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Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

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  • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

    Source: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-st...k-1208498.html

    Young adults suffer most in flu outbreak
    Older people more likely to be vaccinated, experts say

    By Steve Connor, Science Correspondent
    Tuesday, 23 December 2008

    Young adults are being struck down with the flu at three times the rate of their parents' generation, figures from heath watchdogs reveal.

    For every 100,000 people aged 15 to 44 in England, 54.4 of them have the flu, compared with 18 cases among the same number of people aged over 65.

    Doctors have been diagnosing more cases of flu during this year's lead-up to Christmas than they have done during the past 10 pre-Christmas periods. The overall rate stands at 39 cases of influenza per 100,000 people within the general population, the government's Health Protection Agency said.

    The number of flu cases reported to GPs has already breached the minimum "baseline" figure that marks the point at which the outbreak is defined as seasonal but it is still well short of the 200 cases per 100,000 that turn an outbreak into an epidemic.

    Health experts said the rise in cases among the young, particularly in southern England, was in part due to the fact that many had not received the flu vaccine to protect them against the different strains of the illness.

    And they said that flu outbreaks often affected certain demographics differently. They suggested that young working people suffering from the early symptoms of flu stay at home, rather than risk spreading the virus through their workplace.

    Even with flu-sufferers staying at home, the working population is still likely to experience an increase in the number of cases of flu.

    The current outbreak is likely to reach its peak across all age groups within the next three to four weeks, said Douglas Fleming, the director of the Birmingham Research Unit of the Royal College of General Practitioners.

    "We expect to see an increase in the number of cases within that age group, but also possibly in other age groups as well," Dr Fleming said.

    "There is often a tendency for the virus to affect one age group more than another.

    "The reason has a lot to do with the amount of mixing within any given age group, but it is also connected with the properties of the virus.

    "We expect to see a figure that is much higher within this young-adult age group when the latest figures come in this week."

    The flu epidemic in the winter of 1999-2000 mainly affected older people while the epidemic in 1989 mostly affected younger age groups, Dr Fleming said. "We are now looking at a maximum impact on the working age groups."

    Richard Pebody, the head of infectious disease surveillance at the Health Protection Agency, said: "There is higher activity in the working-age group. Often we see one age group or other being more affected, so it is not unusual.

    "The simple message is, if you do get flu it's best to stay at home to avoid spreading the virus in the office."

    Scientists said that the H3N2 strain of the influenza virus was causing the current flu outbreak.

    The outbreak began in central England and has since spread to the rest of the country.

    The flu vaccine, which is offered free to everyone over the age of 65, covers the H3N2 strain, in addition to two other flu viruses.

    The low incidence of flu in people over 65 indicates that the vaccine is limiting the spread of the virus. However, 27 per cent of over 65s have not been vaccinated against the illness.

    In the under 65s, certain high-risk groups such as people with asthma or heart disease are also offered the flu vaccine for free, although only about four in 10 people within these high-risk groups have taken up the offer.

    Comment


    • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

      Source: http://www.liverpoolecho.co.uk/liver...0252-22536760/

      City’s health services stretched by flu outbreak
      Dec 23 2008 by Caroline Innes, Liverpool Echo

      HEALTH services are being stretched because of a flu outbreak in Liverpool, where cases are four times the national average.

      Infection rates have more than trebled in the last week.

      The national flu rate is 26 per 100,000 of the population – compared with about 103 per 100,000 in Liverpool.

      Last week the ECHO revealed Liverpool’s biggest hospital was gripped by an outbreak.

      More than 1,000 members of staff were given emergency flu jabs at the Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen hospitals to fight the virus.


      The trust confirmed more than 14 patients at the Royal tested positive for influenza.

      Liverpool primary care trust today urged everyone eligible to get the flu vaccination to help stop it spreading.


      Public health consultant for Liverpool PCT Dr Emer Coffey said: “There is a lot more flu around now in Liverpool compared with this time last year, and it is having a huge impact on demand for health services.

      “Flu can be a nasty illness for older people and those with chronic medical problems.

      “The flu jab is recommended for people aged 65 or over, as well as those of any age, with chronic medical problems, such as heart or chest conditions, diabetes, asthmatics on steroids, liver or kidney diseases, stroke or those who have weak immune systems.

      “It is also recommended for people living in care homes.

      “If you are eligible, but have not had a chance to get your free flu jab yet, you should make an appointment with your GP to get the jab.”

      For most people flu is miserable, lasts a week or so but is not life-threatening.

      But the elderly and people with underlying medical problems can suffer serious illnesses.

      Parents of children and young people with underlying health problems also need to ensure the youngsters are protected against the virus.

      Dr Coffey added: “There is also plenty individuals can do to prevent the virus spreading.

      “We recommend you ‘catch it, bin it and kill it’.

      “Always carry tissues with you. Cover your nose and mouth when you sneeze. Bin the tissues after single use and wash your hands immediately and at regular intervals.”

      Comment


      • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

        United Kingdom: Flu outbreak is worst for eight years - The Guardian
        Flu outbreak is worst for eight years

        * Sarah Boseley, health editor
        * The Guardian, Wednesday 24 December 2008

        Britain is in the grip of a flu outbreak greater than anything seen in the last eight years, with soaring numbers of people falling ill, new figures show.


        The last big flu outbreak occurred in 1999/2000, when 22,000 people died, which is 10 times the average for a winter flu season.

        The latest figures from the Royal College of GPs show 69 cases of flu in 100,000 population for this week. In the last two weeks, the rate has climbed steeply, from 28 in 100,000 two weeks ago, to 40 last week and now 69.

        The rise is across all regions of the UK and all age groups, but it appears to be the young and middle-aged adults who are hit hardest. The rate has soared to 80 in 100,000 in the 15 to 44 age group and to 76 among 45 to 64-year-olds. These tend to be more socially active people - teenagers, young adults and workers who refuse to stay home when they feel ill.

        The worsening outbreak will cause problems for the health service over the Christmas break, especially combined with the spread of the vomiting bug norovirus. These highly transmittable diseases are hitting hard at a time when GP practices will be closed and hospital staff reduced because of the holiday.

        "If you have norovirus on the ward, you have to close it down and clean it," said Professor Steve Field, a Birmingham GP who is chairman of the Royal College of GPs. "And at the same time you are getting more frail and elderly people getting bronchitis and pneumonia."

        Even last week, flu was having an impact on the functioning of the NHS. David Nicholson, the NHS chief executive, said across England the number of 999 calls was 7% higher than last year and admissions to hospital through A&E departments were 4% up, because of more cases of flu and breathing problems. London, the West Midlands and south-west were under the most pressure, he said.

        Older people are being hit less hard by flu at the moment because of the good take-up rate of the vaccine among the over-65s. The rate is now 45 in 100,000 in that age group. However, there are concerns about many others under the age of 65 who are considered to be at risk of the complications of flu, which can be serious and in some cases life-threatening.

        Campaigns from the Department of Health have been urging those at risk of complications to have a flu vaccination for several months. But while 72% of the over-65s have had the jab, only 42% of younger people considered to be at risk have come forward.

        Around 4 million people under 65 risk becoming seriously ill with the complications of flu, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. They include people whose immune systems are in some way compromised, those with asthma, serious kidney and liver complaints and diabetes.

        Professor Field said he was also concerned about those in the older age group who have not been vaccinated. Although the rate was 72% overall, it was patchy, he said. "This is going to be around for a while, so it is well worth getting vaccinated."

        This year, the strain of flu that is doing the damage - H3N2, or Brisbane flu after the city where it was first identified - is one of the three included in the vaccination, so anybody who has a jab is well-protected.

        The HPA said the figures looked worse because the last three years have been quiet. But an early rise did not necessarily mean a continuing rise in the numbers falling ill.

        "It may continue on up and it may go down," said the spokeswoman. Other countries in Europe are not yet seeing a rise in cases.

        She stressed that those who get ill should stay at home and not spread the infection around the workplace. "If you are sick, don't even bother. Just stay home and get better or you will just infect the rest of your team," she said.

        The steady upward trend in flu cases is matched by the number of people going to see their GP for common colds, which hit 300 in 100,000 last week - up from an average of 200 a week earlier in the month.

        Professor Field said the current outbreak was still well short of an epidemic. The outbreak in 1999/2000 hit a peak of 220 cases per 100,000 and was classified officially as an epidemic by the Department of Health.

        The current trend is a very steep and sudden rise in cases, but it is always possible that it will peak early and start to go back down.

        "You can't assume anything," he said. "Some of them do go down." He would expect a drop in cases in the next week or so anyway because fewer GPs are working and recording case numbers.
        -
        <cite cite="http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/dec/24/health-flu-outbreak">Flu outbreak is worst for eight years | Society | The Guardian</cite>

        Comment


        • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

          ITALY: INFLUENZA, 2008-2009 SEASON; EPIDEMIC SURVEILLANCE UPDATE, data from CIRI (Dec 24 2008)

          Global Trend for Influenza-Like Illness Morbidity incidence among population.

          Data and graphs compiled by CIRI.

          Data refers to the ILI incidence for current epidemic surveillance season and are divided by season, surveillance week, class ages.

          <table style="width: auto;"><tbody><tr><td></td></tr><tr><td style="font-family: arial,sans-serif; font-size: 11px; text-align: right;">From TABLES</td></tr></tbody></table>

          <table style="width: auto;"><tbody><tr><td></td></tr><tr><td style="font-family: arial,sans-serif; font-size: 11px; text-align: right;">From TABLES</td></tr></tbody></table>
          Updated at: 12-24-2008 H 10:44:03am (GMT+1)

          [WEEK / particpant GPs / outpatients / CASES: 0-4 / 5-14 / 15-65 / +65 / CUM. INCIDENCEx1000 inhab.]

          2008-42 / 391 / 510721 / 141 / 0,67 / 0,23 / 0,29 / 0,16 / 0,28
          2008-43 / 386 / 509332 / 133 / 0,76 / 0,34 / 0,25 / 0,14 / 0,26
          2008-44 / 405 / 535482 / 147 / 0,81 / 0,16 / 0,29 / 0,16 / 0,27
          2008-45 / 408 / 536770 / 177 / 1,16 / 0,36 / 0,3 / 0,18 / 0,33
          2008-46 / 394 / 516856 / 177 / 0,66 / 0,45 / 0,36 / 0,15 / 0,34
          2008-47 / 411 / 541846 / 272 / 1,76 / 0,56 / 0,47 / 0,26 / 0,5
          2008-48 / 419 / 553235 / 337 / 1,93 / 0,57 / 0,6 / 0,31 / 0,61
          2008-49 / 411 / 542423 / 409 / 2,74 / 1,09 / 0,68 / 0,31 / 0,75
          2008-50 / 408 / 537826 / 480 / 3,35 / 1,32 / 0,82 / 0,28 / 0,89
          * 2008-51 / 348 / 462055 / 562 / 4,99 / 2,13 / 1,02 / 0,53 / 1,22

          RED figures indicate an increasing incidence, while BLUE ones indicate a decreasing incidence.

          -
          ------

          Comment


          • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

            http://www.hpa.org.uk/web/HPAwebFile.../1230105661596

            Neuraminidase inhibitor susceptibility testing on 73 A (H3) isolates since week 40/08 showed that all are sensitive to
            oseltamivir and zanamivir but resistant to amantadine. Both of the two influenza B isolates tested since week 40/08
            are sensitive to oseltamivir and zanamivir
            . Twenty-nine of 30 A (H1) specimens tested in the same time frame are
            resistant to oseltamivir but sensitive to zanamivir and amantadine. The majority of these oseltamivir-resistant viruses
            come from the south west of England. Two influenza A (H1) isolates have been found to be resistant to oseltamivir in

            Scotland this season, one of which has been confirmed by CfI.

            Comment


            • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

              CIDRAP >> Surging flu cases may herald tough season in England
              Surging flu cases may herald tough season in England

              Robert Roos * News Editor
              Dec 24, 2008 (CIDRAP News) –

              While the US influenza season has started slowly, cases are surging in England, raising concern that the country could have its toughest season since 1999-2000.


              In England and Wales last week, about 68.5 people per 100,000 saw a general practitioner for influenza-like illness (ILI), a 73% increase over the 39.5 per 100,000 the week before, according to the latest weekly report from the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP). A BBC News report said the number also is 73% higher than the same week a year ago.

              Dr. Douglas Fleming, director of the RCGP Research Unit in Birmingham, said the increase was significant, according to BBC News. "In the past 10 years, the only substantial outbreak was in 1999-2000," he said. "I think we could be looking at something that approaches that this year.

              "The RCGP report says ILI visit rates of 30 to 100 per 100,000 population per week are "usual when influenza viruses are circulating," rates above 100 are above average, and rates exceeding 200 are "exceptional." The RCGP data are drawn from about 85 general practitioner clinics around the country, representing an at-risk population of about 840,000.

              ILI rates rose in all age-groups and regions in the week of Dec 15 to 21, the RCGP report says. The highest rates were seen among 15- to 44-year-olds, with 79.7 cases per 100,000, and 45- to 64-year-olds, with 75.6 cases. The 65-and-older group had 44.7 cases per 100,000, which was more than double the 18 cases seen the week before.

              The BBC report said experts believe the unusually cold weather might have contributed to the surge in cases.

              British public health officials define a flu epidemic as an ILI rate of 200 per 100,000, according to the BBC story. The last time that happened in England was in 1989-90, the report said.

              "That one caught everyone a bit off guard but there's been a big push on flu vaccination since then," virologist John Oxford of Queen Mary's School of Medicine and Dentistry in London told the BBC.

              Oxford and others quoted in the story urged people to get a flu shot if they haven't done so yet.

              David Salisbury, director of immunization at the UK Department of Health, told the BBC, "We have had a very unusual run of winters with almost no flu, so we should not be surprised that here is a winter with more flu. It is very difficult to predict what makes the change winter to winter."

              In contrast to the situation in England, flu activity in the United States has remained low so far this season, according to the latest report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, issued Dec 19. The report, for the week that ended Dec 13, said only three states—Texas, Virginia, and Hawaii—were reporting local flu activity. Thirty-six states reported sporadic cases and 11 states were reporting none.

              Google Flu Trends, a Web site that estimates US flu activity from the volume of Internet searches for flu information, currently shows "moderate" activity only in Hawaii, Maryland, and Virginia, with the rest of the country having low activity.

              See also:
              RCGP report for Dec 15 to 21 http://www.rcgp.org.uk/pdf/pr_RCGP_W...1%20_2008_.pdf
              RCGP report for Dec 8 to 14 http://www.rcgp.org.uk/pdf/RCGP%20We...k50%202008.pdf
              CDC flu surveillance update http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/
              Google Flu Trends http://www.google.org/flutrends/
              -
              <cite cite="http://www.cidrap.umn.edu/cidrap/content/influenza/general/news/dec2408england.html">CIDRAP >> Surging flu cases may herald tough season in England</cite>

              Comment


              • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD align=middle width=780 bgColor=#0063c8 height=1>EISS - Weekly Electronic Bulletin </TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#0063c8 height=1><TABLE border=0><TBODY><TR bgColor=white><TD noWrap width=254 bgColor=#0063c8>Week 51 : 15/12/2008-21/12/2008</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=258 bgColor=#0063c8></TD><TD noWrap align=right width=254 bgColor=#0063c8>25 December 2008, Issue N° 285</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=3></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>
                Influenza season started in five European countries and many countries report increasing activity


                Summary: In week 51/2008, influenza activity reached high intensity in Portugal and medium intensity in Bulgaria, Ireland, Spain and the UK (England and Northern Ireland). Geographical spread was reported as local in France and Switzerland, regional in Spain and Wales, and widespread in England, Northern Ireland and Portugal. Most of the viruses isolated so far are type A of which the majority are of the H3 subtype. Given the current epidemiological and virological situation it is anticipated that in the coming weeks seasonal influenza will reach epidemic levels in a number of European countries

                Epidemiological situation - week 51/2008: For the intensity indicator, the national network levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) and/or acute respiratory infection (ARI) were high in Portugal and medium in Bulgaria, Ireland, Spain and the UK (England and Northern Ireland). The remaining 16 countries providing data reported low intensity with increasing trends in Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland. For the geographical spread indicator, widespread influenza activity occurred in Portugal and the UK (England and Northern Ireland), while regional activity was reported in Spain and the UK (Wales) and local activity in France and Switzerland. Sporadic activity was observed in ten countries while no activity was reported in Estonia, Greece, Hungary, Poland and Romania. Definitions for the epidemiological indicators can be found here.

                Cumulative epidemiological situation – 2008-2009 season (weeks 40-51/2008): The majority of countries participating in European influenza surveillance continue to report low intensity of influenza activity with some local spread at most. Four Western European countries and Bulgaria are currently experiencing medium to high intensity which is reported to be widespread in Portugal and the UK (England and Northern Ireland).

                Virological situation - week 51/2008: The total number of respiratory specimens collected by sentinel physicians in week 51/2008 was 1062, of which 346 (32.6%) were positive for influenza virus: 334 type A (223 subtype H3, six H1 and 105 not subtyped) and 12 type B. In addition, 354 non-sentinel source specimens (e.g. specimens collected for diagnostic purposes in hospitals) were reported positive for influenza virus: 341 type A (27 subtype H3, four subtype H1 and 310 not subtyped) and 13 type B. Overall, across Europe detection of influenza viruses was reported from 21 of 29 countries providing virological data for week 51/2008.

                Cumulative virological situation – 2008-2009 season (weeks 40-51/2008): Of 2026 virus detections (sentinel and non-sentinel) since week 40/2008, 1929 were type A (838 subtype H3, 55 subtype H1 and 1036 not subtyped) and 97 were type B.
                Based on the antigenic and/or genetic characterisation of 234 influenza viruses, 206 were reported as A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like, 16 as A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like, eight as B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage) and four as B/Florida/4/2006-like (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage) (click here).
                Forty-two A(H3N2) viruses have been tested for antiviral susceptibility so far this season; all those tested were sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (42 for oseltamivir, 40 for zanamivir) and resistant to the M2 inhibitor amantadine (40). Of 29 A(H1N1) viruses tested, all were sensitive to zanamivir and 28 were resistant to oseltamivir, whilst all of the 19 tested against amantadine were sensitive. Both B viruses tested have been sensitive to neuraminidase inhibitors (one was tested against both zanamivir and oseltamivir and one against oseltamivir only). But for two oseltamivir resistant A(H1N1) viruses from Norway, all other viruses tested have been from the UK.

                Comment: Four countries are now reporting medium influenza intensity and for the first time this season one country, Portugal, has reported widespread activity with high intensity in week 51/2008. Four of these five countries are in Western Europe, most of the neighbouring central and Northern European countries as well as Italy are observing increasing ILI/ARI consultation rates whereas most Eastern European countries continue to report low influenza intensity with no signs of increasing trends. The number of countries with epidemic levels of influenza activity is expected to grow over the coming weeks. The overall number of sentinel specimens collected for virological testing increased during from week 50 to week 51/2008 as did the proportion of sentinel specimens which tested positive for Influenza (from 26% in week 50 to 33% in week 51). So far this season, the majority (97%) of H-subtyped type A viruses have beenH3. This observation consolidates earlier indications that the 2008-9 influenza season in Europe is very likely to be dominated by H3 viruses.

                Background: The Weekly Electronic Bulletin presents and comments on influenza activity in the 30 European countries that are members of EISS. Of these countries, 29 reported virological data and 22 reported both clinical and virological data to EISS in week 51/2008. The spread of influenza virus viruses and their epidemiological impact in Europe are being monitored by EISS under the aegis of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm (Sweden) in collaboration with the WHO Collaborating Centre in London (UK).

                Other bulletins: To view national/regional bulletins in Europe and other bulletins from around the world, please click here.


                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE width=780 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD>Map

                The map presents the intensity of influenza activity and the geographical spread as assessed by each of the networks in EISS.

                Clicking on the map will, if available, take you through to the national web site. If 'regional' activity is reported, a pop-up text box will appear which describes the activity in greater detail.

                Clicking on England and France will provide you with regional data.

                <MAP name=area><AREA shape=POLY alt="Northern Ireland" coords=140,289,150,289,153,309,142,312,127,301 href="http://www.cdscni.org.uk/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Iceland coords=88,61,88,60,83,50,72,50,59,60,56,71,56,95,6 6,106,79,120,101,118,136,105,136,84,135,69,116,65, 105,67 href="http://www.landspitali.is"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Denmark coords=173,161,176,165,171,173,170,180,169,182,163 ,181,162,176,162,167,161,164,168,160 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Norway coords=332,79,328,90,322,100,314,114,312,120,302,1 42,296,152,288,153,279,166,257,185,255,238,266,258 ,282,259,297,245,305,238,310,240,313,240,314,227,3 22,220,322,213,318,209,322,198,318,188,314,171,318 ,153,324,148,329,149,331,145,328,137,333,130,333,1 17,345,89,341,85,347,78 href="http://www.fhi.no"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Norway coords=434,21,423,33,411,25,408,26,406,28,401,27,3 98,37,400,45,398,53,397,54,390,52,384,57,373,46,36 4,64,355,62,353,66,354,72,350,74,344,79,316,79,322 ,68,331,56,343,40,360,26,378,11,394,2,419,5,432,14 ,429,18 href="http://www.fhi.no"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=371,52,377,60,384,61,390,68,393,82,402,108, 390,111,310,239,314,238,315,227,322,221,321,213,31 8,209,319,206,323,199,319,192,314,171,316,167,316, 158,322,151,324,146,329,148,331,145,327,136,334,12 7,332,117,338,101,345,89,341,84,347,75,353,73,354, 69,354,62,359,62,365,63,369,52 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=385,118,316,226,310,239,310,255,321,280,324 ,293,326,307,336,305,339,305,342,300,342,298,341,2 97,357,291,361,289,366,266,362,247,377,231,377,217 ,361,200,363,178,373,159,384,144,387,133 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Denmark coords=307,260,311,273,305,279,310,286,307,295,308 ,300,314,293,323,290,326,300,325,310,326,310,319,3 19,310,319,300,314,288,314,281,311,286,305,281,302 ,281,296,272,297,273,278,284,278,285,274,294,271 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Scotland coords=195,225,190,222,184,230,182,234,170,232,161 ,242,160,231,149,235,149,242,141,248,140,258,150,2 56,152,263,142,267,148,271,144,282,151,288,151,291 ,156,294,155,302,160,304,170,304,181,295,185,293,1 89,287,187,279,191,273,191,270,197,259,196,252,180 ,250,189,240,194,231,196,225 href="http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/scieh/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Scotland coords=210,199,204,206,202,209,204,217,209,217,210 ,210,211,206,214,199 href="http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/scieh/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=380,209,379,213,380,216,386,215,388,212,385 ,209 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=379,245,379,251,375,256,372,262,373,269,374 ,276,375,276,377,270,381,263,381,257,385,253,381,2 52,382,245 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=159,307,158,311,157,314,163,314,164,310,164 ,306,163,306 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=190,287,185,291,184,294,182,294,173,302,169 ,305,171,313,174,317,172,327,170,331,171,333,182,3 32,197,329,205,328,203,317,200,312,194,306,193,289 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=204,328,192,331,182,331,175,333,169,332,167 ,342,166,353,165,362,178,359,192,358,193,359,209,3 59,214,361,218,354,221,348,219,344,209,340,206,341 ,207,330 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=213,360,203,359,191,359,190,358,174,359,169 ,362,165,365,159,363,147,367,141,375,133,378,133,3 83,142,383,150,380,159,384,163,377,170,380,181,381 ,200,382,212,377,215,369,210,367 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Wales coords=171,328,170,328,168,337,168,344,167,350,165 ,357,167,362,163,364,158,362,154,358,147,357,144,3 52,146,348,151,346,156,343,159,336,155,337,152,336 ,152,333,155,331,155,323,158,324,166,326 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=Wal es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Ireland coords=141,287,138,284,126,285,126,290,121,292,123 ,297,123,300,114,296,107,296,105,306,103,313,108,3 18,101,328,93,331,95,345,100,348,120,346,127,343,1 36,344,142,337,145,319,143,312,137,307,136,306,134 ,307,129,303,128,300,134,293 href="http://www.ndsc.ie"><AREA shape=POLY alt="The Netherlands" coords=272,339,272,338,272,344,271,346,272,348,272 ,351,267,354,270,358,268,362,268,365,261,368,259,3 69,261,372,259,379,255,377,249,374,243,372,237,376 ,230,373,233,368,238,362,239,352,245,345,252,335,2 64,336 href="http://www.virology.nl/research/influenza.asp"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Belgium coords=258,379,259,379,258,386,262,390,262,393,257 ,399,256,402,256,407,256,407,253,406,245,400,246,3 95,242,398,239,396,236,390,232,387,229,383,225,382 ,223,379,223,375,231,372,237,376,243,372,251,373 href="http://www.iph.fgov.be/flu/"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=France coords=223,376,212,378,211,391,195,396,192,401,182 ,399,181,393,172,394,174,413,164,409,159,405,144,4 05,138,408,139,422,151,428,153,434,161,435,162,442 ,168,454,174,453,178,451,179,448,177,444,180,441,1 92,442,200,448,200,452,217,453,221,450,229,450,236 ,456,244,454,248,451,252,454,262,451,268,445,272,4 43,274,431,276,424,280,419,277,416,266,413,261,407 ,254,407,246,400,246,396,242,400,240,395,235,390,2 28,383,223,382 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=France"><ARE A onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=France coords=262,452,253,455,248,451,240,455,237,456,230 ,451,222,450,218,453,208,452,200,452,198,446,192,4 42,185,441,179,442,176,443,179,448,177,452,170,455 ,168,453,169,468,167,486,161,499,159,504,168,514,1 77,516,179,521,187,521,189,520,195,521,198,528,207 ,528,208,530,212,529,216,529,217,518,229,510,232,5 13,241,515,251,521,261,517,269,510,273,504,271,502 ,264,497,265,491,261,485,266,482,267,479,264,473,2 66,471,262,463,258,465,256,465,257,460,258,456 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=France"><ARE A shape=POLY alt=Switzerland coords=306,455,302,464,301,461,302,464,301,466,295 ,463,292,466,288,472,285,469,282,465,278,469,276,4 71,269,472,266,472,265,470,262,464,257,466,254,466 ,257,456,261,452,267,445,273,441,283,441,289,439,2 95,443,296,450,302,455 href="http://www.bag.admin.ch/sentinella"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Germany coords=300,313,302,320,314,320,311,330,315,327,325 ,320,295,443,290,440,285,440,280,442,273,442,274,4 31,277,423,280,419,277,417,268,414,261,407,261,402 ,260,397,262,391,259,386,259,379,261,375,261,374,2 59,368,263,366,266,365,269,359,268,355,265,354,270 ,351,272,347,270,345,273,343,270,338,269,337,271,3 34,279,331,282,335,286,330,286,327,284,321,282,311 ,290,314,296,314 href="http://www.influenza.rki.de/agi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Germany coords=324,321,331,316,336,319,342,331,344,341,342 ,346,342,348,346,355,348,364,347,368,352,382,347,3 84,343,383,334,391,321,395,326,400,327,408,343,423 ,331,433,333,440,325,440,315,444,311,445,307,443,3 04,446,294,442 href="http://www.influenza.rki.de/agi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Bulgaria coords=451,492,454,498,466,495,478,493,490,489,497 ,481,519,483,520,492,516,505,523,513,513,516,509,5 16,503,523,501,531,489,534,479,533,463,538,457,529 ,451,524,450,516,455,509 href=""><AREA shape=POLY alt="Czech Republic" coords=352,381,356,383,363,386,367,385,369,388,367 ,390,371,393,372,389,374,387,380,392,388,396,396,4 01,395,404,392,410,377,418,362,419,360,417,356,416 ,349,423,340,424,340,419,326,406,326,400,321,395,3 26,395,341,385,345,383,350,383 href="http://www.szu.cz/cema/aro/aro.htm"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Slovakia coords=435,406,434,406,430,405,425,401,419,400,417 ,404,412,403,410,406,403,404,400,402,394,404,387,4 12,378,417,374,421,377,428,378,432,384,435,389,435 ,395,434,398,429,406,425,411,424,415,417,421,417,4 28,418,429,420,431,419,433,417 href="http://www.sea.host.sk/chripka.htm"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Slovenia coords=371,452,371,458,369,461,368,466,365,466,363 ,467,364,472,363,476,354,477,352,477,346,480,340,4 79,340,475,341,467,338,464,340,461,345,461,353,461 ,358,457,363,458 href="http://www.ivz.si/ivz/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Poland coords=344,340,340,328,359,321,362,315,375,308,385 ,315,397,315,418,313,424,311,431,315,439,340,432,3 46,439,353,441,365,448,378,438,390,435,400 href="http://www.pzh.gov.pl/aindex.html"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Poland coords=436,398,435,406,430,404,426,402,419,401,417 ,405,412,403,409,407,400,403,396,402,386,396,383,3 94,376,391,373,390,371,394,366,390,368,387,364,386 ,358,386,352,381,351,374,347,366,349,365,347,362,3 45,352,341,348,342,346,343,338 href="http://www.pzh.gov.pl/aindex.html"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Hungary coords=433,416,439,421,443,422,443,424,435,432,432 ,441,427,456,419,461,416,460,412,460,406,465,401,4 66,399,468,389,469,385,466,383,464,373,457,372,450 ,373,449,373,440,375,440,373,437,375,437,377,438,3 80,432,383,433,389,435,398,432,400,429,407,425,413 ,423,416,418,426,417,431,419 href="http://www.oek.hu"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=France coords=292,520,291,526,288,527,282,529,282,541,284 ,549,290,554,293,547,295,538,295,534,294,522 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=France"><ARE A shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=345,460,336,458,328,459,322,452,318,452,313 ,453,312,457,305,456,302,460,302,466,296,462,287,4 71,283,464,276,472,265,470,263,474,268,479,261,484 ,264,491,263,496,265,500,270,503,272,504,271,510,2 78,507,284,500,329,492,329,481,335,478,341,477,341 ,471,339,465,341,462 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=364,537,376,537,378,542,375,547,393,555,405 ,560,409,568,406,574,405,575,390,564,385,574,393,5 82,394,590,379,611,372,610,372,603,374,595,378,586 ,369,575,360,571 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=372,603,361,606,350,609,345,606,333,607,330 ,616,337,621,347,626,358,629,361,634,370,633,372,6 24,371,617 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=328,491,291,497,293,504,301,509,301,527,303 ,532,334,551,350,565,363,571,365,539,350,527,345,5 11,331,501 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=291,553,294,555,298,562,298,568,296,570,296 ,586,296,592,289,592,284,598,277,593,276,588,279,5 72,275,567,275,556,279,554,281,559,286,554 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=204,528,207,530,219,529,219,536,214,543,202 ,549,185,554,182,560,170,574,171,588,174,589,166,5 96,157,609,148,610,135,622,116,618,100,620,93,625, 80,621,79,610,74,599,202,528 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=Spa in"><AREA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=75,600,206,528,197,526,196,523,191,519,187, 521,178,520,177,516,172,515,160,504,150,500,141,49 8,122,494,115,490,101,486,91,482,81,481,81,485,71, 485,67,491,69,512,73,512,76,510,78,510,80,515,84,5 15,87,517,91,517,93,516,94,518,98,518,97,522,101,5 25,98,529,95,529,90,533,90,538,86,550,86,553,83,55 5,81,555,80,561,81,565,81,570,77,571,76,577,78,582 ,79,583,73,586,70,590,70,599 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=Spa in"><AREA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=227,571,221,570,220,575,216,575,212,571,206 ,573,202,576,201,581,207,582,208,586,215,583,218,5 78,230,575 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=Spa in"><AREA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=193,583,189,582,185,586,187,591,191,594,193 ,589 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=Spa in"><AREA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=58,616,70,616,72,616,70,627,66,627,56,622 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=Spa in"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Portugal coords=69,511,73,513,77,509,79,515,84,516,86,517,9 1,516,94,515,94,518,99,519,98,521,100,526,99,528,9 4,530,90,532,86,549,86,555,81,555,79,561,82,562,81 ,570,78,571,76,576,76,581,78,584,70,590,70,598,65, 600,53,598,48,596,33,591,34,587,38,587,44,592,49,5 94,51,587,54,573,50,570,47,564,51,553,59,542,65,53 0 href="http://www.dgsaude.pt/"><AREA shape=RECT alt="Portugal (Azores)" coords=2,544,22,559 href="http://www.dgsaude.pt/"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Greece coords=500,525,505,526,505,529,502,531,503,538,501 ,543,503,548,504,564,502,567,511,581,521,598,528,6 02,539,604,540,609,546,608,543,618,528,639,518,644 ,493,652,480,642,453,621,434,594,425,577,421,571,4 25,569,428,577,431,569,438,553,442,549,446,549,452 ,543,461,538,472,534,480,531,482,534,494,532,499,5 31 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=51&region=Greece"><ARE A shape=POLY alt=Estonia coords=401,248,427,247,459,252,454,233,455,218,440 ,214,422,219,406,225 href="http://www.tervisekaitse.ee"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Albania coords=415,537,414,528,417,522,421,525,426,525,431 ,533,430,544,439,554,428,576,426,570,416,563,415,5 53,417,543><AREA shape=POLY alt=Macedonia coords=431,533,430,544,438,553,443,549,447,548,452 ,543,457,543,462,538,460,530,451,523,445,526><AREA shape=POLY alt=Turkey coords=679,464,671,464,663,479,653,478,642,489,621 ,490,613,486,603,481,595,483,629,583,634,578,643,5 79,652,581,658,576,660,573,657,566,663,562,667,562 ,679,554,679,554><AREA shape=POLY alt=Turkey coords=596,482,566,508,542,522,521,515,508,514,500 ,524,506,525,505,529,502,533,503,538,500,542,504,5 64,502,567,516,588,525,588,524,595,530,602,539,600 ,541,608,548,604,557,610,578,609,579,597,598,598,6 09,602,619,599,629,585><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=423,32,413,26,410,24,405,28,400,28,398,37,4 00,45,397,53,389,51,385,56,373,45,370,50,375,58,37 8,61,385,63,392,73,395,92,401,108,433,66,431,62,42 7,56,420,56,420,46,418,42,421,39 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=432,67,431,75,431,82,442,96,442,114,448,123 ,454,127,452,134,457,140,388,160,384,157,390,152,4 03,127,409,111,401,106 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=458,139,464,147,467,152,450,191,452,195,408 ,218,393,214,391,204,384,159 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Romania coords=519,483,510,483,503,480,497,483,492,483,486 ,491,460,493,455,496,450,489,445,482,439,484,435,4 81,434,476,427,473,417,461,422,459,427,453,431,439 ,435,430,441,423 href="http://www.cantacuzino.ro"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Romania coords=516,482,520,482,520,466,528,460,528,450,520 ,450,515,456,513,457,504,447,503,431,488,418,486,4 10,481,408,473,417,464,423,460,421,441,421,441,424 href="http://www.cantacuzino.ro"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Malta coords=355,644,357,648,357,651,364,649,364,646,360 ,643 href="http://www.sahha.gov.mt"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Cyprus coords=635,595,626,604,614,607,614,612,607,617,611 ,624,624,620,629,616,636,611,631,607,639,597><AREA shape=POLY alt=Austria coords=375,419,374,422,379,432,380,435,375,438,373 ,436,372,438,373,441,372,450,361,458,358,457,352,4 61,342,460,331,458,327,457,324,453,314,453,311,458 ,297,453,295,449,294,443,298,443,303,445,308,442,3 12,445,320,441,326,439,331,441,333,438,330,433,339 ,424,344,422,348,424,357,415,360,416,363,419,372,4 18><AREA shape=POLY alt=Croatia coords=406,464,409,472,409,478,408,479,398,476,389 ,476,379,478,371,476,368,478,377,501,390,518,396,5 24,387,526,372,521,358,506,341,487,340,478,345,481 ,351,477,355,478,364,474,364,467,367,466,370,459,3 72,458,383,465,391,470,400,468 href="http://www.hzjz.hr"><AREA shape=POLY alt="Boznia and Herzegovina" coords=407,478,412,477,414,479,410,490,415,496,414 ,500,416,503,413,509,405,516,404,524,394,524,378,5 05,373,494,368,482,369,476,376,478,392,476,400,475 ><AREA shape=POLY alt=Montenegro coords=413,511,424,527,418,525,416,539,397,525><AR EA shape=POLY alt=Serbia coords=418,461,418,462,425,469,434,477,435,482,441 ,484,447,482,450,491,448,495,453,504,455,509,451,5 15,452,524,431,533,426,525,427,524,427,524,424,523 ,422,521,419,517,414,510,414,504,412,498,414,496,4 10,488,413,479,409,477,407,463,412,460 href="http://www.batut.org.yu/"><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=434,20,444,20,458,23,467,24,500,35,514,50,5 30,48,519,38,508,14,528,9,540,17,545,16,555,0,679, 0,679,177,451,193,452,182,459,170,466,151,461,140, 452,134,452,129,454,126,451,124,442,113,440,94,431 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coords=398,283,430,279,449,281,464,270,457,251,439 ,247,423,250,396,250 href="http://www.sva.lv"><AREA shape=CIRCLE alt=Denmark coords=347,310,5 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=RECT alt=Norway coords=290,8,326,41 href="http://www.fhi.no"></MAP><FORM name=form1 action="" method=post>You may select the type of map :</B> Intensity <INPUT onclick="movepic('button','/bulletin_maps/2008_51_int_v2.png')" type=radio CHECKED value=radiobutton name=radiobutton> Geographical spread <INPUT onclick="movepic('button','/bulletin_maps/2008_51_v2.png')" type=radio value=radiobutton name=radiobutton> </FORM><CENTER> </CENTER>
                <CENTER><TABLE cellSpacing=5><TBODY><TR><TD vAlign=top noWrap>A = Dominant virus A
                H1N1 = Dominant virus A(H1N1)
                H3N2 = Dominant virus A(H3N2)
                H1N2 = Dominant virus A(H1N2)
                B = Dominant virus B
                A & B = Dominant virus A & B

                = : stable clinical activity
                + : increasing clinical activity
                - : decreasing clinical activity

                </TD><TD></TD><TD vAlign=top>Low = no influenza activity or influenza at baseline levels
                Medium = usual levels of influenza activity
                High = higher than usual levels of influenza activity
                Very high = particularly severe levels of influenza activity

                No activity = no evidence of influenza virus activity (clinical activity remains at baseline levels)
                Sporadic = isolated cases of laboratory confirmed influenza infection
                Local outbreak = increased influenza activity in local areas (e.g. a city) within a region,
                or outbreaks in two or more institutions (e.g. schools) within a region. Laboratory confirmed.
                Regional activity = influenza activity above baseline levels in one or more regions with
                a population comprising less than 50% of the country's total population. Laboratory confirmed.
                Widespread = influenza activity above baseline levels in one or more regions with a population
                comprising 50% or more of the country's population. Laboratory confirmed.

                Finland : Where available, the epidemiological data are provided by a health-care district in
                South-Western Finland (the health-care district serves 54,000 inhabitants i.e. approximately one
                percent of the Finnish population).
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></CENTER>
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>Network comments (where available)

                <TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD width=20> </TD><TD width=700>Italy
                Six A/H3N2 influenza isolates have been reported.
                Norway
                Due to the Christmas holidays, data for week 51 are preliminary and incomplete
                Switzerland
                An increase of the number of samples received at the laboratory has been observed in Sentinel network.
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE width=780><TBODY><TR><TD>Table and graphs (where available)

                <CENTER><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=2 bgColor=white border=0><TBODY><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=14></TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white></TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Intensity</TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Geographic
                Spread
                </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Sentinel
                swabs
                </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Percentage
                positive
                </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Dominant
                type
                </TD><TD vAlign=top align=middle bgColor=white colSpan=2>ILI per
                100,000
                </TD><TD vAlign=top align=middle bgColor=white colSpan=2>ARI per
                100,000
                </TD><TD vAlign=top noWrap bgColor=white>Virology graph
                and pie chart
                </TD></TR><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=13></TD></TR><TR id=r1c0><TD class=relative id=r1c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Austria</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r1c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r1c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>108</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>6.5%</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r1c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r1c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r1c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r2c0><TD class=relative id=r2c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Belgium</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>25</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>4.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) align=right>107.9</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) align=right>1951.7</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r3c0><TD class=relative id=r3c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Bulgaria</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>34</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>5.9%</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r3c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) align=right>1044.8 </TD><TD class=relative id=r3c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r4c0><TD class=relative id=r4c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Czech Republic</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>48</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>2.1%</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) align=right>32.9 </TD><TD class=relative id=r4c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) align=right>1090.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r4c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r5c0><TD class=relative id=r5c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Denmark</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>9</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>55.6%</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) align=right>63.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r5c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r5c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r6c0><TD class=relative id=r6c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>England</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Widespread</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>237</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>53.2%</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) align=right>53.1 </TD><TD class=relative id=r6c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) align=right>946.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r6c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r7c0><TD class=relative id=r7c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Estonia</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>4</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) align=right>1.3</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) align=right>320.1</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r8c0><TD class=relative id=r8c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>France</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Local</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>98</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>30.6%</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r8c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) align=right>2595.2 </TD><TD class=relative id=r8c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r9c0><TD class=relative id=r9c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Germany</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>103</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>45.6%</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r9c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) align=right>977.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r9c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r10c0><TD class=relative id=r10c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Greece</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>3</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) align=right>57.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r11c0><TD class=relative id=r11c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Hungary</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r11c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r11c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r11c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) align=right>112.8</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r12c0><TD class=relative id=r12c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Ireland</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>7</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>85.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) align=right>61.6 </TD><TD class=relative id=r12c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r12c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r13c0><TD class=relative id=r13c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Italy</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>35</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>14.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) align=right>121.6 </TD><TD class=relative id=r13c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r13c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r14c0><TD class=relative id=r14c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Latvia</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r15c0><TD class=relative id=r15c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Lithuania</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r15c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r15c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>1</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r15c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r15c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r15c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r16c0><TD class=relative id=r16c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Luxembourg</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>20</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>20.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) align=right>25.2 </TD><TD class=relative id=r16c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) align=right>3376.2 </TD><TD class=relative id=r16c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r17c0><TD class=relative id=r17c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)>Malta</TD><TD class=relative id=r17c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r17c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r17c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r17c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r17c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r17c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r17c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r17c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r17c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r17c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(17,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(17,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r18c0><TD class=relative id=r18c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Netherlands</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r18c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r18c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>14</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>7.1%</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r18c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r18c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r18c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r19c0><TD class=relative id=r19c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Widespread</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>14</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>92.9%</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) align=right>196.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r19c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r19c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r20c0><TD class=relative id=r20c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Norway</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r20c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r20c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>10</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>60.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r20c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r20c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r20c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r21c0><TD class=relative id=r21c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Poland</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>29</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) align=right>51.9 </TD><TD class=relative id=r21c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r21c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r22c0><TD class=relative id=r22c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Portugal</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>High</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Widespread</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>14</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>35.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) align=right>113.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r22c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r22c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r23c0><TD class=relative id=r23c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Romania</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>15</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) align=right>0.2 </TD><TD class=relative id=r23c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) align=right>925.7 </TD><TD class=relative id=r23c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r24c0><TD class=relative id=r24c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)>Scotland</TD><TD class=relative id=r24c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r24c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r24c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)>36</TD><TD class=relative id=r24c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r24c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r24c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r24c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r24c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r24c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r24c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(24,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(24,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r25c0><TD class=relative id=r25c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Serbia</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r25c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r25c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r25c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r25c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r25c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r26c0><TD class=relative id=r26c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Slovakia</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r26c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r26c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>7</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>14.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r26c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r26c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r26c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r27c0><TD class=relative id=r27c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Slovenia</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>10</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>20.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r27c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) align=right>891.6 </TD><TD class=relative id=r27c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r28c0><TD class=relative id=r28c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Spain</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Regional</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>148</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>53.4%</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) align=right>129.2 </TD><TD class=relative id=r28c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r28c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r29c0><TD class=relative id=r29c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Sweden</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) align=right>6.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r29c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r29c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r30c0><TD class=relative id=r30c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Switzerland</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Local</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>33</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>15.2%</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) align=right>33.1 </TD><TD class=relative id=r30c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r30c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r30c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r31c0><TD class=relative id=r31c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Wales</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Regional</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r31c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r31c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r31c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) align=right>13.8 </TD><TD class=relative id=r31c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r31c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r32c0><TD class=relative id=r32c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>Europe</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>1062</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>32.6%</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>Click here</TD><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=14></TD></TR><TR><TD colSpan=14>Preliminary data</TD><TR><TD colSpan=14>
                Intensity: Low = no influenza activity or influenza activity at baseline level; Medium= usual levels of influenza activity; High = higher than usual levels of influenza activity; Very high = particularly severe levels of influenza activity.
                Percentage positive: percentage of sentinel swabs that tested positive for influenza A or B
                Dominant type: this assessment is based on data from sentinel and non-sentinel sources
                ARI: acute respiratory infection
                ILI: influenza-like illness
                Population: per 100,000 population
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></CENTER>
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>The bulletin text was written by an editorial team at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL). Team members are Flaviu Plata, Phillip Zucs and Bruno Ciancio from ECDC, and Adam, Meijer Rod Daniels Alan Hay and Maria Zambon from CNRL. The bulletin text was reviewed by Olav Hungnes (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), and Anne Mazick (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark) on behalf of the EISS members.

                Neither the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), nor any person acting on his behalf is liable for the use that may be made of the information contained in this bulletin. Maps and commentary used in this Bulletin do not imply any opinions whatsoever of ECDC or its partners on the legal status of the countries and territories shown or concerning their borders.
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD align=middle width=780 bgColor=#0063c8>EISS : Weekly Electronic Bulletin</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

                Comment


                • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                  Italy. 2008/2009 Influenza Season. VIROLOGIC SURVEILLANCE, Dec. 24, 2008 Update [Min. of Health]

                  INFLUENZA. VIROLOGIC SURVEILLANCE.

                  December 24, 2008

                  Weekly Update 51/08

                  [Original PDF Document (in Italian) LINK. Manual translation by mod. IOH]


                  -- ITALY

                  During 51th surveillance week, 48 samples have been collected by participant laboratories network.

                  Among them, six samples tested positive for influenza A subtype H3N2.

                  Three samples were from Parma University laboratory, whereas one was from - respectively - Milan, Trieste e Lecce universities labs.

                  Florence University lab isolated another influenza A/H3N2 virus from a samples collected during previous week surveillance activities.

                  Tables reports cumulative virologic data collected between week 46-08) and week 51-08.


                  [ SURVEILLANCE WEEK 46 / 47 / 48 / 49 / 50 / 51 / TOT POSITIVE SAMPLES]


                  - FLU A / 3 / 4 / 4 / 5 / 2 / 6 / 24
                  - A (unsubtyped) / ... / ... / ... / 1 / ... / ... / 1
                  - A/H3N2 / 3 / 4 / 4 / 4 / 2 / 6 / 23
                  - A/H1N1 / ... / ... / ... / ... / ... / ... / ...
                  - FLU B / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0 / 0
                  - TOT SAMPLES TESTED POSITIVE / 3 / 4 / 4 / 5 / 2 / 6 / 24

                  (...)

                  Antigenic and genetic characterization of isolates - performed at London reference laboratory - demonstrates that all recent A/H3N2 Italian isolates are closely related to 2008/2009 seasonal influenza vaccine reference strain.

                  Some of the most recent A/H3N2 isolated demonstrated poor hemagglutination capabilities in turkey and human red blood cells. Thus, it should be employed guinea pigs cells.


                  -- FROM THE WORLD

                  - Europe
                  Influenza viruses circulation is increasing in all European countries. During last surveillance week, 916 samples were collected; of these, 355 were influenza positive.
                  Among them, 341 were influenza A (150 H3, 7 H1 and 184 yet unsubtyped) whereas 14 were type B.

                  Further informations at:
                  http://www.eiss.org/index.cgi
                  http://www.grog.org/

                  - USA
                  Influenza viruses circulation remains low in USA. Of the samples collected and tested, 103 were positive for influenza.
                  Among them, 79 were type A (28 H1, 3 H3 and 48 yet unsubtyped) and 24 influenza type B.

                  Further informations are available at:
                  http://www.cdc.gov/flu/
                  -
                  -----

                  Comment


                  • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                    machinetranslated

                    Epidemic influenza in Portugal: nearly 100,000 cases in three days

                    LISBON - Portugal is facing since early December to a strong flu epidemic, which has
                    contaminated nearly 100,000 people in the past three days, announced Monday the minister
                    Portuguese Health, Ana Jorge.

                    According to figures clinics and hospitals, 37,041 cases were reported throughout the country
                    Friday, 30,236 Saturday and 27,954 Sunday, said the minister at a press conference.

                    According to the Director General of Health, Francisco George, the peak of the epidemic "is not yet
                    reached and the balance of patients is expected to increase by the end of the week.

                    Influenza affects so far 126 people per 100,000 inhabitants and could reach levels
                    Record winter 2004-2005 (209 cases per 100,000 inhabitants), he told AFP.

                    All weekend long, patients have flocked in public hospitals where waiting time was
                    achieve the twenty hours, according to local media. Given the scale of the epidemic, the authorities
                    given the green light to health facilities to postpone non-urgent operations and release
                    beds.

                    The emergency telephone number "Saude 24" was also raided, with nearly 10,000 calls since Friday and was saturated part of the weekend.

                    http://www.romandie.com/ats/news/081...4.osb0nuvx.asp
                    “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                    Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                    ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                    Comment


                    • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                      Originally posted by Dutchy View Post
                      machinetranslated

                      Epidemic influenza in Portugal: nearly 100,000 cases in three days

                      LISBON - Portugal is facing since early December to a strong flu epidemic, which has
                      contaminated nearly 100,000 people in the past three days, announced Monday the minister
                      Portuguese Health, Ana Jorge.

                      According to figures clinics and hospitals, 37,041 cases were reported throughout the country
                      Friday, 30,236 Saturday and 27,954 Sunday, said the minister at a press conference.

                      According to the Director General of Health, Francisco George, the peak of the epidemic "is not yet
                      reached and the balance of patients is expected to increase by the end of the week.

                      Influenza affects so far 126 people per 100,000 inhabitants and could reach levels
                      Record winter 2004-2005 (209 cases per 100,000 inhabitants), he told AFP.

                      All weekend long, patients have flocked in public hospitals where waiting time was
                      achieve the twenty hours, according to local media. Given the scale of the epidemic, the authorities
                      given the green light to health facilities to postpone non-urgent operations and release
                      beds.

                      The emergency telephone number "Saude 24" was also raided, with nearly 10,000 calls since Friday and was saturated part of the weekend.

                      http://www.romandie.com/ats/news/081...4.osb0nuvx.asp
                      <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width="100&#37;" border=0><TBODY><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>403.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>47</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>404.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>48</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>1</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>405.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>49</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>406.
                      </TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>50</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view

                      </TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>407.
                      </TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>47</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>5</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>408.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>48</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>9</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>409.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>49</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>16</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>410.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>50</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>6</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view

                      </TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>411.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>47</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>412.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>48</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>1</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>413.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>49</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>414.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>Portugal</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>50</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>54</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

                      Comment


                      • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                        Originally posted by ironorehopper View Post
                        United Kingdom: Flu outbreak is worst for eight years - The Guardian
                        Flu outbreak is worst for eight years

                        * Sarah Boseley, health editor
                        * The Guardian, Wednesday 24 December 2008

                        Britain is in the grip of a flu outbreak greater than anything seen in the last eight years, with soaring numbers of people falling ill, new figures show.


                        The last big flu outbreak occurred in 1999/2000, when 22,000 people died, which is 10 times the average for a winter flu season.

                        The latest figures from the Royal College of GPs show 69 cases of flu in 100,000 population for this week. In the last two weeks, the rate has climbed steeply, from 28 in 100,000 two weeks ago, to 40 last week and now 69.

                        The rise is across all regions of the UK and all age groups, but it appears to be the young and middle-aged adults who are hit hardest. The rate has soared to 80 in 100,000 in the 15 to 44 age group and to 76 among 45 to 64-year-olds. These tend to be more socially active people - teenagers, young adults and workers who refuse to stay home when they feel ill.

                        The worsening outbreak will cause problems for the health service over the Christmas break, especially combined with the spread of the vomiting bug norovirus. These highly transmittable diseases are hitting hard at a time when GP practices will be closed and hospital staff reduced because of the holiday.

                        "If you have norovirus on the ward, you have to close it down and clean it," said Professor Steve Field, a Birmingham GP who is chairman of the Royal College of GPs. "And at the same time you are getting more frail and elderly people getting bronchitis and pneumonia."

                        Even last week, flu was having an impact on the functioning of the NHS. David Nicholson, the NHS chief executive, said across England the number of 999 calls was 7% higher than last year and admissions to hospital through A&E departments were 4% up, because of more cases of flu and breathing problems. London, the West Midlands and south-west were under the most pressure, he said.

                        Older people are being hit less hard by flu at the moment because of the good take-up rate of the vaccine among the over-65s. The rate is now 45 in 100,000 in that age group. However, there are concerns about many others under the age of 65 who are considered to be at risk of the complications of flu, which can be serious and in some cases life-threatening.

                        Campaigns from the Department of Health have been urging those at risk of complications to have a flu vaccination for several months. But while 72% of the over-65s have had the jab, only 42% of younger people considered to be at risk have come forward.

                        Around 4 million people under 65 risk becoming seriously ill with the complications of flu, such as bronchitis and pneumonia. They include people whose immune systems are in some way compromised, those with asthma, serious kidney and liver complaints and diabetes.

                        Professor Field said he was also concerned about those in the older age group who have not been vaccinated. Although the rate was 72% overall, it was patchy, he said. "This is going to be around for a while, so it is well worth getting vaccinated."

                        This year, the strain of flu that is doing the damage - H3N2, or Brisbane flu after the city where it was first identified - is one of the three included in the vaccination, so anybody who has a jab is well-protected.

                        The HPA said the figures looked worse because the last three years have been quiet. But an early rise did not necessarily mean a continuing rise in the numbers falling ill.

                        "It may continue on up and it may go down," said the spokeswoman. Other countries in Europe are not yet seeing a rise in cases.

                        She stressed that those who get ill should stay at home and not spread the infection around the workplace. "If you are sick, don't even bother. Just stay home and get better or you will just infect the rest of your team," she said.

                        The steady upward trend in flu cases is matched by the number of people going to see their GP for common colds, which hit 300 in 100,000 last week - up from an average of 200 a week earlier in the month.

                        Professor Field said the current outbreak was still well short of an epidemic. The outbreak in 1999/2000 hit a peak of 220 cases per 100,000 and was classified officially as an epidemic by the Department of Health.

                        The current trend is a very steep and sudden rise in cases, but it is always possible that it will peak early and start to go back down.

                        "You can't assume anything," he said. "Some of them do go down." He would expect a drop in cases in the next week or so anyway because fewer GPs are working and recording case numbers.
                        -
                        <CITE cite=http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/dec/24/health-flu-outbreak>Flu outbreak is worst for eight years | Society | The Guardian</CITE>
                        <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width="100%" border=0><TBODY><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>514.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>47</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>515.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>48</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>4</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>516.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>49</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>8</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>517.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>50</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>5</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>518.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H1)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>51</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>3</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>519.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>47</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>21</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>520.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>48</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>75</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>521.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>49</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>98</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>522.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>50</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>104</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>523.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (H3)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>51</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>145</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>524.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>47</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>525.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>48</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>526.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>49</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>527.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>50</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR><TR><TD class=content vAlign=top>528.</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top width=161>United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top>A (not suptyped)</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>51</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>2008</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>0</TD><TD class=content vAlign=top align=middle>view</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

                        Comment


                        • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                          <TABLE border=1><CAPTION>INFLUENZA VIRUSES ISOLATED BY
                          WHO/NREVSS Collaborating Laboratories
                          2008 - 2009 Season
                          </CAPTION><TBODY><TR><TH id=header1 width=70>Week</TH><TH id=header2 width=90>A(H1)</TH><TH id=header3 width=70>A(H3)</TH><TH id=header4 width=70>A(Unk)</TH><TH id=header5 width=70>B </TH><TH id=header6 align=right>Total # Tested</TH><TH id=header7 align=right>% Positive</TH></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>40 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>2 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>0 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>9 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>2557 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>0.66 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>41 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>4 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>4 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>2585 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>0.77 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>42 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>13 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>15 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>2713 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.36 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>43 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>22 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>0 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>24 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>14 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3092 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.94 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>44 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>11 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>1 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>21 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>4 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3267 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.13 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>45 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>28 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>23 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>10 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3860 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.66 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>46 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>27 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>2 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>18 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>10 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3723 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.53 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>47 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>24 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>0 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>36 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>22 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>4017 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>2.04 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>48 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>37 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>2 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>45 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>20 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>4037 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>2.58 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>49 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>33 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>58 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>13 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>4419 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>2.42 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>50 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>55 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>4 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>67 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>32 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>4489 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>3.52 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>51 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>22 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>55 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>23 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3035 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>3.39 </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
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                          Comment


                          • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                            2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 51 ending December 20, 2008
                            (All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.)
                            Synopsis:

                            During week 51 (December 14-20, 2008), a low level of influenza activity was reported in the United States.
                            • One hundred three (3.4%) specimens tested by U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories and reported to CDC/Influenza Division were positive for influenza.
                            • The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the epidemic threshold.
                            • The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was below national and region-specific baseline levels.
                            • Two states reported regional activity; six states reported local influenza activity; Puerto Rico and 36 states reported sporadic influenza activity; five states reported no influenza activity; and the District of Columbia and one state did not report.
                            <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><CAPTION>National and Regional Summary of Select Surveillance Components

                            </CAPTION><TBODY><TR vAlign=top><TH vAlign=bottom width=85 rowSpan=2>
                            Region
                            </TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=300 colSpan=3>Data for current week</STRONG></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=276 colSpan=5>Data cumulative for the season</TH></TR><TR vAlign=top><TH align=middle width=72>Out-patient ILI*</TH><TH align=middle width=72>% positive for flu†</TH><TH align=middle width=96>Number of jurisdictions reporting regional or widespread activity‡</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=48>A (H1)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=48>A (H3)</TH><TH align=middle width=60>A Unsub-typed</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=48>B</TH><TH align=middle width=72>Pediatric Deaths</TH></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Nation</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>3.4 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>2 of 51 </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>278</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>25</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>377</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>166</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>New England</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0.3 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>1 of 6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>1</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>9</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>1</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Mid-Atlantic</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>1.7 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>1 of 3</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>15</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>3</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>11</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>5</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>East North Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>5.7 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 5</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>12</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>2</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>5</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>West North Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0.6 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 7</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>13</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>7</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>South Atlantic</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>3.0 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 9</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>16</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>91</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>62</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>East South Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>1.0 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 4</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>1</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>2</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>West South Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>5.8 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 4</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>49</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>145</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>61</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Mountain</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>3.0 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 8</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>8</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>13</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>27</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Pacific</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>4.6 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 5</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>171</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>76</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>16</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                            * Elevated means the % of visits for ILI is at or above the national or region-specific baseline
                            † National data is for current week; regional data is for the most recent three weeks.
                            ‡ Includes all 50 states and the District of Columbia
                            U.S. Virologic Surveillance:

                            WHO and NREVSS collaborating laboratories located in all 50 states and Washington D.C. report to CDC the number of respiratory specimens tested for influenza each week. Results of these tests performed during the current week and cumulative totals for the season are summarized in the table below.
                            <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><TBODY><TR><TH align=left width=200></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=140>Week 51</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=140>Cumulative for the Season</TH></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200>No. of specimens tested</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>3035</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>41794</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200>No. of positive specimens (%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>103 (3.4%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>846 (2.0%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left colSpan=3>Positive specimens by type/subtype</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> Influenza A</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>80 (77.7%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>680 (80.4%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> A (H1)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>22 (27.5%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>278 (40.9%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> A (H3)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>3 (3.8%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>25 (3.7%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> A (unsubtyped)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>55 (68.8%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>377 (55.4%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> Influenza B</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>23 (22.3%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>166 (19.6%)</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                            Thirty-nine states from all nine surveillance regions have reported laboratory-confirmed influenza this season with three states accounting for 635 (75.1%) of the 846 reported influenza viruses.
                            <CENTER>
                            View WHO-NREVSS Regional Bar Charts| View Chart Data | View Full Screen </CENTER>Antigenic Characterization:

                            CDC has antigenically characterized 85 influenza viruses [49 influenza A (H1), seven influenza A (H3) and 29 influenza B viruses] collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2008.
                            All 49 influenza A (H1) viruses are related to the influenza A (H1N1) component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine (A/Brisbane/59/2007). All seven influenza A (H3) viruses are related to the influenza A (H3N2) vaccine component (A/Brisbane/10/2007).
                            Influenza B viruses currently circulating can be divided into two distinct lineages represented by the B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/02/87 viruses. Nine influenza B viruses tested belong to the B/Yamagata lineage and are related to the vaccine strain (B/Florida/04/2006). The remaining 20 viruses belong to the B/Victoria lineage and are not related to the vaccine strain. Seventeen of the 20 viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage were from two states.
                            Data on antigenic characterization should be interpreted with caution given that:
                            1. Few U.S. isolates are available for testing because of limited influenza activity thus far.
                            2. The majority of viruses antigenically characterized to date come from only two states and may not be nationally representative.
                            3. Antigenic characterization data is based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using a panel of reference ferret antisera and results may not correlate with clinical protection against circulating viruses provided by influenza vaccination.
                            Annual influenza vaccination is expected to provide the best protection against those virus strains that are related to the vaccine strains, but limited to no protection may be expected when the vaccine and circulating virus strains are so different as to be from different lineages, as is seen with the two lineages of influenza B viruses.
                            Antiviral Resistance:

                            Since October 1, 2008, 65 influenza A (H1N1), 10 influenza A (H3N2), and 29 influenza B viruses from 18 states have been tested for resistance to the neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir); however, 62% of the viruses tested were from only two states. Fifty influenza A (H1N1) and eight influenza A (H3N2) viruses from 14 states have been tested for resistance to the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine); however, 60% of the viruses tested were from only two states. The results of antiviral resistance testing performed on these viruses are summarized in the table below.
                            <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><TBODY><TR><TH align=left width=160></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Isolates tested (n)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=200 colSpan=2>Resistant Viruses,
                            Number (%)
                            </TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Isolates tested (n)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=120>Resistant Viruses, Number (%)</TH></TR><TR><TH align=left width=160></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Oseltamivir</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Zanamivir</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=120>Adamantanes</TH></TR><TR><TD noWrap align=left width=160>Influenza A (H1N1)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>65</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>64 (99%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>50</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=120>0 (0%)</TD></TR><TR><TD noWrap align=left width=160>Influenza A (H3N2)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>10</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>8</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=120>8 (100%)</TD></TR><TR><TD noWrap align=left width=160>Influenza B</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>29</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>N/A*</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=120>N/A*</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><SUP>*The adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) are not effective against influenza B viruses.</SUP>


                            With low levels of influenza activity thus far in the 2008-09 season in the United States, overall numbers of virus specimens and the number of states that have submitted specimens for testing is limited. The limited number and geographic diversity of specimens tested for antiviral resistance, as well as the uncertainty regarding which influenza virus types or subtypes will predominate during the season, make it too early to make an accurate determination of the prevalence of influenza viruses resistant to oseltamivir nationally or regionally at this time. CDC has solicited a representative sample of viruses from WHO collaborating laboratories in the United States, and more specimens are expected as influenza activity increases.
                            Pneumonia and Influenza (P&I) Mortality Surveillance

                            During week 51, 6.9% of all deaths reported through the 122-Cities Mortality Reporting System were due to P&I. This percentage is below the epidemic threshold of 7.4% for week 51.
                            <CENTER>
                            View Full Screen</CENTER>Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality

                            No influenza-associated pediatric deaths were reported during week 51. The pediatric death that was reported during week 50 was later reclassified by the state to not be due to influenza. No influenza-associated pediatric deaths have been reported during the 2008-09 season.
                            <CENTER>
                            View Full Screen</CENTER>Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations

                            Laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations are monitored in two population-based surveillance networks: the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) and the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN).
                            No influenza-associated hospitalizations have been reported from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network this season.
                            During October 1 – December 20, 2008, preliminary laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization rates reported by the EIP for children aged 0-4 years and 5-17 years were 0.3 per 10,000 and 0.01 per 10,000, respectively. For adults aged 18-49 years, 50-64 years, and = 65 years, the rates were 0.03 per 10,000, 0.04 per 10,000, and 0.1 per 10,000, respectively.
                            <CENTER>
                            View Full Screen</CENTER>Outpatient Illness Surveillance:

                            During week 51, 1.5% of patient visits reported through the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) were due to influenza-like illness (ILI). This percentage is less than the national baseline of 2.4%. On a regional level, the percentage of visits for ILI ranged from 0.6% to 2.5%. All nine surveillance regions reported percentages of visits for ILI below their respective region-specific baselines.
                            <CENTER>
                            View Sentinel Providers Regional Charts | View Chart Data |View Full Screen
                            </CENTER>Geographic Spread of Influenza as Assessed by State and Territorial Epidemiologists:


                            During week 51 the following influenza activity was reported:
                            • Regional influenza activity was reported by two states (New Jersey and Massachusetts).
                            • Local influenza activity was reported by six states (Arizona, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Texas, and Virginia).
                            • Sporadic activity was reported in the Puerto Rico and 36 states (Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, and Wyoming).
                            • No influenza activity was reported in five states (Alabama, Delaware, Kentucky, Ohio, and Utah)
                            • The District of Columbia and one state (New Mexico) did not report.
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                            Comment


                            • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                              <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><TBODY><TR><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Isolates tested (n)
                              </TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=200 colSpan=2>Resistant Viruses,
                              Number (&#37
                              </TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Isolates tested (n)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=120>Resistant Viruses, Number (%)</TH></TR><TR><TH align=left width=160></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Oseltamivir</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100>Zanamivir</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=100></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=120>Adamantane</TH></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

                              <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><TBODY><TR><TD noWrap align=left width=160>Influenza A (H1N1)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>65</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>64 (99%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>50</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=120>0 (0%)</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

                              Comment


                              • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                                PA Influenza Weekly Report
                                Week ending December 20, 2008 (Week 51)

                                <HR id=main style="WIDTH: 526px" SIZE=2>
                                <TABLE cellSpacing=5 cellPadding=5 width=560 align=center bgColor=#ffff80 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD>Pennsylvania Influenza Activity Level Reported To CDC For Week 51:</TD><TD>
                                Sporadic
                                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                                Levels of activity are
                                1) no activity;
                                2) sporadic: isolated laboratory-confirmed influenza cases or laboratory-confirmed outbreak in one institution, with no increase in activity;
                                3) local: increased influenza-like illness (ILI) in one region, or at least two institutional outbreaks (ILI or laboratory-confirmed influenza) in one region; virus activity no greater than sporadic in other regions;
                                4) regional: increased ILI activity or outbreaks (ILI or laboratory-confirmed influenza) in at least two but fewer than half of the regions in the state; and
                                5) widespread: increased ILI activity or outbreaks (ILI or laboratory-confirmed influenza) in at least half the regions in the state.



                                To see a map of US influenza activity levels for the preceding week (week 50), go to http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/usmap.htm or http://www.google.org/flutrends/

                                <HR id=main>

                                Comparison of PA influenza case counts* for current season with case counts for the previous 5 seasons



                                *Patients with positive antigen, nucleic acid, and culture test results reported to Pennsylvania's electronic disease reporting system, PA-NEDSS

                                <HR id=main style="WIDTH: 562px" SIZE=2>

                                Number of people per county in PA with positive laboratory tests for influenza,* current season through Week 51



                                <TABLE class=Table cellSpacing=1 cellPadding=7 rules=none summary="Procedure Freq: One-Way Frequencies" frame=box><THEAD><TR><TH class=" b Header" scope=colgroup colSpan=3>COUNTY</TH></TR><TR><TH class="l b Header" scope=col>RESPJURIS</TH><TH class="r b Header" scope=col>Frequency</TH><TH class="r b Header" scope=col>Percent</TH></TR></THEAD><TBODY><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>ALLEGHENY</TH><TD class="r Data">7</TD><TD class="r Data">8.54</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>ARMSTRONG</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>BERKS</TH><TD class="r Data">5</TD><TD class="r Data">6.10</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>BLAIR</TH><TD class="r Data">3</TD><TD class="r Data">3.66</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>BUCKS</TH><TD class="r Data">12</TD><TD class="r Data">14.63</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>CAMBRIA</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>CENTRE</TH><TD class="r Data">9</TD><TD class="r Data">10.98</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>CHESTER</TH><TD class="r Data">2</TD><TD class="r Data">2.44</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>CUMBERLAND</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>DELAWARE</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>ELK</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>ERIE</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>FAYETTE</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>FRANKLIN</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>INDIANA</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>LACKAWANNA</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>LANCASTER</TH><TD class="r Data">2</TD><TD class="r Data">2.44</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>LEHIGH</TH><TD class="r Data">3</TD><TD class="r Data">3.66</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>LYCOMING</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>MCKEAN</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>MERCER</TH><TD class="r Data">2</TD><TD class="r Data">2.44</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>MONROE</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>MONTGOMERY</TH><TD class="r Data">11</TD><TD class="r Data">13.41</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>NORTHAMPTON</TH><TD class="r Data">2</TD><TD class="r Data">2.44</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>PHILADELPHIA</TH><TD class="r Data">3</TD><TD class="r Data">3.66</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>SNYDER</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>VENANGO</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>WARREN</TH><TD class="r Data">1</TD><TD class="r Data">1.22</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>WASHINGTON</TH><TD class="r Data">3</TD><TD class="r Data">3.66</TD></TR><TR><TH class="l RowHeader" scope=row>WESTMORELAND</TH><TD class="r Data">2</TD><TD class="r Data">2.44</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                                *Positive antigen, nucleic acid, and culture test results reported to Pennsylvania's electronic disease reporting system, PA-NEDSS

                                <?xml:namespace prefix = st1 ns = "urn:schemas-microsoft-com:office:smarttags" /><st1:State w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Pennsylvania</st1:place></st1:State> Influenza Cases confirmed by the Bureau of Laboratories
                                (as of 12/22/2008)
                                <CENTER>
                                </CENTER><TABLE style="BORDER-RIGHT: medium none; BORDER-TOP: medium none; MARGIN: auto 6.75pt; BORDER-LEFT: medium none; WIDTH: 471.2pt; BORDER-BOTTOM: medium none; BORDER-COLLAPSE: collapse" cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=628 align=left border=1><TBODY><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>District
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>County
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Subtype
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Oseltamivir Resistance (Yes or No)
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118 rowSpan=3>NW (3)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Erie</st1:place></st1:City>
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H1N1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Yes
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Warren</st1:place></st1:City>
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H3N2)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Warren</st1:place></st1:City>
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H3N2)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>NE (1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Lehigh
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A (H3N2)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118 rowSpan=4>NC (4)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Centre
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H1N1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Centre
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H1N1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Centre
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Influenza B
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Centre
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Influenza B
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118 rowSpan=4>SE (4)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118><st1:City w:st="on"><st1:place w:st="on">Chester</st1:place></st1:City>
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A (H3N2)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Berks
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H1N1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Berks
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H1N1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Bucks
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H1N1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Yes
                                </TD></TR><TR><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: windowtext 1pt solid; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>SC (1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>Blair
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 88.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=118>A(H1N1)
                                </TD><TD style="BORDER-RIGHT: windowtext 1pt solid; PADDING-RIGHT: 5.4pt; BORDER-TOP: #ece9d8; PADDING-LEFT: 5.4pt; PADDING-BOTTOM: 0in; BORDER-LEFT: #ece9d8; WIDTH: 205.55pt; PADDING-TOP: 0in; BORDER-BOTTOM: windowtext 1pt solid; BACKGROUND-COLOR: transparent" vAlign=top width=274>Results pending
                                </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>





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                                Useful Links
                                US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Weekly Influenza Surveillance Report:
                                http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly
                                /

                                US Influenza Sentinel Provider Surveillance submission login page:
                                http://www2.ncid.cdc.gov/flu/

                                PA Department of Health, Focus on Flu:
                                http://www.health.state.pa.us/flu

                                Pennsylvania Pandemic Influenza Preparedness:
                                http://www.pandemicflu.state.pa.us


                                http://www.dsf.health.state.pa.us/he...a=171&q=246529

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