comment


                    • #25
                      Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                      Preliminary summary on oseltamivir- resistant H1N1 virus: Australia
                      Reporting date: 23 December 2008
                      Influenza activity in Australia during 2008 southern hemisphere season was moderate with the
                      majority of viruses detected being of either influenza B or influenza A(H3N2) type/subtype. 115
                      influenza A(H1N1) viruses have been received at the WHO Collaborating Centre in Melbourne
                      and were analysed for antiviral sensitivity. Of these, 108 (94%) viruses were confirmed to
                      possess the specific mutation (H275Y) that confers high-level resistance to oseltamivir. These
                      strains remained fully sensitive to zanamivir and sequence analysis of the M2 gene found that
                      these strains do not have mutations associated with adamantane resistance.
                      Table: Oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) virus (1st April to 23rd December 2008)
                      # Australian A(H1N1) viruses
                      tested
                      # Australian A(H1N1) viruses
                      with H275Y mutation (%)
                      Aistralia 115 108 (94%)

                      http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ..._australia.pdf

                      Comment


                      • #26
                        Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                        http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ..._australia.pdf

                        Table 1. Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir, the second and the third quarters 2008
                        Region
                        Country, area or territory
                        No. of H1N1
                        isolates
                        tested
                        No.(%) of
                        isolates
                        resistant to
                        oseltamivir
                        No.(%) of viruses tested positive for
                        oseltamivir resistance?

                        AFRO Cameroon 2 2
                        Ghana 22 13 (59%)
                        Ivory Coast 5 2
                        Kenya 9 1
                        Madagascar 9 0
                        Mauritius 1 1
                        Nigeria 1 1
                        Senegal 10 10 (100%)
                        Seychelles 8 5
                        South Africa 225 225 (100%)
                        AFRO Total 292 260 (89%)
                        AMRO Argentina 36 18 (50%)
                        Brazil 18 4 (22%)
                        Canada 2 1
                        Chile 90 12 (13%)
                        Colombia 1 0
                        Costa Rica 19 14 (74%)
                        El Salvador 32 21 (66%)
                        Guadeloupe 1 0
                        Guatemala 5 4
                        Honduras 8 5
                        Mexico 3 1
                        Nicaragua 13 0
                        Panama 9 0
                        Paraguay 1 0
                        Peru 9 0
                        United States of America 10 3 (30%)
                        Uruguay 17 14 (82%)
                        Venezuela 1 1
                        AMRO Total 275 98 (36%)
                        EMRO Jordan 2 1
                        EMRO Total 2 1
                        EURO Netherlands 2 1
                        Norway 8 6
                        Russian Federation 20 9 (45%)
                        United Kingdom 1 1
                        EURO Total 31 17 (55%)
                        SEARO India 1 0
                        Thailand 12 0
                        SEARO Total 13 0
                        WPRO Australia 76 71 (93%)
                        China, Hong Kong SAR 583 97 (17%)
                        Japan 7 1
                        Malaysia 8 0
                        New Caledonia 7 7
                        New Zealand 2 2
                        Philippines 11 10 (91%)
                        Singapore 6 3
                        Vietnam 31 21 (68%)
                        WPRO Total 731 212 (29%)
                        Grand Total 1344 588 (44%)

                        Comment


                        • #27
                          Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                          Preliminary summary on oseltamivir- resistant H1N1 virus: South Africa
                          Reporting date: 6 October 2008
                          During the 2008 influenza season in the southern hemisphere, a total of 306 H1N1 viruses have
                          been isolated in South Africa to date. 225 isolates have been tested for oseltamivir resistance by
                          the National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD) and 100% were found to be resistant to
                          oseltamivir by PCR and sequencing.
                          Month of sampling May 08 June 08 July 08 Aug 08 Sept 08
                          No. of H1N1 isolates tested 4 64 68 60 29
                          No.(%) of viruses resistant to oseltamivir 4
                          (100%)
                          64 (100%) 68 (100%) 60
                          (100%)
                          29
                          (100%)
                          Specimen collection sites:
                          Influenza surveillance in South Africa is based on sentinel general practitioners networks.
                          Currently there are 170 sentinel sites in all 9 provinces.
                          Geographical distribution:
                          Specimens were collected from patients in all nine provinces in South Africa
                          .
                          Demography:

                          The specimens tested were collected from both adults and children.
                          Oseltamivir use:
                          One patient that is known to have taken oseltamivir prior to sampling. Duration of therapy not
                          known.
                          Vaccination history:
                          Three of the 225 H1N1 patients whose isolate was tested had been vaccinated
                          .
                          Clinical features, special underlying conditions and other findings:

                          No unusual clinical feature or underlying conditions.
                          Summary provided by:
                          Dr Terry Besselaar
                          National Influenza Centre, National Institute for Communicable Diseases, Sandringham, South
                          Africa.

                          http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ...08SA_Final.pdf

                          Comment


                          • #28
                            Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                            Preliminary summary on Oseltamivir- resistant H1N1 virus: Chile
                            Reporting date: 6 January 2009
                            During the 2008 influenza season in the southern hemisphere, a total of 441 H1N1 viruses have
                            been detected in Chile. Ninety viruses have been tested for oseltamivir resistance (H275Y) at the
                            Public Institute of Health, Chile and at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta,
                            USA.
                            Month of Sampling April - August
                            2008
                            No. of H1N1 viruses tested 90
                            No. (%) of viruses resistant to Oseltamivir 12 (13%)
                            Specimen collection sites:
                            Influenza surveillance in Chile is based on a network of hospital (22) and sentinel sites (19)
                            throughout the country.
                            Geographical distribution:
                            Specimens were collected from patients in Antofagasta (Northern Chile), the capital Santiago, Vi?a
                            del Mar, Valparaiso (Central Chile), Talcahuano, Valdivia, Puerto Montt and Coyhaique (Southern
                            Chile)
                            . The 12 oseltamivir-resistant H1N1 viruses were detected mainly in Central Chile: Santiago
                            (5), Valparaiso (1), Vi?a del Mar (1), San Felipe (1), and also from southern Chile: Concepcion (2)
                            and Talcahuano (2).

                            Demography:
                            Specimens were collected from both adults and children.
                            Oseltamivir use:
                            No known history of oseltamivir use among the patients.
                            Vaccination history:
                            Unknown.
                            Clinical features, special underlying conditions and other findings:
                            No unusual clinical features or underlying conditions in patients with infection with oseltamivirresistant
                            H1N1 virus.

                            http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influ...2008_CHILE.pdf

                            Comment


                            • #29
                              Re: World Health Organization: Influenza A(H1N1) virus resistance to oseltamivir - 2008/2009 influenza season, northern hemisphere (1/6/2009)

                              http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20202225
                              > CONCLUSION: Oseltamivir-resistant A(H1N1) isolates from Yamagata in the 2007-2008
                              > season might have acquired resistance through the use of oseltamivir, and the 2008-2009
                              > oseltamivir-resistant isolates might have been introduced into Japan and circulated
                              > throughout the country


                              > A phylogenetic analysis revealed that two oseltamivir-resistant viruses isolated in the
                              > 2007-2008 season were closely related to other oseltamivir-susceptible viruses in
                              > Yamagata but were different from oseltamivir-resistant viruses isolated in Europe
                              > and North America in the 2007-2008 season

                              The oseltamivir-resistant viruses isolated in Japan in the 2008-2009 season were phylogenetically similar to oseltamivir-resistant isolates from Europe and North America during the 2007-2008 season.
                              I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                              my current links: http://bit.ly/hFI7H ILI-charts: http://bit.ly/CcRgT

                              Comment

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