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Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

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  • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

    [Despite the current spike in medical assistance requests by British people is driven by several factors, flu is among them. IOH]


    Unprecedented winter illness season: public urged to only use 999 for genuine emergencies

    The public should avoid calling 999 unless it is a genuine emergency as ambulance services and A&E departments struggle to cope with an unprecedented winter illness season, a senior NHS leader warned.

    By Rebecca Smith, Medical Editor
    Last Updated: 8:13PM GMT 17 Dec 2008

    Ambulance services in England have just endured their busiest week ever after the coldest start to a winter for 30 years caused a sharp rise in falls and breathing problems.
    This, combined with the flu season beginning early and an outbreak of the vomiting bug norovirus, has placed NHS emergency services under intense pressure.

    Peter Bradley, national director of ambulance services, told The Daily Telegraph that the entire system was “struggling to cope”.
    He warned that things would only get worse over the peak season for winter illnesses and accidents of Christmas and New Year due to a surge in drinking related calls on top of the winter illnesses.

    People are urged not to dial 999 or visit A&E unless it is a genuine emergency.
    Mr Bradley, who is also chief executive of London Ambulance Service, which is at ‘critical’ level four on a scale out of five, said:

    “The increase that has come this winter has been far more dramatic than normal.
    “It has been the most difficult ten days I have seen in the last ten years. It is absolutely horrendous.

    Hospitals are full and A&E departments are struggling. We have got ambulances having to wait longer to offload patients and that is causing difficulties.

    “The message is that the public really need to do their best to avoid using A&E and ambulance services unless it is a genuine emergency. Use walk-in centres, NHS Direct and pharmacies because the relentless increase in activity will not ease for the next few weeks.”

    Officials at the Department of Health are holding crisis talks with NHS managers to find out what can be done before next week when the situation is expected to worsen.

    Calls to the ambulance service normally peak over the Christmas and New Year period as the party season coincides with a rise in illness and health workers' annual leave.

    But Mr Bradley warned the service was already at breaking point with some areas seeing a 30 per cent rise in calls over the last ten days and hospital A&E departments so full they are turning ambulances away and cancelling operations.

    Figures from the Royal College of GPs, which monitor common illness in the community, showed a jump of about 20 per cent in consultations over chronic bronchitis, colds, flu and respiratory diseases during the last week.
    Ambulance workers are being offered bonuses of between £300 and £800 for doing a month’s worth of overtime, meal breaks have been suspended and private ambulance companies and the St John Ambulance Service are being drafted in to help in some areas.

    The Met Office said last week that the UK had seen its coldest start to December since 1976, with the average temperature for the first 10 days of the month only 35.1F (1.7C), well below the long-term 1971-2000 average of 40.5F (4.7C). It comes at the end of a year when energy bills have soared, with many power companies reluctant to pass on recent falls in the price of oil to consumers.

    Mr Bradley urged the elderly to try and stay warm but added: “The high power bills are not helping with this.”

    Critics said the NHS has closed so many beds in recent years that it cannot now cope when there is a rise in demand.
    Dr Jonathan Fielden, chairman of the British Medical Association’s consultants committee, said: “We have actually now shrunk the service to a point where we do not have the capacity to flex up during busy periods. We need an urgent review of this system across the country.”

    A spokesman for NHS North West said there has been a four per cent increase in emergency admissions last week compared to last year with flu being the main problem. The ambulance service in the north west has also seen a 25 per cent increase in the number of life threatening 999 calls in the last week.

    A&E department at St George’s Hospital in Tooting south London has been forced to divert patients this week and managers at Epsom Hospital in south London has asked patient to only visit A&E in an emergency.

    Ambulances have been forced to queue up a dozen deep outside the Queen Alexandra Hospital in Cosham, Portsmouth, as the hospital struggles to cope.

    The Hull Royal Infirmary has seen a sharp increase in A&E attendances over the last week and managers have asked patients to see their GP with minor illnesses in order to ease pressure on the hospital.

    Leighton Hospital in Cheshire was forced to close its A&E on Monday and cancel some operations after the number of emergency admissions doubled although they have now re-opened to new patients.

    Figures from West Midlands Ambulance Service show December 8th was busier than New Year’s Eve and overall calls are up 30 per cent on last year.

    Birmingham’s GP out of hours service saw its busiest day in 12 years on Saturday after being inundated with flu-like illnesses and cases of the norovirus vomiting bug.
    A spokesman for NHS London said: “The NHS is used to dealing with the pressures that winter brings and has effective plans in place to deal with these pressures when they arise. As in most years this is not a London-specific problem as there are winter pressures across the country.

    We would urge people who are not seriously ill or injured to consider other ways of getting help before calling 999, such as visiting their GP or calling NHS Direct on 0846 4647.”
    -
    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/he...ergencies.html
    -----

    Comment


    • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

      Preliminary:

      <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD align=middle width=780 bgColor=#0063c8 height=1>EISS - Weekly Electronic Bulletin </TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#0063c8 height=1><TABLE border=0><TBODY><TR bgColor=white><TD noWrap width=254 bgColor=#0063c8>Week 50 : 08/12/2008-14/12/2008</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=258 bgColor=#0063c8></TD><TD noWrap align=right width=254 bgColor=#0063c8>, Issue N° 284</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=3></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>

      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE width=780 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD>Map

      The map presents the intensity of influenza activity and the geographical spread as assessed by each of the networks in EISS.

      Clicking on the map will, if available, take you through to the national web site. If 'regional' activity is reported, a pop-up text box will appear which describes the activity in greater detail.

      Clicking on England and France will provide you with regional data.

      <MAP name=area><AREA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt="Northern Ireland" coords=140,289,150,289,153,309,142,312,127,301 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=Nor thern+Ireland"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Iceland coords=88,61,88,60,83,50,72,50,59,60,56,71,56,95,6 6,106,79,120,101,118,136,105,136,84,135,69,116,65, 105,67 href="http://www.landspitali.is"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Denmark coords=173,161,176,165,171,173,170,180,169,182,163 ,181,162,176,162,167,161,164,168,160 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Norway coords=332,79,328,90,322,100,314,114,312,120,302,1 42,296,152,288,153,279,166,257,185,255,238,266,258 ,282,259,297,245,305,238,310,240,313,240,314,227,3 22,220,322,213,318,209,322,198,318,188,314,171,318 ,153,324,148,329,149,331,145,328,137,333,130,333,1 17,345,89,341,85,347,78 href="http://www.fhi.no"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Norway coords=434,21,423,33,411,25,408,26,406,28,401,27,3 98,37,400,45,398,53,397,54,390,52,384,57,373,46,36 4,64,355,62,353,66,354,72,350,74,344,79,316,79,322 ,68,331,56,343,40,360,26,378,11,394,2,419,5,432,14 ,429,18 href="http://www.fhi.no"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=371,52,377,60,384,61,390,68,393,82,402,108, 390,111,310,239,314,238,315,227,322,221,321,213,31 8,209,319,206,323,199,319,192,314,171,316,167,316, 158,322,151,324,146,329,148,331,145,327,136,334,12 7,332,117,338,101,345,89,341,84,347,75,353,73,354, 69,354,62,359,62,365,63,369,52 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=385,118,316,226,310,239,310,255,321,280,324 ,293,326,307,336,305,339,305,342,300,342,298,341,2 97,357,291,361,289,366,266,362,247,377,231,377,217 ,361,200,363,178,373,159,384,144,387,133 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Denmark coords=307,260,311,273,305,279,310,286,307,295,308 ,300,314,293,323,290,326,300,325,310,326,310,319,3 19,310,319,300,314,288,314,281,311,286,305,281,302 ,281,296,272,297,273,278,284,278,285,274,294,271 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Scotland coords=195,225,190,222,184,230,182,234,170,232,161 ,242,160,231,149,235,149,242,141,248,140,258,150,2 56,152,263,142,267,148,271,144,282,151,288,151,291 ,156,294,155,302,160,304,170,304,181,295,185,293,1 89,287,187,279,191,273,191,270,197,259,196,252,180 ,250,189,240,194,231,196,225 href="http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/scieh/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Scotland coords=210,199,204,206,202,209,204,217,209,217,210 ,210,211,206,214,199 href="http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/scieh/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=380,209,379,213,380,216,386,215,388,212,385 ,209 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=379,245,379,251,375,256,372,262,373,269,374 ,276,375,276,377,270,381,263,381,257,385,253,381,2 52,382,245 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=159,307,158,311,157,314,163,314,164,310,164 ,306,163,306 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=190,287,185,291,184,294,182,294,173,302,169 ,305,171,313,174,317,172,327,170,331,171,333,182,3 32,197,329,205,328,203,317,200,312,194,306,193,289 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=204,328,192,331,182,331,175,333,169,332,167 ,342,166,353,165,362,178,359,192,358,193,359,209,3 59,214,361,218,354,221,348,219,344,209,340,206,341 ,207,330 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=213,360,203,359,191,359,190,358,174,359,169 ,362,165,365,159,363,147,367,141,375,133,378,133,3 83,142,383,150,380,159,384,163,377,170,380,181,381 ,200,382,212,377,215,369,210,367 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=England"><AR EA shape=POLY alt=Wales coords=171,328,170,328,168,337,168,344,167,350,165 ,357,167,362,163,364,158,362,154,358,147,357,144,3 52,146,348,151,346,156,343,159,336,155,337,152,336 ,152,333,155,331,155,323,158,324,166,326 href="http://www2.nphs.wales.nhs.uk/icds/page.cfm?pid=507"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Ireland coords=141,287,138,284,126,285,126,290,121,292,123 ,297,123,300,114,296,107,296,105,306,103,313,108,3 18,101,328,93,331,95,345,100,348,120,346,127,343,1 36,344,142,337,145,319,143,312,137,307,136,306,134 ,307,129,303,128,300,134,293 href="http://www.ndsc.ie"><AREA shape=POLY alt="The Netherlands" coords=272,339,272,338,272,344,271,346,272,348,272 ,351,267,354,270,358,268,362,268,365,261,368,259,3 69,261,372,259,379,255,377,249,374,243,372,237,376 ,230,373,233,368,238,362,239,352,245,345,252,335,2 64,336 href="http://www.virology.nl/research/influenza.asp"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Belgium coords=258,379,259,379,258,386,262,390,262,393,257 ,399,256,402,256,407,256,407,253,406,245,400,246,3 95,242,398,239,396,236,390,232,387,229,383,225,382 ,223,379,223,375,231,372,237,376,243,372,251,373 href="http://www.iph.fgov.be/flu/"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=France coords=223,376,212,378,211,391,195,396,192,401,182 ,399,181,393,172,394,174,413,164,409,159,405,144,4 05,138,408,139,422,151,428,153,434,161,435,162,442 ,168,454,174,453,178,451,179,448,177,444,180,441,1 92,442,200,448,200,452,217,453,221,450,229,450,236 ,456,244,454,248,451,252,454,262,451,268,445,272,4 43,274,431,276,424,280,419,277,416,266,413,261,407 ,254,407,246,400,246,396,242,400,240,395,235,390,2 28,383,223,382 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=France"><ARE A onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=France coords=262,452,253,455,248,451,240,455,237,456,230 ,451,222,450,218,453,208,452,200,452,198,446,192,4 42,185,441,179,442,176,443,179,448,177,452,170,455 ,168,453,169,468,167,486,161,499,159,504,168,514,1 77,516,179,521,187,521,189,520,195,521,198,528,207 ,528,208,530,212,529,216,529,217,518,229,510,232,5 13,241,515,251,521,261,517,269,510,273,504,271,502 ,264,497,265,491,261,485,266,482,267,479,264,473,2 66,471,262,463,258,465,256,465,257,460,258,456 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=France"><ARE A shape=POLY alt=Switzerland coords=306,455,302,464,301,461,302,464,301,466,295 ,463,292,466,288,472,285,469,282,465,278,469,276,4 71,269,472,266,472,265,470,262,464,257,466,254,466 ,257,456,261,452,267,445,273,441,283,441,289,439,2 95,443,296,450,302,455 href="http://www.bag.admin.ch/sentinella"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Germany coords=300,313,302,320,314,320,311,330,315,327,325 ,320,295,443,290,440,285,440,280,442,273,442,274,4 31,277,423,280,419,277,417,268,414,261,407,261,402 ,260,397,262,391,259,386,259,379,261,375,261,374,2 59,368,263,366,266,365,269,359,268,355,265,354,270 ,351,272,347,270,345,273,343,270,338,269,337,271,3 34,279,331,282,335,286,330,286,327,284,321,282,311 ,290,314,296,314 href="http://www.influenza.rki.de/agi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Germany coords=324,321,331,316,336,319,342,331,344,341,342 ,346,342,348,346,355,348,364,347,368,352,382,347,3 84,343,383,334,391,321,395,326,400,327,408,343,423 ,331,433,333,440,325,440,315,444,311,445,307,443,3 04,446,294,442 href="http://www.influenza.rki.de/agi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Bulgaria coords=451,492,454,498,466,495,478,493,490,489,497 ,481,519,483,520,492,516,505,523,513,513,516,509,5 16,503,523,501,531,489,534,479,533,463,538,457,529 ,451,524,450,516,455,509 href=""><AREA shape=POLY alt="Czech Republic" coords=352,381,356,383,363,386,367,385,369,388,367 ,390,371,393,372,389,374,387,380,392,388,396,396,4 01,395,404,392,410,377,418,362,419,360,417,356,416 ,349,423,340,424,340,419,326,406,326,400,321,395,3 26,395,341,385,345,383,350,383 href="http://www.szu.cz/cema/aro/aro.htm"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Slovakia coords=435,406,434,406,430,405,425,401,419,400,417 ,404,412,403,410,406,403,404,400,402,394,404,387,4 12,378,417,374,421,377,428,378,432,384,435,389,435 ,395,434,398,429,406,425,411,424,415,417,421,417,4 28,418,429,420,431,419,433,417 href="http://www.sea.host.sk/chripka.htm"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Slovenia coords=371,452,371,458,369,461,368,466,365,466,363 ,467,364,472,363,476,354,477,352,477,346,480,340,4 79,340,475,341,467,338,464,340,461,345,461,353,461 ,358,457,363,458 href="http://www.ivz.si/ivz/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Poland coords=344,340,340,328,359,321,362,315,375,308,385 ,315,397,315,418,313,424,311,431,315,439,340,432,3 46,439,353,441,365,448,378,438,390,435,400 href="http://www.pzh.gov.pl/aindex.html"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Poland coords=436,398,435,406,430,404,426,402,419,401,417 ,405,412,403,409,407,400,403,396,402,386,396,383,3 94,376,391,373,390,371,394,366,390,368,387,364,386 ,358,386,352,381,351,374,347,366,349,365,347,362,3 45,352,341,348,342,346,343,338 href="http://www.pzh.gov.pl/aindex.html"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Hungary coords=433,416,439,421,443,422,443,424,435,432,432 ,441,427,456,419,461,416,460,412,460,406,465,401,4 66,399,468,389,469,385,466,383,464,373,457,372,450 ,373,449,373,440,375,440,373,437,375,437,377,438,3 80,432,383,433,389,435,398,432,400,429,407,425,413 ,423,416,418,426,417,431,419 href="http://www.oek.hu"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=France coords=292,520,291,526,288,527,282,529,282,541,284 ,549,290,554,293,547,295,538,295,534,294,522 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=France"><ARE A shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=345,460,336,458,328,459,322,452,318,452,313 ,453,312,457,305,456,302,460,302,466,296,462,287,4 71,283,464,276,472,265,470,263,474,268,479,261,484 ,264,491,263,496,265,500,270,503,272,504,271,510,2 78,507,284,500,329,492,329,481,335,478,341,477,341 ,471,339,465,341,462 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=364,537,376,537,378,542,375,547,393,555,405 ,560,409,568,406,574,405,575,390,564,385,574,393,5 82,394,590,379,611,372,610,372,603,374,595,378,586 ,369,575,360,571 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=372,603,361,606,350,609,345,606,333,607,330 ,616,337,621,347,626,358,629,361,634,370,633,372,6 24,371,617 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=328,491,291,497,293,504,301,509,301,527,303 ,532,334,551,350,565,363,571,365,539,350,527,345,5 11,331,501 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=291,553,294,555,298,562,298,568,296,570,296 ,586,296,592,289,592,284,598,277,593,276,588,279,5 72,275,567,275,556,279,554,281,559,286,554 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=204,528,207,530,219,529,219,536,214,543,202 ,549,185,554,182,560,170,574,171,588,174,589,166,5 96,157,609,148,610,135,622,116,618,100,620,93,625, 80,621,79,610,74,599,202,528 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=75,600,206,528,197,526,196,523,191,519,187, 521,178,520,177,516,172,515,160,504,150,500,141,49 8,122,494,115,490,101,486,91,482,81,481,81,485,71, 485,67,491,69,512,73,512,76,510,78,510,80,515,84,5 15,87,517,91,517,93,516,94,518,98,518,97,522,101,5 25,98,529,95,529,90,533,90,538,86,550,86,553,83,55 5,81,555,80,561,81,565,81,570,77,571,76,577,78,582 ,79,583,73,586,70,590,70,599 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=227,571,221,570,220,575,216,575,212,571,206 ,573,202,576,201,581,207,582,208,586,215,583,218,5 78,230,575 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=193,583,189,582,185,586,187,591,191,594,193 ,589 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=58,616,70,616,72,616,70,627,66,627,56,622 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Portugal coords=69,511,73,513,77,509,79,515,84,516,86,517,9 1,516,94,515,94,518,99,519,98,521,100,526,99,528,9 4,530,90,532,86,549,86,555,81,555,79,561,82,562,81 ,570,78,571,76,576,76,581,78,584,70,590,70,598,65, 600,53,598,48,596,33,591,34,587,38,587,44,592,49,5 94,51,587,54,573,50,570,47,564,51,553,59,542,65,53 0 href="http://www.dgsaude.pt/"><AREA shape=RECT alt="Portugal (Azores)" coords=2,544,22,559 href="http://www.dgsaude.pt/"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Greece coords=500,525,505,526,505,529,502,531,503,538,501 ,543,503,548,504,564,502,567,511,581,521,598,528,6 02,539,604,540,609,546,608,543,618,528,639,518,644 ,493,652,480,642,453,621,434,594,425,577,421,571,4 25,569,428,577,431,569,438,553,442,549,446,549,452 ,543,461,538,472,534,480,531,482,534,494,532,499,5 31 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=Greece"><ARE A shape=POLY alt=Estonia coords=401,248,427,247,459,252,454,233,455,218,440 ,214,422,219,406,225 href="http://www.tervisekaitse.ee"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Albania coords=415,537,414,528,417,522,421,525,426,525,431 ,533,430,544,439,554,428,576,426,570,416,563,415,5 53,417,543><AREA shape=POLY alt=Macedonia coords=431,533,430,544,438,553,443,549,447,548,452 ,543,457,543,462,538,460,530,451,523,445,526><AREA shape=POLY alt=Turkey coords=679,464,671,464,663,479,653,478,642,489,621 ,490,613,486,603,481,595,483,629,583,634,578,643,5 79,652,581,658,576,660,573,657,566,663,562,667,562 ,679,554,679,554><AREA shape=POLY alt=Turkey coords=596,482,566,508,542,522,521,515,508,514,500 ,524,506,525,505,529,502,533,503,538,500,542,504,5 64,502,567,516,588,525,588,524,595,530,602,539,600 ,541,608,548,604,557,610,578,609,579,597,598,598,6 09,602,619,599,629,585><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=423,32,413,26,410,24,405,28,400,28,398,37,4 00,45,397,53,389,51,385,56,373,45,370,50,375,58,37 8,61,385,63,392,73,395,92,401,108,433,66,431,62,42 7,56,420,56,420,46,418,42,421,39 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=432,67,431,75,431,82,442,96,442,114,448,123 ,454,127,452,134,457,140,388,160,384,157,390,152,4 03,127,409,111,401,106 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=458,139,464,147,467,152,450,191,452,195,408 ,218,393,214,391,204,384,159 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Romania coords=519,483,510,483,503,480,497,483,492,483,486 ,491,460,493,455,496,450,489,445,482,439,484,435,4 81,434,476,427,473,417,461,422,459,427,453,431,439 ,435,430,441,423 href="http://www.cantacuzino.ro"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Romania coords=516,482,520,482,520,466,528,460,528,450,520 ,450,515,456,513,457,504,447,503,431,488,418,486,4 10,481,408,473,417,464,423,460,421,441,421,441,424 href="http://www.cantacuzino.ro"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Malta coords=355,644,357,648,357,651,364,649,364,646,360 ,643 href="http://www.sahha.gov.mt"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Cyprus coords=635,595,626,604,614,607,614,612,607,617,611 ,624,624,620,629,616,636,611,631,607,639,597><AREA shape=POLY alt=Austria coords=375,419,374,422,379,432,380,435,375,438,373 ,436,372,438,373,441,372,450,361,458,358,457,352,4 61,342,460,331,458,327,457,324,453,314,453,311,458 ,297,453,295,449,294,443,298,443,303,445,308,442,3 12,445,320,441,326,439,331,441,333,438,330,433,339 ,424,344,422,348,424,357,415,360,416,363,419,372,4 18><AREA shape=POLY alt=Croatia coords=406,464,409,472,409,478,408,479,398,476,389 ,476,379,478,371,476,368,478,377,501,390,518,396,5 24,387,526,372,521,358,506,341,487,340,478,345,481 ,351,477,355,478,364,474,364,467,367,466,370,459,3 72,458,383,465,391,470,400,468 href="http://www.hzjz.hr"><AREA shape=POLY alt="Boznia and Herzegovina" coords=407,478,412,477,414,479,410,490,415,496,414 ,500,416,503,413,509,405,516,404,524,394,524,378,5 05,373,494,368,482,369,476,376,478,392,476,400,475 ><AREA shape=POLY alt=Montenegro coords=413,511,424,527,418,525,416,539,397,525><AR EA shape=POLY alt=Serbia coords=418,461,418,462,425,469,434,477,435,482,441 ,484,447,482,450,491,448,495,453,504,455,509,451,5 15,452,524,431,533,426,525,427,524,427,524,424,523 ,422,521,419,517,414,510,414,504,412,498,414,496,4 10,488,413,479,409,477,407,463,412,460 href="http://www.batut.org.yu/"><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=434,20,444,20,458,23,467,24,500,35,514,50,5 30,48,519,38,508,14,528,9,540,17,545,16,555,0,679, 0,679,177,451,193,452,182,459,170,466,151,461,140, 452,134,452,129,454,126,451,124,442,113,440,94,431 ,81,431,72,433,67,427,57,422,57,419,50,419,44,419, 41,423,33,424,31><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=452,194,457,203,448,212,456,224,451,234,457 ,245,459,253,466,270,451,282,456,293,452,309,436,3 20,440,339,434,347,448,378,680,373,680,172><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=449,376,437,390,434,398,434,406,432,415,441 ,423,460,421,465,423,480,411,487,410,490,420,504,4 32,504,448,514,457,521,451,527,451,536,427,543,375 ><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=671,463,667,453,636,442,615,434,596,429,587 ,441,573,454,560,443,552,437,535,424,541,374,679,3 71,679,465><AREA shape=POLY alt=Lithuania coords=414,278,401,286,402,300,417,300,421,304,421 ,312,428,314,433,323,439,321,450,309,452,302,456,2 92,452,283,446,279,437,275,434,278 href="http://www.aids.lt"><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=394,306,391,317,412,314,418,314,422,305,417 ,299,398,300><AREA shape=POLY alt=Luxembourg coords=255,400,254,407,260,408,263,402,261,395 href="http://www.ms.etat.lu/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Latvia coords=398,283,430,279,449,281,464,270,457,251,439 ,247,423,250,396,250 href="http://www.sva.lv"><AREA shape=CIRCLE alt=Denmark coords=347,310,5 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=RECT alt=Norway coords=290,8,326,41 href="http://www.fhi.no"></MAP><FORM name=form1 action="" method=post>You may select the type of map :</B> Intensity <INPUT onclick="movepic('button','/bulletin_maps/2008_50_int_v2.png')" type=radio CHECKED value=radiobutton name=radiobutton> Geographical spread <INPUT onclick="movepic('button','/bulletin_maps/2008_50_v2.png')" type=radio value=radiobutton name=radiobutton> </FORM><CENTER> </CENTER>
      <CENTER><TABLE cellSpacing=5><TBODY><TR><TD vAlign=top noWrap>A = Dominant virus A
      H1N1 = Dominant virus A(H1N1)
      H3N2 = Dominant virus A(H3N2)
      H1N2 = Dominant virus A(H1N2)
      B = Dominant virus B
      A & B = Dominant virus A & B

      = : stable clinical activity
      + : increasing clinical activity
      - : decreasing clinical activity

      </TD><TD></TD><TD vAlign=top>Low = no influenza activity or influenza at baseline levels
      Medium = usual levels of influenza activity
      High = higher than usual levels of influenza activity
      Very high = particularly severe levels of influenza activity

      No activity = no evidence of influenza virus activity (clinical activity remains at baseline levels)
      Sporadic = isolated cases of laboratory confirmed influenza infection
      Local outbreak = increased influenza activity in local areas (e.g. a city) within a region,
      or outbreaks in two or more institutions (e.g. schools) within a region. Laboratory confirmed.
      Regional activity = influenza activity above baseline levels in one or more regions with
      a population comprising less than 50% of the country's total population. Laboratory confirmed.
      Widespread = influenza activity above baseline levels in one or more regions with a population
      comprising 50% or more of the country's population. Laboratory confirmed.

      Finland : Where available, the epidemiological data are provided by a health-care district in
      South-Western Finland (the health-care district serves 54,000 inhabitants i.e. approximately one
      percent of the Finnish population).
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></CENTER>
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>Network comments (where available)

      <TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD width=20> </TD><TD width=700>Italy
      Only one A/H3N2 influenza isolate has been reported during this week. Three further A/H3N2 viruses have been isolated from samples collected in week 49.
      Switzerland
      Sporadic influenza activity in Switzerland
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE width=780><TBODY><TR><TD>Table and graphs (where available)

      <CENTER><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=2 bgColor=white border=0><TBODY><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=14></TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white></TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Intensity</TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Geographic
      Spread
      </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Sentinel
      swabs
      </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Percentage
      positive
      </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Dominant
      type
      </TD><TD vAlign=top align=middle bgColor=white colSpan=2>ILI per
      100,000
      </TD><TD vAlign=top align=middle bgColor=white colSpan=2>ARI per
      100,000
      </TD><TD vAlign=top noWrap bgColor=white>Virology graph
      and pie chart
      </TD></TR><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=13></TD></TR><TR id=r1c0><TD class=relative id=r1c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Austria</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>57</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) align=right>1376.7</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r2c0><TD class=relative id=r2c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Belgium</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>31</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>9.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) align=right>87.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) align=right>2039.3</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r3c0><TD class=relative id=r3c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Bulgaria</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>36</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r3c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) align=right>983.7 </TD><TD class=relative id=r3c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r4c0><TD class=relative id=r4c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Czech Republic</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>45</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>2.2%</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) align=right>32.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r4c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) align=right>1105.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r4c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r5c0><TD class=relative id=r5c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Denmark</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>10</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>50.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) align=right>35.8 </TD><TD class=relative id=r5c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r5c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r6c0><TD class=relative id=r6c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>England</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Widespread</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>180</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>48.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) align=right>39.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r6c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) align=right>1059.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r6c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r7c0><TD class=relative id=r7c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Estonia</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>7</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) align=right>1.5</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) align=right>316.2</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r8c0><TD class=relative id=r8c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>France</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Local</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r8c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r8c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r8c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r8c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) align=right>2381.2 </TD><TD class=relative id=r8c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r9c0><TD class=relative id=r9c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Germany</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>80</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>26.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r9c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) align=right>926.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r9c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r10c0><TD class=relative id=r10c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Greece</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) align=right>62.1</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r11c0><TD class=relative id=r11c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Hungary</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>19</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) align=right>126.4</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r12c0><TD class=relative id=r12c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Ireland</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>20</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>70.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) align=right>41.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r12c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r12c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r13c0><TD class=relative id=r13c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Italy</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>30</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>3.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) align=right>106.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r13c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r13c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r14c0><TD class=relative id=r14c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Latvia</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r14c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) align=right>806.7 </TD><TD class=relative id=r14c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r15c0><TD class=relative id=r15c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Lithuania</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) align=right>0.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r15c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) align=right>530.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r15c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r16c0><TD class=relative id=r16c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Luxembourg</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>8</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>12.5%</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r16c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) align=right>3325.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r16c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r18c0><TD class=relative id=r18c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Netherlands</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>12</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) align=right>45.1 </TD><TD class=relative id=r18c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r18c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r19c0><TD class=relative id=r19c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Regional</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>16</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>68.8%</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) align=right>129.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r19c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r19c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r20c0><TD class=relative id=r20c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Norway</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>8</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>25.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) align=right>52.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r20c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r20c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r21c0><TD class=relative id=r21c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Poland</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>18</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) align=right>57.6 </TD><TD class=relative id=r21c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r21c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r22c0><TD class=relative id=r22c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Portugal</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Widespread</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>21</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>76.2%</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) align=right>83.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r22c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r22c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r23c0><TD class=relative id=r23c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Romania</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>19</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r23c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) align=right>982.8 </TD><TD class=relative id=r23c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r25c0><TD class=relative id=r25c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Serbia</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>3</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) align=right>48.6</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r26c0><TD class=relative id=r26c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Slovakia</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>7</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) align=right>212.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r26c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) align=right>1685.6 </TD><TD class=relative id=r26c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r27c0><TD class=relative id=r27c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Slovenia</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>13</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>7.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) align=right>10.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r27c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) align=right>1145.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r27c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r28c0><TD class=relative id=r28c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Spain</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Local</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>98</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>30.6%</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) align=right>70.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r28c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r28c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r29c0><TD class=relative id=r29c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Sweden</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r29c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r29c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r29c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) align=right>4.9 </TD><TD class=relative id=r29c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r29c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r30c0><TD class=relative id=r30c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Switzerland</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>17</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>17.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) align=right>24.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r30c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r30c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r30c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r31c0><TD class=relative id=r31c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Wales</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>2</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) align=right>9.1 </TD><TD class=relative id=r31c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r31c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r32c0><TD class=relative id=r32c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>Europe</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>757</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>25.9%</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) style="BACKGROUND: #ffffff; CURSOR: hand" onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>Click here</TD><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=14></TD></TR><TR><TD colSpan=14>Preliminary data</TD><TR><TD colSpan=14>
      Intensity: Low = no influenza activity or influenza activity at baseline level; Medium= usual levels of influenza activity; High = higher than usual levels of influenza activity; Very high = particularly severe levels of influenza activity.
      Percentage positive: percentage of sentinel swabs that tested positive for influenza A or B
      Dominant type: this assessment is based on data from sentinel and non-sentinel sources
      ARI: acute respiratory infection
      ILI: influenza-like illness
      Population: per 100,000 population
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></CENTER>
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>The bulletin text was written by an editorial team at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL). Team members are Flaviu Plata, Phillip Zucs and Bruno Ciancio from ECDC, and Adam, Meijer Rod Daniels Alan Hay and Maria Zambon from CNRL. The bulletin text was reviewed by Olav Hungnes (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), and Anne Mazick (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark) on behalf of the EISS members.

      Neither the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), nor any person acting on his behalf is liable for the use that may be made of the information contained in this bulletin. Maps and commentary used in this Bulletin do not imply any opinions whatsoever of ECDC or its partners on the legal status of the countries and territories shown or concerning their borders.
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
      </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

      Comment


      • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

        United Kingdom

        Flu bug runs rampant: Worst epidemic for nine years as the rate of infection doubles in a fortnight

        By DANIEL MARTIN

        19th December 2008


        Hospitals and ambulance crews are struggling to cope with Britain's worst flu outbreak for almost a decade.

        In some parts of the country more than double the average number of patients are seeing their GPs with flu or the winter vomiting bug.

        Ambulance crews warn they will be stretched to 'breaking point' tonight with the combination of sharply rising serious flu cases and the busiest evening for Christmas parties.

        The last Friday before Christmas is always the peak day for 999 calls due to over-indulgence at office celebrations. But this year the pressure will be much worse because of the early start to the flu season.

        Figures from the Royal College of General Practitioners show the numbers with influenza-like symptoms being seen by GPs is the highest since the last big outbreak in 1999/2000. Then 22,000 died – ten times more than average.

        The usual flu rate for the 50th week of the year over the past nine years in England has been around 23 cases per 100,000 population. This year the rate was 39.5.

        In the Midlands, it was 56 – more than double the average. And in the south, it was 36.4 per 100,000 people. Only the north of England, with a flu rate of 16.36, is below the average for this time of year.

        But in all three areas of England, the number of cases has more than doubled in the past fortnight. However total figures are still much lower than the 1999/2000 outbreak. The coldest December for 30 years is contributing to the rise.

        Experts also say it could be down to a new strain of flu, Brisbane H3N2, which infects three times as many people as usual types. Professor John Oxford of St Bartholomew's Hospital in London said: 'You don't have to be a professor of virology to look at these figures and say "Oh God, something very bad is happening".

        Secretary of State for Health Alan Johnson accepts that the NHS is under pressure but insists it can cope

        'I wouldn't be at all surprised if this is the worst outbreak since 1999/2000 and we will have to work on the assumption that it is. There is a lot happening, especially in the central region where the rises are particularly steep.

        'Anyone who is in an at-risk group should go to their GP now to get the jab. There is no shortage of vaccine at the moment. They should take action now to ensure their Christmas isn't ruined by flu.'

        The extra demand for help has left the NHS ambulance service stretched to 'breaking point', according to Unison, the leading union for ambulance crews.

        'Ambulance crews and A&E departments are under enormous pressure because of accidents and ill-health brought on by the cold weather, and a major rise in cases of flu,' said Sam Oestriecher, Unison's national officer for ambulance workers.

        'However, that pressure will be at breaking point tonight, when office Christmas parties hit their peak.

        'Many people who would not normally drink too much overdo it and it is the ambulance staff who deal with the consequences. It's hard to believe but it's worse than New Year.'

        Yesterday, London Ambulance Service chief executive Peter Bradley said the particularly cold start to winter was also behind a sharp increase in reports of falls and breathing problems.

        'It has been the most difficult ten days I have seen in the last ten years,' he said. 'It is absolutely horrendous.'

        Health Secretary Alan Johnson denied services were at breaking point. He agreed the Health Service was under pressure but added: 'It is pressure that we can cope with.

        http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/ar....html?ITO=1490
        “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
        Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

        ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

        Comment


        • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

          <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD align=middle width=780 bgColor=#0063c8 height=1>EISS - Weekly Electronic Bulletin </TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#0063c8 height=1><TABLE border=0><TBODY><TR bgColor=white><TD noWrap width=254 bgColor=#0063c8>Week 50 : 08/12/2008-14/12/2008</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=258 bgColor=#0063c8></TD><TD noWrap align=right width=254 bgColor=#0063c8>19 December 2008, Issue N° 284</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=3></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>
          Influenza season started in three European countries while more countries report increasing activity
          Summary: In week 50/2008 influenza activity reached medium intensity in England, Ireland, Northern Ireland and Portugal and has been reported as increasing in additional 11 countries. There is currently widespread activity in England in the UK and Portugal and outbreaks are reported in France and Spain. Most of the influenza virus detections so far have been type A viruses of which the majority were A(H3) viruses. Given the current epidemiological and virological situation it is anticipated that in the coming weeks seasonal epidemic levels of influenza activity will be reached in a number of European countries

          Epidemiological situation - week 50/2008: For the intensity indicator, the national network levels of influenza-like illness (ILI) and/or acute respiratory infection (ARI) were medium in Ireland, Portugal and in two of the four parts of the UK (England and Northern Ireland), and low in the remaining 24 countries providing data. Increasing clinical activity, but below baseline levels, was reported in additional 11 countries (Denmark, Italy, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Spain, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and Switzerland). For the geographical spread indicator, widespread influenza activity was reported in the largest part of the UK (England) and in Portugal, while regional activity was reported in another part of the UK (Northern Ireland) and local activity in Spain and France. Sporadic activity was reported in 11 countries (Belgium, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, Slovenia, Sweden and Switzerland) while no activity was reported in the remaining 12 countries. Definitions for the epidemiological indicators can be found here.

          Cumulative epidemiological situation – 2008-2009 season (weeks 40-50/2008): The consultation rates for ILI and/or ARI are at levels usually seen outside the winter period (i.e. below the national baseline threshold) in the majority of EU countries. However from week 50/2008 medium intensity has been reported in Ireland, Portugal and most of the UK with Portugal and the largest part of the UK (England) also reporting widespread activity. In addition, consultation rates have been reported as increasing in an additional 11 countries.

          Virological situation - week 50/2008: The total number of respiratory specimens collected by sentinel physicians in week 50/2008 was 757, of which 196 (25.9%) were positive for influenza virus: 186 type A (135 subtype H3, six H1 and 45 not subtyped) and ten type B. In addition, 159 non-sentinel source specimens (e.g. specimens collected for diagnostic purposes in hospitals) were reported positive for influenza virus: 155 type A (15 subtype H3, one subtype H1 and 139 not subtyped) and four type B. Overall, detection of influenza viruses was reported from 15 countries across Europe.

          Cumulative virological situation – 2008-2009 season (weeks 40-50/2008): Of 1087 virus detections (sentinel and non-sentinel) since week 40/2008, 1022 were type A (516 subtype H3, 34 subtype H1 and 472 not subtyped) and 65 were type B.
          Based on the antigenic and/or genetic characterisation of 129 influenza viruses, 122 were reported as A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like, three as A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like, two as B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like (B/Victoria/2/87 lineage) and two as B/Florida/4/2006-like (B/Yamagata/16/88 lineage) (click here).
          No antiviral resistance against neuraminidase inhibitors was detected in the 27 A(H3N2) virus isolates tested so far this season. Of the 26 A(H3N2) isolates that were also tested for adamantanes susceptibility, all were resistant. In addition, out of the 20 A(H1N1) virus isolates tested for resistance against neuraminidase inhibitors, 19 were oseltamivir-resistant, but all were sensitive to zanamivir and only 1 of 11 tested was resistant to adamantanes. The one type B isolate tested was sensitive to both oseltamivir and zanamivir.

          Comment: This week for the first time this season three countries reported levels of influenza activity above their national baseline levels and in two of them a widespread geographical spread was also reported. Despite the remaining countries are still reporting low clinical influenza activity, 11 of them reported increasing activity in week 50/2008 compared to week 49. The current epidemiological situation suggests that in the coming weeks clinical influenza activity may reach seasonal epidemic levels in a substantial number of EU countries. The overall number of sentinel specimens collected for virological testing increased sharply during week 50/2008 compared to week 49/2008 as did the proportion of sentinel specimens which tested positive for influenza virus (from 19% in week49 to 26% in week 50). So far this season, the majority (94%) of viruses subtyped were A(H3). This observation consolidates the earlier indication that the 2008-9 influenza season at this early stage is dominated by A(H3) viruses.

          Background: The Weekly Electronic Bulletin presents and comments on influenza activity in the 30 European countries that are members of EISS. Of these countries, 29 reported clinical data and 26 reported both virological and clinical data to EISS in week 50/2008. The spread of influenza virus strains and their epidemiological impact in Europe are being monitored by EISS under the aegis of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control in Stockholm (Sweden) in collaboration with the WHO Collaborating Centre in London (UK).
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE width=780 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD>Map

          The map presents the intensity of influenza activity and the geographical spread as assessed by each of the networks in EISS.

          Clicking on the map will, if available, take you through to the national web site. If 'regional' activity is reported, a pop-up text box will appear which describes the activity in greater detail.

          Clicking on England and France will provide you with regional data.

          <MAP name=area><AREA onclick="return popupregional(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt="Northern Ireland" coords=140,289,150,289,153,309,142,312,127,301 href="/cgi-files/regional_comments.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=Nor thern+Ireland"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Iceland coords=88,61,88,60,83,50,72,50,59,60,56,71,56,95,6 6,106,79,120,101,118,136,105,136,84,135,69,116,65, 105,67 href="http://www.landspitali.is"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Denmark coords=173,161,176,165,171,173,170,180,169,182,163 ,181,162,176,162,167,161,164,168,160 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Norway coords=332,79,328,90,322,100,314,114,312,120,302,1 42,296,152,288,153,279,166,257,185,255,238,266,258 ,282,259,297,245,305,238,310,240,313,240,314,227,3 22,220,322,213,318,209,322,198,318,188,314,171,318 ,153,324,148,329,149,331,145,328,137,333,130,333,1 17,345,89,341,85,347,78 href="http://www.fhi.no"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Norway coords=434,21,423,33,411,25,408,26,406,28,401,27,3 98,37,400,45,398,53,397,54,390,52,384,57,373,46,36 4,64,355,62,353,66,354,72,350,74,344,79,316,79,322 ,68,331,56,343,40,360,26,378,11,394,2,419,5,432,14 ,429,18 href="http://www.fhi.no"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=371,52,377,60,384,61,390,68,393,82,402,108, 390,111,310,239,314,238,315,227,322,221,321,213,31 8,209,319,206,323,199,319,192,314,171,316,167,316, 158,322,151,324,146,329,148,331,145,327,136,334,12 7,332,117,338,101,345,89,341,84,347,75,353,73,354, 69,354,62,359,62,365,63,369,52 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Sweden coords=385,118,316,226,310,239,310,255,321,280,324 ,293,326,307,336,305,339,305,342,300,342,298,341,2 97,357,291,361,289,366,266,362,247,377,231,377,217 ,361,200,363,178,373,159,384,144,387,133 href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Denmark coords=307,260,311,273,305,279,310,286,307,295,308 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href="http://www.smittskyddsinstitutet.se/SMItemplates/Article.aspx?id=3021"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=159,307,158,311,157,314,163,314,164,310,164 ,306,163,306 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=190,287,185,291,184,294,182,294,173,302,169 ,305,171,313,174,317,172,327,170,331,171,333,182,3 32,197,329,205,328,203,317,200,312,194,306,193,289 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=204,328,192,331,182,331,175,333,169,332,167 ,342,166,353,165,362,178,359,192,358,193,359,209,3 59,214,361,218,354,221,348,219,344,209,340,206,341 ,207,330 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=England"><AR EA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=England coords=213,360,203,359,191,359,190,358,174,359,169 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31,277,423,280,419,277,417,268,414,261,407,261,402 ,260,397,262,391,259,386,259,379,261,375,261,374,2 59,368,263,366,266,365,269,359,268,355,265,354,270 ,351,272,347,270,345,273,343,270,338,269,337,271,3 34,279,331,282,335,286,330,286,327,284,321,282,311 ,290,314,296,314 href="http://www.influenza.rki.de/agi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Germany coords=324,321,331,316,336,319,342,331,344,341,342 ,346,342,348,346,355,348,364,347,368,352,382,347,3 84,343,383,334,391,321,395,326,400,327,408,343,423 ,331,433,333,440,325,440,315,444,311,445,307,443,3 04,446,294,442 href="http://www.influenza.rki.de/agi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Bulgaria coords=451,492,454,498,466,495,478,493,490,489,497 ,481,519,483,520,492,516,505,523,513,513,516,509,5 16,503,523,501,531,489,534,479,533,463,538,457,529 ,451,524,450,516,455,509 href=""><AREA shape=POLY alt="Czech Republic" coords=352,381,356,383,363,386,367,385,369,388,367 ,390,371,393,372,389,374,387,380,392,388,396,396,4 01,395,404,392,410,377,418,362,419,360,417,356,416 ,349,423,340,424,340,419,326,406,326,400,321,395,3 26,395,341,385,345,383,350,383 href="http://www.szu.cz/cema/aro/aro.htm"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Slovakia coords=435,406,434,406,430,405,425,401,419,400,417 ,404,412,403,410,406,403,404,400,402,394,404,387,4 12,378,417,374,421,377,428,378,432,384,435,389,435 ,395,434,398,429,406,425,411,424,415,417,421,417,4 28,418,429,420,431,419,433,417 href="http://www.sea.host.sk/chripka.htm"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Slovenia coords=371,452,371,458,369,461,368,466,365,466,363 ,467,364,472,363,476,354,477,352,477,346,480,340,4 79,340,475,341,467,338,464,340,461,345,461,353,461 ,358,457,363,458 href="http://www.ivz.si/ivz/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Poland coords=344,340,340,328,359,321,362,315,375,308,385 ,315,397,315,418,313,424,311,431,315,439,340,432,3 46,439,353,441,365,448,378,438,390,435,400 href="http://www.pzh.gov.pl/aindex.html"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Poland 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71,283,464,276,472,265,470,263,474,268,479,261,484 ,264,491,263,496,265,500,270,503,272,504,271,510,2 78,507,284,500,329,492,329,481,335,478,341,477,341 ,471,339,465,341,462 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=364,537,376,537,378,542,375,547,393,555,405 ,560,409,568,406,574,405,575,390,564,385,574,393,5 82,394,590,379,611,372,610,372,603,374,595,378,586 ,369,575,360,571 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=372,603,361,606,350,609,345,606,333,607,330 ,616,337,621,347,626,358,629,361,634,370,633,372,6 24,371,617 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=328,491,291,497,293,504,301,509,301,527,303 ,532,334,551,350,565,363,571,365,539,350,527,345,5 11,331,501 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Italy coords=291,553,294,555,298,562,298,568,296,570,296 ,586,296,592,289,592,284,598,277,593,276,588,279,5 72,275,567,275,556,279,554,281,559,286,554 href="http://www.virologia.unimi.it/influenza"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=204,528,207,530,219,529,219,536,214,543,202 ,549,185,554,182,560,170,574,171,588,174,589,166,5 96,157,609,148,610,135,622,116,618,100,620,93,625, 80,621,79,610,74,599,202,528 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=75,600,206,528,197,526,196,523,191,519,187, 521,178,520,177,516,172,515,160,504,150,500,141,49 8,122,494,115,490,101,486,91,482,81,481,81,485,71, 485,67,491,69,512,73,512,76,510,78,510,80,515,84,5 15,87,517,91,517,93,516,94,518,98,518,97,522,101,5 25,98,529,95,529,90,533,90,538,86,550,86,553,83,55 5,81,555,80,561,81,565,81,570,77,571,76,577,78,582 ,79,583,73,586,70,590,70,599 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=227,571,221,570,220,575,216,575,212,571,206 ,573,202,576,201,581,207,582,208,586,215,583,218,5 78,230,575 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=193,583,189,582,185,586,187,591,191,594,193 ,589 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Spain coords=58,616,70,616,72,616,70,627,66,627,56,622 href="http://www.msc.es"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Portugal coords=69,511,73,513,77,509,79,515,84,516,86,517,9 1,516,94,515,94,518,99,519,98,521,100,526,99,528,9 4,530,90,532,86,549,86,555,81,555,79,561,82,562,81 ,570,78,571,76,576,76,581,78,584,70,590,70,598,65, 600,53,598,48,596,33,591,34,587,38,587,44,592,49,5 94,51,587,54,573,50,570,47,564,51,553,59,542,65,53 0 href="http://www.dgsaude.pt/"><AREA shape=RECT alt="Portugal (Azores)" coords=2,544,22,559 href="http://www.dgsaude.pt/"><AREA onclick="return popup(this, 'notes')" shape=POLY alt=Greece coords=500,525,505,526,505,529,502,531,503,538,501 ,543,503,548,504,564,502,567,511,581,521,598,528,6 02,539,604,540,609,546,608,543,618,528,639,518,644 ,493,652,480,642,453,621,434,594,425,577,421,571,4 25,569,428,577,431,569,438,553,442,549,446,549,452 ,543,461,538,472,534,480,531,482,534,494,532,499,5 31 href="/cgi-files/regional.cgi?year=2008&week=50&region=Greece"><ARE A shape=POLY alt=Estonia coords=401,248,427,247,459,252,454,233,455,218,440 ,214,422,219,406,225 href="http://www.tervisekaitse.ee"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Albania coords=415,537,414,528,417,522,421,525,426,525,431 ,533,430,544,439,554,428,576,426,570,416,563,415,5 53,417,543><AREA shape=POLY alt=Macedonia coords=431,533,430,544,438,553,443,549,447,548,452 ,543,457,543,462,538,460,530,451,523,445,526><AREA shape=POLY alt=Turkey coords=679,464,671,464,663,479,653,478,642,489,621 ,490,613,486,603,481,595,483,629,583,634,578,643,5 79,652,581,658,576,660,573,657,566,663,562,667,562 ,679,554,679,554><AREA shape=POLY alt=Turkey coords=596,482,566,508,542,522,521,515,508,514,500 ,524,506,525,505,529,502,533,503,538,500,542,504,5 64,502,567,516,588,525,588,524,595,530,602,539,600 ,541,608,548,604,557,610,578,609,579,597,598,598,6 09,602,619,599,629,585><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=423,32,413,26,410,24,405,28,400,28,398,37,4 00,45,397,53,389,51,385,56,373,45,370,50,375,58,37 8,61,385,63,392,73,395,92,401,108,433,66,431,62,42 7,56,420,56,420,46,418,42,421,39 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=432,67,431,75,431,82,442,96,442,114,448,123 ,454,127,452,134,457,140,388,160,384,157,390,152,4 03,127,409,111,401,106 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Finland coords=458,139,464,147,467,152,450,191,452,195,408 ,218,393,214,391,204,384,159 href="http://www.ktl.fi"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Romania coords=519,483,510,483,503,480,497,483,492,483,486 ,491,460,493,455,496,450,489,445,482,439,484,435,4 81,434,476,427,473,417,461,422,459,427,453,431,439 ,435,430,441,423 href="http://www.cantacuzino.ro"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Romania coords=516,482,520,482,520,466,528,460,528,450,520 ,450,515,456,513,457,504,447,503,431,488,418,486,4 10,481,408,473,417,464,423,460,421,441,421,441,424 href="http://www.cantacuzino.ro"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Malta coords=355,644,357,648,357,651,364,649,364,646,360 ,643 href="http://www.sahha.gov.mt"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Cyprus coords=635,595,626,604,614,607,614,612,607,617,611 ,624,624,620,629,616,636,611,631,607,639,597><AREA shape=POLY alt=Austria coords=375,419,374,422,379,432,380,435,375,438,373 ,436,372,438,373,441,372,450,361,458,358,457,352,4 61,342,460,331,458,327,457,324,453,314,453,311,458 ,297,453,295,449,294,443,298,443,303,445,308,442,3 12,445,320,441,326,439,331,441,333,438,330,433,339 ,424,344,422,348,424,357,415,360,416,363,419,372,4 18><AREA shape=POLY alt=Croatia coords=406,464,409,472,409,478,408,479,398,476,389 ,476,379,478,371,476,368,478,377,501,390,518,396,5 24,387,526,372,521,358,506,341,487,340,478,345,481 ,351,477,355,478,364,474,364,467,367,466,370,459,3 72,458,383,465,391,470,400,468 href="http://www.hzjz.hr"><AREA shape=POLY alt="Boznia and Herzegovina" coords=407,478,412,477,414,479,410,490,415,496,414 ,500,416,503,413,509,405,516,404,524,394,524,378,5 05,373,494,368,482,369,476,376,478,392,476,400,475 ><AREA shape=POLY alt=Montenegro coords=413,511,424,527,418,525,416,539,397,525><AR EA shape=POLY alt=Serbia coords=418,461,418,462,425,469,434,477,435,482,441 ,484,447,482,450,491,448,495,453,504,455,509,451,5 15,452,524,431,533,426,525,427,524,427,524,424,523 ,422,521,419,517,414,510,414,504,412,498,414,496,4 10,488,413,479,409,477,407,463,412,460 href="http://www.batut.org.yu/"><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=434,20,444,20,458,23,467,24,500,35,514,50,5 30,48,519,38,508,14,528,9,540,17,545,16,555,0,679, 0,679,177,451,193,452,182,459,170,466,151,461,140, 452,134,452,129,454,126,451,124,442,113,440,94,431 ,81,431,72,433,67,427,57,422,57,419,50,419,44,419, 41,423,33,424,31><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=452,194,457,203,448,212,456,224,451,234,457 ,245,459,253,466,270,451,282,456,293,452,309,436,3 20,440,339,434,347,448,378,680,373,680,172><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=449,376,437,390,434,398,434,406,432,415,441 ,423,460,421,465,423,480,411,487,410,490,420,504,4 32,504,448,514,457,521,451,527,451,536,427,543,375 ><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=671,463,667,453,636,442,615,434,596,429,587 ,441,573,454,560,443,552,437,535,424,541,374,679,3 71,679,465><AREA shape=POLY alt=Lithuania coords=414,278,401,286,402,300,417,300,421,304,421 ,312,428,314,433,323,439,321,450,309,452,302,456,2 92,452,283,446,279,437,275,434,278 href="http://www.aids.lt"><AREA shape=POLY alt="" coords=394,306,391,317,412,314,418,314,422,305,417 ,299,398,300><AREA shape=POLY alt=Luxembourg coords=255,400,254,407,260,408,263,402,261,395 href="http://www.ms.etat.lu/"><AREA shape=POLY alt=Latvia coords=398,283,430,279,449,281,464,270,457,251,439 ,247,423,250,396,250 href="http://www.sva.lv"><AREA shape=CIRCLE alt=Denmark coords=347,310,5 href="http://www.ssi.dk/sw2796.asp"><AREA shape=RECT alt=Norway coords=290,8,326,41 href="http://www.fhi.no"></MAP><FORM name=form1 action="" method=post>You may select the type of map :</B> Intensity <INPUT onclick="movepic('button','/bulletin_maps/2008_50_int_v2.png')" type=radio CHECKED value=radiobutton name=radiobutton> Geographical spread <INPUT onclick="movepic('button','/bulletin_maps/2008_50_v2.png')" type=radio value=radiobutton name=radiobutton> </FORM><CENTER> </CENTER>
          <CENTER><TABLE cellSpacing=5><TBODY><TR><TD vAlign=top noWrap>A = Dominant virus A
          H1N1 = Dominant virus A(H1N1)
          H3N2 = Dominant virus A(H3N2)
          H1N2 = Dominant virus A(H1N2)
          B = Dominant virus B
          A & B = Dominant virus A & B

          = : stable clinical activity
          + : increasing clinical activity
          - : decreasing clinical activity

          </TD><TD></TD><TD vAlign=top>Low = no influenza activity or influenza at baseline levels
          Medium = usual levels of influenza activity
          High = higher than usual levels of influenza activity
          Very high = particularly severe levels of influenza activity

          No activity = no evidence of influenza virus activity (clinical activity remains at baseline levels)
          Sporadic = isolated cases of laboratory confirmed influenza infection
          Local outbreak = increased influenza activity in local areas (e.g. a city) within a region,
          or outbreaks in two or more institutions (e.g. schools) within a region. Laboratory confirmed.
          Regional activity = influenza activity above baseline levels in one or more regions with
          a population comprising less than 50% of the country's total population. Laboratory confirmed.
          Widespread = influenza activity above baseline levels in one or more regions with a population
          comprising 50% or more of the country's population. Laboratory confirmed.

          Finland : Where available, the epidemiological data are provided by a health-care district in
          South-Western Finland (the health-care district serves 54,000 inhabitants i.e. approximately one
          percent of the Finnish population).
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></CENTER>
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>Network comments (where available)

          <TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD width=20> </TD><TD width=700>Italy
          Only one A/H3N2 influenza isolate has been reported during this week. Three further A/H3N2 viruses have been isolated from samples collected in week 49.
          Switzerland
          Sporadic influenza activity in Switzerland
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE width=780><TBODY><TR><TD>Table and graphs (where available)

          <CENTER><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=2 bgColor=white border=0><TBODY><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=14></TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white></TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Intensity</TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Geographic
          Spread
          </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Sentinel
          swabs
          </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Percentage
          positive
          </TD><TD vAlign=top bgColor=white>Dominant
          type
          </TD><TD vAlign=top align=middle bgColor=white colSpan=2>ILI per
          100,000
          </TD><TD vAlign=top align=middle bgColor=white colSpan=2>ARI per
          100,000
          </TD><TD vAlign=top noWrap bgColor=white>Virology graph
          and pie chart
          </TD></TR><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=13></TD></TR><TR id=r1c0><TD class=relative id=r1c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Austria</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>57</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) align=right>1376.7</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r1c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(1,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(1,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r2c0><TD class=relative id=r2c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Belgium</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>31</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>9.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) align=right>87.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11) align=right>2039.3</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r2c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(2,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(2,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r3c0><TD class=relative id=r3c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Bulgaria</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>36</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r3c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11) align=right>983.7 </TD><TD class=relative id=r3c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r3c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(3,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(3,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r4c0><TD class=relative id=r4c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Czech Republic</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>45</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>2.2%</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) align=right>32.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r4c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11) align=right>1105.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r4c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r4c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(4,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(4,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r5c0><TD class=relative id=r5c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Denmark</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>10</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>50.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) align=right>35.8 </TD><TD class=relative id=r5c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r5c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r5c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(5,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(5,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r6c0><TD class=relative id=r6c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>England</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Widespread</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>180</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>48.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) align=right>39.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r6c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11) align=right>1059.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r6c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r6c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(6,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(6,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r7c0><TD class=relative id=r7c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Estonia</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>7</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) align=right>1.5</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11) align=right>316.2</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r7c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(7,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(7,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r8c0><TD class=relative id=r8c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>France</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Local</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r8c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r8c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r8c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r8c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11) align=right>2381.2 </TD><TD class=relative id=r8c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r8c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(8,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(8,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r9c0><TD class=relative id=r9c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Germany</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>80</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>26.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r9c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11) align=right>926.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r9c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r9c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(9,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(9,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r10c0><TD class=relative id=r10c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Greece</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) align=right>62.1</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r10c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(10,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(10,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r11c0><TD class=relative id=r11c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Hungary</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>19</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) align=right>126.4</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r11c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(11,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(11,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r12c0><TD class=relative id=r12c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Ireland</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>20</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>70.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) align=right>41.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r12c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r12c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r12c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(12,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(12,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r13c0><TD class=relative id=r13c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Italy</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>30</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>3.3%</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) align=right>106.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r13c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r13c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r13c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(13,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(13,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r14c0><TD class=relative id=r14c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Latvia</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r14c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r14c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11) align=right>806.7 </TD><TD class=relative id=r14c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r14c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(14,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(14,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r15c0><TD class=relative id=r15c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Lithuania</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>0</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) align=right>0.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r15c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11) align=right>530.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r15c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r15c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(15,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(15,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r16c0><TD class=relative id=r16c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Luxembourg</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>8</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>12.5%</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r16c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11) align=right>3325.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r16c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r16c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(16,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(16,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r18c0><TD class=relative id=r18c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Netherlands</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>12</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) align=right>45.1 </TD><TD class=relative id=r18c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r18c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r18c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(18,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(18,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r19c0><TD class=relative id=r19c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Northern Ireland</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Regional</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>16</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>68.8%</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) align=right>129.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r19c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r19c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r19c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(19,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(19,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r20c0><TD class=relative id=r20c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Norway</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>8</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>25.0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) align=right>52.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r20c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r20c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r20c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(20,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(20,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r21c0><TD class=relative id=r21c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Poland</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>18</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) align=right>57.6 </TD><TD class=relative id=r21c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r21c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r21c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(21,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(21,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r22c0><TD class=relative id=r22c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Portugal</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Medium</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Widespread</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>21</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>76.2%</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) align=right>83.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r22c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r22c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r22c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(22,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(22,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r23c0><TD class=relative id=r23c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Romania</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>19</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r23c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11) align=right>982.8 </TD><TD class=relative id=r23c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r23c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(23,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(23,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r25c0><TD class=relative id=r25c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Serbia</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>3</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) align=right>48.6</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11) align=right>0.0</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r25c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(25,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(25,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r26c0><TD class=relative id=r26c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Slovakia</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>7</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) align=right>212.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r26c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11) align=right>1685.6 </TD><TD class=relative id=r26c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r26c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(26,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(26,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r27c0><TD class=relative id=r27c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Slovenia</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>13</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>7.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) align=right>10.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r27c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11) align=right>1145.3 </TD><TD class=relative id=r27c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r27c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(27,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(27,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r28c0><TD class=relative id=r28c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Spain</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Local</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>98</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>30.6%</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) noWrap>Type A, Subtype H3N2</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) align=right>70.5 </TD><TD class=relative id=r28c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r28c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r28c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(28,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(28,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r29c0><TD class=relative id=r29c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Sweden</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r29c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r29c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r29c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) align=right>4.9 </TD><TD class=relative id=r29c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r29c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r29c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(29,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(29,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r30c0><TD class=relative id=r30c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Switzerland</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Sporadic</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>17</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>17.7%</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) noWrap>Type A</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) align=right>24.4 </TD><TD class=relative id=r30c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r30c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r30c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r30c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(30,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(30,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r31c0><TD class=relative id=r31c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Wales</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Low</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>2</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>0%</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) noWrap>None</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) align=right>9.1 </TD><TD class=relative id=r31c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11) align=right>0.0 </TD><TD class=relative id=r31c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>(graphs)</TD><TD class=relative id=r31c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(31,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(31,11)>Click here</TD><TR id=r32c0><TD class=relative id=r32c1 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>Europe</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c2 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c3 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c4 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>757</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c5 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>25.9%</TD><TD class=relative id=r32c6 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c7 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) align=right></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c8 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c9 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11) noWrap></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c10 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)></TD><TD class=relative id=r32c11 onmouseover=crossRow_over(32,11) onmouseout=crossRow_out(32,11)>Click here</TD><TR><TD bgColor=#808080 colSpan=14></TD></TR><TR><TD colSpan=14>Preliminary data</TD><TR><TD colSpan=14>
          Intensity: Low = no influenza activity or influenza activity at baseline level; Medium= usual levels of influenza activity; High = higher than usual levels of influenza activity; Very high = particularly severe levels of influenza activity.
          Percentage positive: percentage of sentinel swabs that tested positive for influenza A or B
          Dominant type: this assessment is based on data from sentinel and non-sentinel sources
          ARI: acute respiratory infection
          ILI: influenza-like illness
          Population: per 100,000 population
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></CENTER>
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=0 width=782 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=#1d92ff height=5></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=white><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD><TABLE><TBODY><TR><TD>The bulletin text was written by an editorial team at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) and the Community Network of Reference Laboratories for Human Influenza in Europe (CNRL). Team members are Flaviu Plata, Phillip Zucs and Bruno Ciancio from ECDC, and Adam, Meijer Rod Daniels Alan Hay and Maria Zambon from CNRL. The bulletin text was reviewed by Olav Hungnes (Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway), and Anne Mazick (Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark) on behalf of the EISS members.

          Neither the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), nor any person acting on his behalf is liable for the use that may be made of the information contained in this bulletin. Maps and commentary used in this Bulletin do not imply any opinions whatsoever of ECDC or its partners on the legal status of the countries and territories shown or concerning their borders.
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
          </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=780 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD></TR><TR><TD width=1 bgColor=black height=1></TD><TD align=middle width=780 bgColor=#0063c8>EISS : Weekly Electronic Bulletin</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

          Comment


          • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

            >>out of the 20 A(H1N1) virus isolates tested for resistance against neuraminidase inhibitors, 19 were oseltamivir-resistant, but all were sensitive to zanamivir and only 1 of 11 tested was resistant to adamantanes. <<

            The above suggest that the only H1N1 that was not Tamiflu resistant was clade IIC (which would be Tamiflu sensitive but adamantine resistant).

            Comment


            • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

              <TABLE border=1><CAPTION>INFLUENZA VIRUSES ISOLATED BY
              WHO/NREVSS Collaborating Laboratories
              2008 - 2009 Season
              </CAPTION><TBODY><TR><TH id=header1 width=70>Week</TH><TH id=header2 width=90>A(H1)</TH><TH id=header3 width=70>A(H3)</TH><TH id=header4 width=70>A(Unk)</TH><TH id=header5 width=70>B </TH><TH id=header6 align=right>Total # Tested</TH><TH id=header7 align=right>% Positive</TH></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>40 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>2 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>0 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>9 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>2557 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>0.66 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>41 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>4 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>4 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>2585 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>0.77 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>42 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>13 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>15 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>6 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>2713 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.36 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>43 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>22 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>0 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>24 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>14 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3086 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.94 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>44 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>11 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>1 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>21 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>4 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3262 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.13 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>45 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>27 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>23 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>10 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3840 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.64 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>46 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>27 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>2 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>18 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>10 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3608 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.58 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>47 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>16 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>0 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>33 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>20 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3979 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>1.73 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>48 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>23 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>2 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>45 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>20 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3913 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>2.3 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>49 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>23 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>47 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>12 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>3869 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>2.2 </TD></TR><TR><TD align=right headers=header1>50 </TD><TD align=right headers=header2>28 </TD><TD align=right headers=header3>3 </TD><TD align=right headers=header4>48 </TD><TD align=right headers=header5>24 </TD><TD align=right headers=header6>2949 </TD><TD align=right headers=header7>3.49 </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
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              Comment


              • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                2008-2009 Influenza Season Week 50 ending December 13, 2008
                (All data are preliminary and may change as more reports are received.)
                Synopsis:

                During week 50 (December 7-13, 2008), a low level of influenza activity was reported in the United States.
                • One hundred three (3.5%) specimens tested by U.S. World Health Organization (WHO) and National Respiratory and Enteric Virus Surveillance System (NREVSS) collaborating laboratories and reported to CDC/Influenza Division were positive for influenza.
                • The proportion of deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza (P&I) was below the epidemic threshold.
                • One pediatric influenza-associated death was reported.
                • The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) was below the national baseline. The Mountain region reported ILI above their region-specific baseline.
                • Three states reported local influenza activity; the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico and 36 states reported sporadic influenza activity; and 11 states reported no influenza activity.
                <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><CAPTION>National and Regional Summary of Select Surveillance Components

                </CAPTION><TBODY><TR vAlign=top><TH vAlign=bottom width=85 rowSpan=2>
                Region
                </TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=300 colSpan=3>Data for current week</STRONG></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=276 colSpan=5>Data cumulative for the season</TH></TR><TR vAlign=top><TH align=middle width=72>Out-patient ILI*</TH><TH align=middle width=72>% positive for flu†</TH><TH align=middle width=96>Number of jurisdictions reporting regional or widespread activity‡</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=48>A (H1)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=48>A (H3)</TH><TH align=middle width=60>A Unsub-typed</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=48>B</TH><TH align=middle width=72>Pediatric Deaths</TH></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Nation</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>3.5 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 51 </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>196</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>21</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>289</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>132</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>1</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>New England</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0.7 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>1</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>8</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>1</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Mid-Atlantic</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>1.1 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 3</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>11</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>4</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>3</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>East North Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>6.5 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 5</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>12</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>2</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>4</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>West North Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0.4 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 7</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>4</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>7</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>5</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>South Atlantic</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>2.2 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 9</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>9</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>75</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>47</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>1</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>East South Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0.4 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 4</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>1</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>West South Central</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>4.9 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 4</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>32</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>0</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>107</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>52</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Mountain</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>3.3 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 8</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>12</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>22</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=85>Pacific</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>Normal</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>3.8 % </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=96>0 of 5</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>122</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>6</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=60>62</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=48>11</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=72>0</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                * Elevated means the % of visits for ILI is at or above the national or region-specific baseline
                † National data is for current week; regional data is for the most recent three weeks.
                ‡ Includes all 50 states and the District of Columbia
                U.S. Virologic Surveillance:

                WHO and NREVSS collaborating laboratories located in all 50 states and Washington D.C. report to CDC the number of respiratory specimens tested for influenza each week. Results of these tests performed during the current week and cumulative totals for the season are summarized in the table below.
                <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><TBODY><TR><TH align=left width=200></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=140>Week 50 </TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=140>Cumulative for the Season</TH></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200>No. of specimens tested</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>2,949</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>36,361</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200>No. of positive specimens (%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>103 (3.5%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>638 (1.8%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left colSpan=3>Positive specimens by type/subtype</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> Influenza A</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>79 (76.7%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>506 (79.3%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> A (H1)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>28 (35.4%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>196 (38.7%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> A (H3)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>3 (3.8%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>21 (4.2%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> A (unsubtyped)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>48 (60.8%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>289 (57.1%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=170> Influenza B</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>24 (23.3%)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>132 (20.7%)</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                Thirty-five states from all nine surveillance regions have reported laboratory-confirmed influenza this season with three states accounting for 483 (75.7%) of the 638 reported influenza viruses.
                <CENTER>
                View WHO-NREVSS Regional Bar Charts| View Chart Data | View Full Screen </CENTER>Antigenic Characterization:

                CDC has antigenically characterized 69 influenza viruses [49 influenza A (H1), seven influenza A (H3) and 13 influenza B viruses] collected by U.S. laboratories since October 1, 2008.
                All influenza A (H1) viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/59/2007-like, the influenza A (H1N1) component included in the 2008-09 influenza vaccine, and five of the seven influenza A (H3) viruses were characterized as A/Brisbane/10/2007-like, the influenza A (H3N2) components included in the 2008-09 influenza vaccine.
                Influenza B viruses currently circulating can be divided into two antigenically distinct lineages represented by the B/Yamagata/16/88 and B/Victoria/02/87 viruses. Four influenza B viruses were characterized as B/Florida/04/2006-like, belonging to the B/Yamagata lineage, the influenza B component of the 2008-09 influenza vaccine. The remaining nine viruses belong to the B/Victoria lineage. Eight of the nine viruses belonging to the B/Victoria lineage were from one state.
                Data on antigenic characterization should be interpreted with caution given that:
                1. Few U.S. isolates are available for testing because of limited influenza activity thus far.
                2. The majority of viruses antigenically characterized to date come from only two states and may not be nationally representative.
                3. Antigenic characterization data is based on hemagglutination inhibition (HI) testing using a panel of reference ferret antisera and results may not correlate with clinical protection against circulating viruses provided by influenza vaccination.
                Annual influenza vaccination is expected to provide the best protection against those virus strains which are most similar to the vaccine strains, but can also provide at least partial protection against strains that are related, but antigenically distinct from vaccine strains. Limited to no protection may be expected when the vaccine and circulating virus strains are so different as to be from different lineages, as is seen with the two lineages of influenza B viruses.
                Antiviral Resistance:

                Since October 1, 2008, 50 influenza A (H1N1), eight influenza A (H3N2), and 20 influenza B viruses from 15 states have been tested for resistance to the two groups of influenza antiviral drugs: neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) and the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine); however, 55% of the viruses tested were from only two states. The results of antiviral resistance testing performed on these viruses are summarized in the table below.
                <TABLE class=table cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=3 align=center border=0><TBODY><TR><TH align=left width=200></TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=140>Isolates tested (n)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=200 colSpan=2>Resistant Viruses, Number (%)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=140>Isolates tested (n)</TH><TH noWrap align=middle width=140>Resistant Viruses, Number (%)</TH></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200></TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100></TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>Oseltamivir</TD><TD align=left width=100>Zanamivir</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140></TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>Adamantanes</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200>Influenza A (H1N1)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>
                50
                </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>49 (98%)</TD><TD align=left width=100>
                0 (0)
                </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>50</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>0 (0%) </TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200>Influenza A (H3N2)</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>
                8
                </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD align=left width=100>
                0 (0)
                </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>8</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>8 (100%)</TD></TR><TR><TD align=left width=200>Influenza B</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>
                20
                </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=100>0 (0)</TD><TD align=left width=100>
                0 (0)
                </TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>N/A*</TD><TD noWrap align=middle width=140>N/A*</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE><SUP>*The adamantanes are not effective against influenza B viruses.</SUP>


                With low levels of influenza activity thus far in the 2008-09 season in the United States, overall numbers of virus specimens and the number of states that have submitted specimens for testing is limited. The limited data on antiviral resistance, as well as the uncertainty regarding which influenza virus types or subtypes will predominate during the season, make it too early to make an accurate determination of the prevalence of influenza viruses resistant to oseltamivir or the adamantanes (amantadine and rimantadine) nationally or regionally at this time. CDC has solicited a representative sample of viruses from WHO collaborating laboratories in the United States, and more specimens are expected as influenza activity increases.
                Pneumonia and Influenza (P&I) Mortality Surveillance

                During week 50, 6.8% of all deaths reported through the 122-Cities Mortality Reporting System were due to P&I. This percentage is below the epidemic threshold of 7.3% for week 50.
                <CENTER>
                View Full Screen</CENTER>Influenza-Associated Pediatric Mortality

                One influenza-associated pediatric death was reported to CDC from Florida during week 50. This death occurred during week 49 (the week ending December 6, 2008). This was the first reported influenza-associated pediatric death that occurred during the current season.
                <CENTER>
                View Full Screen</CENTER>Influenza-Associated Hospitalizations

                Laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalizations are monitored in two population-based surveillance networks: the Emerging Infections Program (EIP) and the New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN).
                No influenza-associated hospitalizations have been reported from the New Vaccine Surveillance Network this season.
                During October 1 – December 6, 2008, preliminary laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated hospitalization rates reported by the EIP for children aged 0-4 years and 5-17 years were 0.24 per 10,000 and 0.01 per 10,000, respectively. For adults aged 18-49 years, 50-64 years, and = 65 years, the rates were 0.02 per 10,000, 0.03 per 10,000, and 0.09 per 10,000, respectively.
                <CENTER>
                View Full Screen</CENTER>Outpatient Illness Surveillance:

                During week 50, 1.3% of patient visits reported through the U.S. Outpatient Influenza-like Illness Surveillance Network (ILINet) were due to influenza-like illness (ILI). This percentage is less than the national baseline of 2.4%. On a regional level, the percentage of visits for ILI ranged from 0.4% to 2.2%. One region (Mountain) reported 1.6% of outpatient visits for ILI, which is above their region-specific baseline of 1.5%, while the remaining eight regions reported percentages of visits for ILI below region-specific baseline levels.
                <CENTER>
                View Sentinel Providers Regional Charts | View Chart Data |View Full Screen
                </CENTER>Geographic Spread of Influenza as Assessed by State and Territorial Epidemiologists:


                During week 50 the following influenza activity was reported:
                • Local influenza activity was reported by three states (Hawaii, Texas, and Virginia).
                • Sporadic activity was reported in the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 36 states (Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Utah, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin).
                • No influenza activity was reported in 11 states (Alabama, Kentucky, Louisiana, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, West Virginia, and Wyoming).
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                --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                A description of surveillance methods is available at: http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/fluactivity.htm
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                Comment


                • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                  Overall influenza activity in Canada remains low; localized activity reported in a region in British Columbia
                  During week 50, influenza activity in Canada remained low overall with the majority of the influenza surveillance regions still reporting no activity. Fifteen regions (in BC, AB, ON & QC ) reported sporadic influenza activity and one region in BC (Fraser) reported localized activity this week (see map). Thirty specimens tested positive for influenza in Canada this week (percentage positive = 1.8%; 30/1,671) (see table). The majority of influenza virus detections to date this season were influenza A viruses (59% or 71/120). In week 50, the ILI consultation rate was 16 ILI consultations per 1,000 patient visits (see ILI graph), and is below the expected range for this week. The sentinel response rate was 61%. One outbreak of influenza was reported in a school in BC this week.

                  Antigenic Characterization:
                  Since 1 September 2008, the NML has antigenically characterized 16 influenza viruses: 1 influenza A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1)-like (from NS), 2 influenza A/Brisbane/10/2007(H3N2)-like (from BC & ON), 3 influenza B/Florida/4/2006-like (from ON and AB) and 10 B/Malaysia/2506/2004-like (from ON and AB). A/Brisbane/59/2007(H1N1), A/Brisbane/10/2007(H3N2) and B/Florida/4/2006 are the influenza A and influenza B components recommended for the 2008-09 influenza vaccine. B/Malaysia/2506/2004 was the influenza B component for the 2007-2008 season vaccine (see pie chart).
                  Antiviral Resistance:
                  Results from the NML:
                  Since the start of the season, the NML has tested 8 influenza A isolates (3 H1N1 and 5 H3N2) for amantadine resistance. All of the H1N1 isolates were susceptible; however all of the H3N2 isolates were resistant to amantadine (resistance = 100% or 5/5). The resistant isolates were from ON, AB and BC.
                  The NML has also tested 16 influenza isolates (3 A/H1N1, 2 A/H3N2 & 11 B) for oseltamivir (Tamiflu) resistance. All of the A/H3N2 and B isolates were sensitive; however all of the A/H1N1 isolates were resistant to oseltamivir due to the H274Y mutation (resistance = 100% or 3/3). The resistant isolates were from NS and BC.
                  All 12 influenza isolates (1 A/H1N1, 2 A/H3N2 & 9 B) tested for zanamivir resistance to date were sensitive to zanamivir.
                  Oseltamivir resistance findings from Provincial laboratories:
                  To date this season, 19 influenza isolates in BC have been sub-typed as A/H1 and were assessed genotypically for oseltamivir resistance using an SNP assay. Fourteen isolates tested positive for the H274Y mutation, while the other 5 were indeterminate. These specimens were from community-based cases of ILI; none were associated with an outbreak.
                  Influenza-associated Paediatric Hospitalizations:
                  No laboratory-confirmed influenza-associated paediatric hospitalizations have been reported through the Immunization Monitoring Program Active (IMPACT) network for the 2008-09 season.
                  International:

                  WHO: During the weeks 47 to 48, the level of overall influenza activity in the world remained low with sporadic activity observed in some countries.
                  • <A href="http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/update/en/" target=_blank rel=x><ACRONYM title="World Health Organization">WHO</ACRONYM>
                  CDC: During week 49, a low level of influenza activity was reported in the United States. Three states reported local influenza activity however the majority reported either no activity or sporadic activity. Of the 2,585 specimens tested this week for influenza viruses, 72 (2.8%) were positive. Since 1 October 2008, the CDC has antigenically characterized 36 influenza viruses: 20 influenza A(H1) (all A/Brisbane/59/2007-like), 3 A(H3) (all A/Brisbane/10/2007-like) and 13 influenza B (4 were B/Florida/04/2006-like belonging to the B/Yamagata lineage and the other 9 belonged to the B/Victoria lineage). Since 1 October, 2008, 68 influenza viruses (46 A(H1N1), 7 A (H3N2), and 15 B) have been tested for resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors. Of the A(H1N1) viruses tested, 98% (45/46) were resistant to oseltamivir however all were sensitive to zanamivir. All of the A(H3N2) and B viruses tested were sensitive to both oseltamivir and zanamivir. The CDC tested 30 influenza A viruses (25 H1, 5 H3) for amantadine resistance: all of the H1N1 viruses were sensitive to amantadine however all the H3N2 viruses were resistant.
                  • <A href="http://www.cdc.gov/flu/weekly/" target=_blank rel=x><ACRONYM title="Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ">CDC</ACRONYM>
                  EISS: In week 50, influenza activity reached medium intensity in several European countries and has been reported as increasing in several others. There is currently widespread activity in England (UK) and Portugal and outbreaks were reported in France and Spain. Most of the influenza virus detections so far have been for influenza A viruses of which the majority were A(H3). Of the 26 A(H3N2) isolates that were also tested for adamantanes susceptibility, all were resistant. Of the 20 A(H1N1) virus isolates tested for resistance against neuraminidase inhibitors, 19 were resistant to oseltamivir (resistance=95%), but all were sensitive to zanamivir.
                  • <A href="http://www.eiss.org/cgi-files/bulletin_v2.cgi" target=_blank rel=x><ACRONYM title=" European Influenza Surveillance Scheme">EISS</ACRONYM>
                  Human Avian Influenza: Since 12 December 2008, the WHO has reported two new cases of human H5N1 avian influenza infection. The first case was a 19-year-old male from Kendal Province, Cambodia who developed symptoms on 28 November and is currently hospitalized. The second case was a 16-year-old female from Assuit Governorate, Egypt who developed symptoms on 8 December, was hospitalized on 11 December and died on 15 December.
                  • <A href="http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/en/index.html" target=_blank rel=x><ACRONYM title="World Health Organization">WHO</ACRONYM>
                  <HR>Total number of influenza tests performed and number of positive tests by province/territory of testing laboratory, Canada, 2008-2009

                  <TABLE id=fluwatchtable cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=2 width="100%" border=1><TBODY><TR class=bg-colour-blue vAlign=top><TD class=alignCenter rowSpan=3>Province of
                  reporting
                  laboratories
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=bottom colSpan=4>Report Period:
                  December 7, 2008 to December 13, 2008
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=bottom colSpan=4>Season to Date:
                  August 24, 2008 to December 13, 2008
                  </TD></TR><TR class=bg-colour-blue><TD class=alignCenter rowSpan=2>Total #
                  Influenza
                  Tests
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter colSpan=3># of Positive Tests </TD><TD class=alignCenter rowSpan=2>Total #
                  Influenza
                  Tests
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter colSpan=3># of Positive Tests </TD></TR><TR class=bg-colour-blue vAlign=top><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=center>Influenza A</TD><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=center>Influenza B</TD><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=center>Total </TD><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=center>Influenza A</TD><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=center>Influenza B</TD><TD class=alignCenter vAlign=center>Total </TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>NL
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>21</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>124</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>PE
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>38</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>NS
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>21</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>210</TD><TD class=alignCenter>1</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>1</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>NB
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>27</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>148</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>QC
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>590</TD><TD class=alignCenter>3</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>3</TD><TD class=alignCenter>5077</TD><TD class=alignCenter>34</TD><TD class=alignCenter>2</TD><TD class=alignCenter>36</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>ON
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>254</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>2</TD><TD class=alignCenter>2</TD><TD class=alignCenter>6134</TD><TD class=alignCenter>6</TD><TD class=alignCenter>5</TD><TD class=alignCenter>11</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>MB
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>52</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>711</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>SK
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>111</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>1118</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>AB
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>550</TD><TD class=alignCenter>5</TD><TD class=alignCenter>12</TD><TD class=alignCenter>17</TD><TD class=alignCenter>6315</TD><TD class=alignCenter>9</TD><TD class=alignCenter>41</TD><TD class=alignCenter>50</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>BC
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>45</TD><TD class=alignCenter>8</TD><TD class=alignCenter>0</TD><TD class=alignCenter>8</TD><TD class=alignCenter>498</TD><TD class=alignCenter>21</TD><TD class=alignCenter>1</TD><TD class=alignCenter>22</TD></TR><TR><TD class=bg-colour-blue>Canada
                  </TD><TD class=alignCenter>1671</TD><TD class=alignCenter>16</TD><TD class=alignCenter>14</TD><TD class=alignCenter>30</TD><TD class=alignCenter>20373</TD><TD class=alignCenter>71</TD><TD class=alignCenter>49</TD><TD class=alignCenter>120</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

                  Specimens from NT, YT, and NU are sent to reference laboratories in other provinces.
                  Note: Cumulative data includes updates to previous weeks; due to reporting delays, the sum of weekly report totals do not add up to cumulative totals.
                  Abbreviations: Newfoundland/Labrador (NL), Prince Edward Island (PE), New Brunswick (NB), Nova Scotia (NS), Quebec (QC), Ontario (ON), Manitoba (MB), Saskatchewan (SK), Alberta (AB), British Columbia (BC), Yukon (YT), Northwest Territories (NT), Nunavut (NU)
                  Respiratory virus laboratory detections in Canada, by geographic regions, are available weekly on the following website:
                  <http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/bid-bmi/dsd-dsm/rvdi-divr/index-eng.php>



                  Number of influenza surveillance regions† reporting widespread or localized influenza activity, Canada, by report week, 2008-2009 (N=54)



                  † sub-regions within the province or territory as defined by the provincial/territorial epidemiologist. Graph may change as late returns come in.


                  <TABLE width="100%"><TBODY><TR vAlign=top align=middle><TD colSpan=2>Influenza Activity Level by Provincial and Territorial
                  Influenza Surveillance Regions, Canada,
                  December 7, 2008 to December 13, 2008 (Week 50)


                  </TD></TR><TR vAlign=top align=middle><TD class=alignCenter>
                  </TD><TD><TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=1 border=0><TBODY><TR><TD align=middle><TABLE class=border-lite cellSpacing=1 cellPadding=1><TBODY><TR align=middle><TD>No Data </TD><TD></TD></TR><TR align=middle><TD>No Activity</TD><TD></TD></TR><TR align=middle><TD>Sporadic Activity</TD><TD></TD></TR><TR align=middle><TD>Localized Activity</TD><TD></TD></TR><TR align=middle><TD>Widespread
                  Activity
                  </TD><TD></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
                  Note: Influenza activity levels, as represented on this map, are assigned and reported by Provincial and Territorial Ministries of Health, based on laboratory confirmations, sentinel ILI rates (see graphs and tables) and outbreaks. Please refer to detailed definitions. For areas where no data is reported, late reports from these provinces and territories will appear on the FluWatch website. Select single maps by report week to get this updated information.
                  <http://dsol-smed.phac-aspc.gc.ca/dsol-smed/fluwatch/fluwatch.phtml?lang=e>
                  Click on the map to view provinces/territories and maps for other weeks.


                  Influenza tests reported and percentage of tests positive, Canada, by report week, 2008-2009




                  Percent positive influenza tests, compared to other respiratory viruses, Canada, by reporting week, 2008-2009







                  Influenza strain characterization, Canada, cumulative, 2008-2009 influenza season by the Respiratory Viruses Section at the National Microbiology Laboratory
                  [N=16]



                  {Strain characterization, number identified, per cent of total number}
                  NACI recommends that the trivalent vaccine for the 2008-2009 season in Canada contain A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus; an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus; and a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.


                  Influenza-like illness (ILI) consultation rates, Canada, by report week,
                  2008-2009 compared to 1996/97 through to 2006/07 seasons




                  Note: No data available for mean rate in previous years for weeks 19 to 39 (1996-1997 through 2002-2003 seasons).


                  Number of New Outbreaks in Long Term Care Facilities, Canada, by Report Week, 2008-2009



                  Please note that the above graphs may change as late returns come in.
                  Single Maps | Dual Maps | Animated Maps | FluWatch Reports
                  Definitions for the 2008-2009 season

                  http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/fluwatch/.../index-eng.php
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                  Comment


                  • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                    however all of the A/H1N1 isolates were resistant to oseltamivir due to the H274Y mutation (resistance = 100% or 3/3). The resistant isolates were from NS and BC.

                    http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/fluwatch/.../index-eng.php

                    Comment


                    • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                      Commentary at

                      http://www.recombinomics.com/News/12...anada_100.html

                      Comment


                      • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                        Originally posted by niman View Post
                        Commentary


                        H1N1 Tamiflu Resistance at 100% in Canada
                        Recombinomics Commentary 01:07
                        December 20, 2008



                        however all of the A/H1N1 isolates were resistant to oseltamivir due to the H274Y mutation (resistance = 100% or 3/3). The resistant isolates were from NS and BC.

                        The above comments from the week 50 influenza report from Canada indicate H1N1 oseltamivir resistance in Canada is currently at 100%. Although only three isolates have been tested, it is a marked improvement over the one tested at the beginning of the season. The isolates are from the opposite ends of Canada, and match the results in the United States, where 49/50 H1N1 isolates have H274Y.

                        The United States has issued an advisory to physicians, describing the high levels of resistance in seasonal flu, since the vast majority of flu in the US currently is influenza A and the vast majority of influenza A is H1N1.

                        The resistance levels in H1N1 in Europe are also near 100% in England, at at 100% in Scotland, Norway, and Austria, although the number of samples tested remain low. However, in Europe most of the influenza A is H3N2, which is sensitive, so an advisory in Europe has not been issued to physicians, although England did put out a report on the high frequency in H1N1.

                        The levels of resistance in North America and Europe suggest that the resistance levels in H1N1 are not likely to change this season.

                        .
                        "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

                        Comment


                        • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                          UK: Doctors hit by flu virus fears

                          Dec 19 2008 By Debbie Wood

                          A flu type virus has led to a surge in telephone calls to GPs and emergency services across the region.

                          Medical staff at doctors surgeries across Solihull have witnessed a rocketing number of enquiries, averaging 20 to30 per day relating to the virus which causes a cold and chest pains among all ages during the past week.

                          In addition, West Midlands Ambulance Service based in Dudley, took an estimated 2,146 calls during last Saturday (December 13) alone, representing a 30 per cent increase for the same period last year.

                          Dr Patrick Brooke, medical director for Solihull NHs Care Trust in Union Road, is urging people with colds and flu-like symptoms to seek the right treatment for their illness and not to use the Accident and Emergency departments of Solihull Hospital.

                          “There has been a tremendous health service response to this unprecedented demand,” he said. “GPs and community services staff have made a concerted effort to deal with the high level of demand and help to relieve the pressure on local hospitals.

                          “One of the main problems recently is a flu-like illness, the Norovirus which causes respiratory problems, sickness and diarrhoea. This has hit old people particularly hard. While NHS staff are always there to help, there is a lot people can do for themselves and their families to avoid becoming ill or having accidents.”

                          Any members of the public with flu-like symptoms are advised to take plenty of rest, consume hot drinks and plenty of fluid, wear extra layers of warm clothing, stay at home, wash their hands regularly and use their local GP or pharmacy for treatment and advice.

                          Comment


                          • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                            Source: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/he...ince-2000.html


                            Britain gripped by worst flu outbreak since 2000
                            Britain is in the grip of the worst flu outbreak for eight years, with emergency services fearing they will be "swamped" by calls when GP surgeries close for Christmas.
                            By Laura Donnelly, Health Correspondent
                            Last Updated: 4:20PM GMT 20 Dec 2008

                            This week’s official flu figures are expected to show a further surge in the number of people infected.

                            With most GPs surgeries shut for four days over the Christmas period, experts said the remaining medical services would become stretched to breaking point by the weekend.

                            Accident and Emergency doctors said the chaos in their departments was already reminiscent of scenes from the last big NHS winter crisis, at the turn of the millenium, when crematoriums were forced to work around the clock to cope with the 22,000 people who died.

                            The latest figures show the number of flu infections running at 40 per 100,000 - the highest level at this point in the year since the winter of 2000-1, when flu rates went on to reach epidemic proportions.

                            Dozens of hospitals have closed wards or stopped admitting emergency patients as they battle with the rising number of admissions linked to flu and the vomiting bug norovirus. Record numbers of 999 calls have left emergency services struggling to cope, with ambulances queuing outside hospitals who are unable to take patients quickly enough.

                            John Heyworth, president of the College of Emergency Medicine, said Accident and Emergency departments and ambulance services were already overstretched, with patients facing long waits in ambulances and on trolleys.

                            “The system simply does not have enough capacity to cope with the pressure it is under, and we expect this to keep getting worse over Christmas, and then over the next three to four weeks,” he said.


                            The A&E consultant at Southampton General Hospital said: “Already we have got scenes where patients are waiting hours in A&E, or on trolleys in corridors because there are not enough beds to admit them. Outside the hospitals, ambulances are backed up, and can’t unload patients because the departments aren’t able to cope with them.

                            “The ambulance service and A&E departments are already inundated with patients and we fear we will soon be swamped,” he added.

                            Mr Heyworth described current pressures as “very reminiscent” of the crisis in the NHS over the millenium.

                            “What is really frustrating about this, is that these pressures are predictable,” he said. “The reason the service struggles to cope is because bed numbers have been cut to a minimum”.

                            After the 1999/2000 winter crisis, the Government pledged to increase the number of hospital beds by 7,000. In fact, the number of beds has fallen by 13,000 since then.

                            Meanwhile, hospitals are continuing to carry out thousands of operations in a desperate attempt to meet a Government deadline at the end of this month.


                            The British Medical Association said “inflexible targets” which mean patients must be treated within 18 weeks of referral, by the end of this month, meant hospitals had failed to create enough slack in the system to cope with the growing crisis.

                            Jim Wardrope, an A&E consultant at Sheffield Northern General Hospital, said: “We are currently at a stage where we have severe and sustined pressures and we are really worried about the four day weekend around Christmas. Some places will run some extra services out of hours, but the reality is we do not have a national plan to deal with this.”

                            The national director for the ambulance service has already begged the public not to call 999 or visit A&E unless they have a genuine emergency, urging people to call NHS Direct, visit their pharmacy or try a walk-in centre if they need advice.


                            Ambulance staff said changes to the running of GP services, which mean most surgeries no longer responded to calls in the evenings and weekends, with the work “outsourced” to private companies, had left the public confused about who to contact if they needed to see a doctor when their local surgery was shut.

                            Sam Oestreicher, UNISON National Officer for Ambulance workers, said: “The four day weekend is a real concern; a lot of people don’t know how to access care when their GP surgery is shut, but the one number they do know is 999, so it is very hard to keep the pressure off the ambulances”.

                            On Thursday the health secretary Alan Johnson insisted that the increase in sickness was “pressure we can cope with.”

                            He was responding to comments from Peter Bradley, the national director of ambulance services, who told The Daily Telegraph that the emergency system was “struggling to cope” with demand.

                            Latest figures show that the London Ambulance Service, where he is chief executive, experienced its busiest week in its history, with more than 20,000 calls in the week ending last Sunday, while calls in the West Midlands rose by 30 per cent, compared with the same period last year.

                            St George’s Hospital in London, Leighton Hospital in Cheshire, and Norfolk and Norwich Hospital have all stopped receiving emergency patients as pressures mounted over the past fortnight, due to rising emergencies and outbreaks of the vomiting bug.

                            Dozens more hospitals have closed wards and cancelled scheduled operations

                            Comment


                            • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                              Source: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/arti...ergencies.html

                              Red Cross to answer 999 calls in winter flu crisis as NHS is deluged by emergencies

                              By Lucy Ballinger
                              Last updated at 1:14 AM on 22nd December 2008

                              Volunteers from the Red Cross and St John Ambulance are being sent to 999 calls as the ambulance service is hit by a deluge of emergencies.

                              Crews are faced with the worst flu outbreak for ten years, the winter vomiting bug and a wave of alcohol-related injuries from the Christmas party season.

                              In desperation they have turned to the charities to help them with the massive influx of calls.

                              The Red Cross, more usually linked to disasters in the Third World, has been called in to help with non-life-threatening calls.

                              And St John Ambulance, which deals with any call-up to the most serious kind, says it is being forced to provide three times the cover it normally does at this time of year.

                              Even firemen in some areas are poised to give emergency assistance while patients wait for ambulances to arrive.

                              Peter Bradley, the national director of ambulance services, said services in England the week before last was their busiest ever, with a 30 per cent rise in some areas during the ten days up to the middle of last week.

                              He said it was due to the coldest start to a winter for 30 years causing a sharp increase in falls and breathing problems, combined with outbreaks of flu and the winter vomiting bug norovirus.

                              'It is absolutely horrendous. Hospitals are full and A&E departments are struggling,' he said.

                              St John Ambulance chief commissioner of operations Harry Dymond said: 'We are probably operating in every county in England. If not every one, then certainly the vast majority. Huge numbers of vehicles are helping, with up to ten being used in many counties.

                              'Most of the crews will be dealing with emergency calls in the same way as any other normal ambulance crew. This can mean going to any type of call including the most serious heart attacks.

                              'We expect to have to help out well into next year. In many areas we have already been asked to help through to the middle of January.'

                              He added that this year ambulance services were under extra pressure to meet new Government response time targets set this spring.

                              Last Friday over-indulgence at office celebrations saw London Ambulance service receive 4,549 calls, which they said was 'extremely busy' compared with a normal day's average of 3,500 calls.

                              Geoff Martin from Health Emergency, which represents paramedics, said: 'We have got a combination of flu and norovirus and cold weather, and it has led to absolute chaos.

                              'The services are trying to muddle through and that is the problem. The problem has been compounded by the target-obsessed Government.

                              'To use these volunteer organisations is a measure of how desperate the situation is. We have the emergency services for a reason. There is no substitute for those trained professionals, it is not their fault but this is a dire situation.'

                              The Red Cross has 300 ambulances across Britain who are on stand-by all year for emergencies, but are very rarely needed.

                              A Red Cross spokesman said: 'We provide support to the emergency services as needed, this includes helping some ambulance services with lower category calls.

                              'All our ambulances are fully equipped, and the crews are fully trained.'

                              Neil Cook, director of operations for the east Hampshire ambulance area, said: 'I've been in this job for 25 years and I can't remember it ever being this bad.

                              'The increase in call outs is putting us under incredible strain.'

                              Ambulance service managers are urging patients to think carefully before dialling 999 - as they could be diverting an ambulance from a life-threatening emergency.

                              Michelle Ullett, from South Central Ambulance Service, which covers Hampshire, said: 'In some cases people don't know where else to turn and think dialling 999 is their only alternative.

                              'There are a lot of people who do not need an ambulance but may need some other form of NHS treatment from places such as their GP, NHS Direct, minor injuries or walk-in centres or out-of-hours service.'

                              Comment


                              • Re: Seasonal Flu 2008 - 2009

                                #209:

                                "Ambulance service managers are urging patients to think carefully before dialling 999 - as they could be diverting an ambulance from a life-threatening emergency."


                                The above is a product of an "one-number-for-all-emergencies", which is not bad if covered with enaugh real-time specialistics phone-call "judge it" staff and enaugh inner channels, and emergency vehicles/dr/staff,
                                but if not,
                                the outcome can be dificultly and serious for the people who need realy an express life-save ambulance without the need for other kind of specialists but doctors (heart, ...),
                                if they can't get the vehicle/dr./staff/em.treatment because the lines are occupated by un-neccessary urgent calls evaluations or team interventions.

                                Two diferent main call numbers - one for the suspected vital urgent emergency calls only,
                                and another for the rest of potential emergencies?

                                Comment

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