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  • How to Wash Your Hands -

    http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs/nutrition...5/348-965.html


    Why Wash Hands?

    Failure to adequately wash hands is a major cause of infectious diseases. Individuals who practice poor personal hygiene while preparing food may spread diseases such as hepatitis A, salmonellosis, and shigellosis. Studies indicate that onethird (33%) of people do not wash their hands after using the restroom. When To Wash Hands?

    Wash hands often because disease-causing germs can easily be transferred to food, surfaces, and people.
    Germs cannot be seen with the naked eye. Warmth and moisture (perspiration) on skin surfaces allow germs to quickly grow into millions.
    Hands should be washed:

    • Before, during, and after preparing food
    • Before eating food
    • After using the restroom
    • After coughing, sneezing, or blowing your nose
    • After changing diapers
    • After handling money
    • After handling trash or taking out garbage
    • After handling (petting) pets or other animals
    • After work or play
    • Whenever hands come in contact with body fluids (i.e. runny nose, watery eyes, saliva)
    • More frequently when someone in the home is sick
    • When hands are dirty
    How To Wash Hands?

    Hands should be washed vigorously by scrubbing with warm, soapy water for at least 20 seconds. Germs can hide underneath fingernails. Thus, rub tips of fingers along the soapy palm of the alternate hand or use a fingernail brush. Rinse hands well and completely dry with a paper towel or air-dryer. Turn the faucet handle off with a paper towel to avoid recontamination. If you will be preparing food, try not to touch potentially contaminated surfaces after washing your hands. Proper handwashing steps are listed on the other side of the page.




    <center></center>
    "May the long time sun
    Shine upon you,
    All love surround you,
    And the pure light within you
    Guide your way on."

    "Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, lies your calling."
    Aristotle

    “In a gentle way, you can shake the world.”
    Mohandas Gandhi

    Be the light that is within.

  • #2
    Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

    The Virginia graphic is good, but it's still missing steps, even to my un-professional eye:

    Between #3 and #4, the faucet needs to remain on, otherwise the hand is re-infected by turning the knob.

    The towel dispenser presumeably requires depressing the handle manually ( or "elbowly" ? ). Air-dryer??

    Getting out of the bathroom may require contacting the door handle - another towel may be required.

    Wet towels may not protect as well as dry towels.

    No advice on maintenance schedules or protocols for office washrooms.

    All-in-one poster, rather than directing it to home, office, kitchen or public facilities.

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

      A Video - How to Wash Your Hands

      http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iBN3i...eature=related


      "May the long time sun
      Shine upon you,
      All love surround you,
      And the pure light within you
      Guide your way on."

      "Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, lies your calling."
      Aristotle

      “In a gentle way, you can shake the world.”
      Mohandas Gandhi

      Be the light that is within.

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

        so, I guess ~10 times per day * 20sec (plus time to reach
        the water) ~ 5min per day ~ 1.5$ per day ~ $400M damage
        for USA per year

        as compared to the cost of ~$12B per year due to influenza alone
        I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
        my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

          * After using the restroom
          * After handling (petting) pets or other animals

          Gs will have to change his stats for coffee drinkers and most pet owners I know. Washing their hands each time they touched their pets would likely turn their hands into raw, cracked flesh prone to bacterial infections. I estimate I touch each one of my cats at least 10 times per day.
          The salvage of human life ought to be placed above barter and exchange ~ Louis Harris, 1918

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

            isn't it easier to dip the hands in alcohole ?

            maybe a balloon with alcohole enclosing one hand,
            removed after sufficient seconds, then just let it dry on hands
            can be reused next time
            you can walk with it, work with the other hand while applying
            you can have several lying around so you needn't walk so far

            touch critical things with one hand only
            keep boxes with papers and waste paper baskets lying around to touch
            critical things

            (during waves of respiratory infection, I don't know about bacteria)
            I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
            my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

              "Washing with soap and water was statistically superior to the three alcohol-based treatments.."

              Efficacy of Soap and Water and Alcohol-Based Hand-Rub Preparations against Live H1N1 Influenza Virus on the Hands of Human Volunteers

              M. Lindsay Grayson,Sharmila Melvani,Julian Druce,Ian G. Barr,Susan A. Ballard,Paul D. R. Johnson,Tasoula Mastorakos and Christopher Birch. Clinical Infectious Diseases 1 February 2009, Vol. 48, No. 3: 285-291.


              http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=91345
              "May the long time sun
              Shine upon you,
              All love surround you,
              And the pure light within you
              Guide your way on."

              "Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, lies your calling."
              Aristotle

              “In a gentle way, you can shake the world.”
              Mohandas Gandhi

              Be the light that is within.

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                > "Washing with soap and water was statistically superior to the
                > three alcohol-based treatments.."

                ..although the difference was small.
                I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                  The "superior" mark given to the soap seems to be because of it's chemical property to stick on impurities and degreas if the soap foam is in contact with them at least for 20 second (that's why the count to 20), by which means than the microbes which was also into such greas/impurities were flushed off by running water.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                    I just threw away my empty sanatizer bottle; but if I remember, the claim is it kills 99.9% of germs? For soap and water to be superior, the kill rate would have to be 100% and I don't remember ever seeing those stats.

                    It's been said the problem with antibacterial soap is it kills the good bacteria as well as the bad. If soap and water had such a high kill ratio, it seems like we'd be hearing about it.
                    The salvage of human life ought to be placed above barter and exchange ~ Louis Harris, 1918

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                      I've also read that it's unwise to only use alcohol gels, because they don't remove dirt. That source said that one in every 10 cleanings should be done with soap and water. Sounds reasonable.

                      .
                      "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                        Originally posted by mixin View Post
                        I just threw away my empty sanatizer bottle; but if I remember, the claim is it kills 99.9&#37; of germs? For soap and water to be superior, the kill rate would have to be 100% and I don't remember ever seeing those stats.

                        It is been said that the problem with antibacterial soap is that it kills the good bacteria as well as the bad. If soap and water had such a high kill ratio, it seems like we'd be hearing about it.
                        The fact is diferent about soaps because we don't speak of "killing microbes", but of "removing" them.

                        Apart that the today society has put its reclamizing TV bw. at the n grade to make money, it must be admited that many industrial chemical solution have great potential of sterilization, but also of toxicity.

                        So, such toxical chems must not be applied to the hands skin.

                        Thus, remains other types of non-enaugh hard sterilizing chems to be used for home hand sanitation in sanitizers.

                        Alternatively, it is obvious that you can't all the time wear gloves (but the idea is not bad ...).

                        The Chineses had an tradition of non-shaking hands, which was a good thing knowing how many germs we can receive this way in an epidemic/pandemic (the collecting money/goods question remains vaccant of course).

                        After the above 2 possibilities, remains the ordinary soap washing hand option.

                        The "killing microbes" option by sterilization of an sanitizer, can't be realy 99% because of the (realy needed to do so) quantity of time this chemical should remain on the skin, and because it would be partly inabilitated to penetrate all the skin grease layers containing microbes.

                        So, we have the soap foam entering the question.
                        And NOT an anti-bacterial soap, but the ordinary one.

                        The ordinary soap works NOT by "killing" the germs - but by germ decontamination (removing the contaminants).

                        As wroted, an short applying time (less than a 1/2 minute) is enaugh to stick greas impurities which contains germs onto the ordinary soap foam , and this way it mostly decontaminate the hands skin from microbes.

                        The above procedure can be replyed few times, and than it can be applied additionaly an chem sanitizer as an precaution.

                        The basic principle for any kind of surface decontamination in the absence of special flushing chemicals is by flushing water and soap foam.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                          some studies how handwashing reduces infections:


                          http://ebm.bmj.com/cgi/content/extract/11/3/88
                          4691 children <15 years of age in 906 households in 36 neighbourhoods. Eligible households had 2 children who were <15 years of age (1 of whom was <5 y). Households that had previously received a soap or water vessel intervention were excluded.
                          Intervention: 25 neighbourhoods (3163 children) were allocated to handwashing, and 11 neighbourhoods (1528 children) were assigned to a control group. Households within the handwashing group were allocated to antibacterial soap (300 households, 1523 children) or plain soap (300 households, 1640 children). Fieldworkers visited households in the handwashing group to discuss the importance of handwashing, to correct handwashing technique, and to encourage participants to wash their hands. See www.evidence-basedmedicine.com for further details about the intervention.
                          Outcomes: acute respiratory infections (cough or difficulty breathing, congestion


                          http://www.foodsafety.gov/~dms/fsehandw.html
                          (Sept.1998)

                          A study of 305 Detroit school children found that youngsters who washed their hands four times a day had 24&#37; fewer sick days due to respiratory illness, and 51% fewer days lost because of stomach upset.

                          The students' sick days for a 37-day period were compared to eight other classrooms that did not have scheduled handwashing. Although the handwashing reduced sick days, it had no effect on visits to the doctor, prescription or OTC drug use, or parents' loss of time at work.

                          A review of surveillance data for U.S. foodborne disease outbreaks over a five-year period (1988 - 1992) by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that, of 2874 outbreaks, contributing factors were reported in 1435 and that poor personal hygiene was a contributing factor in over a third (514) of them.

                          Plain hand soaps, antimicrobial hand soaps, E2 rated hand soaps (a USDA Classification requiring equivalency to 50 parts per million chlorine), and instant hand sanitizers were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing bacteria on hands. Results showed that all three types of hand soaps were effective, when using a 20-second wash procedure, in reducing bacteria on hands, with the E2 soaps significantly more effective than the other two types of soaps. The instant hand sanitizers resulted in a significant increase in bacterial numbers on hands.

                          More bacteria were found while wearing rings than not wearing rings

                          air drying with an electric blower produces the lowest and cloth drying the highest in numbers of both test organisms (viruses and bacteria


                          http://www.globalhandwashing.org/Pub...ashingARIs.pdf
                          Does handwashing reduce the risk of ARIs in developing countries?
                          another trial is under way (2003). Unfortunately, it is funded by a soap manufacturer,
                          but thepreliminary results are promising

                          The strong link found between handwashing and a decrease in respiratory infections follows one other study that showed similar results. A U.S. Navy study showed handwashing reduced the risk of respiratory infections among training recruits by as much as 45 percent

                          handwashing reduced risk of diarrheal diseases by 47% and more severe outcomes such as cholera and dysentery by 48-59%




                          http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12n...-1371_app2.htm
                          I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                          my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                            http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12n...-1371_app2.htm

                            my summary: (~40&#37; reduction of respiratory illness achieved by good handwashing,
                            but the effect on influenza is unclear)


                            studies about the effect of handwashing:
                            --------------------------------------------------------

                            25% reduction in respiratory, little effect on diarrheal

                            42% reduction in school absences due to infectious diseases : 29% GI , 50% respiratory

                            ~50% reduction in respiratori infections in patients, ~30% in stuff, ~10% of episodes confirmed influenza

                            antibacterial soap was not superior to normal soap

                            "significant effect" in protecting children against respiratory

                            39% reduction for respiratory, 32% all infections

                            17% reduction in colds was seen in <24 months children with no effect in older children.

                            A 45% reduction in consultations for respiratory, no effect on hospitalization

                            A small but significant difference on rhinitis and cough in children

                            20% less illness overall
                            I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                            my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Re: How to Wash Your Hands -

                              pubmed on influenza and handwashing:
                              (I haven't read these)


                              1 - 43 of 43

                              1:Efficacy of soap and water and alcohol-based hand-rub preparations against live H1N1
                              influenza virus on the hands of human volunteers.
                              Grayson ML, Melvani S, Druce J, Barr IG, Ballard SA, Johnson PD, Mastorakos T, Birch C.
                              Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Feb 1;48(3):285-91.
                              2:[Fighting the flu with soap and water. Hand washing as an infection control recommendation to the population--7 hypotheses from a qualitative study about hygiene, flu and pandemic]
                              Meilicke G, Weissenborn A, Biederbick W, Bartels C.
                              Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2008 Nov;51(11):1273-9. German.
                              3:Influenza vaccination.
                              Foster D.
                              AAOHN J. 2008 Oct;56(10):409-11. No abstract available.
                              4:
                              Preparing for the next influenza pandemic.
                              McCullers JA.
                              Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Oct;27(10 Suppl):S57-9.
                              PMID: 18820579 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              5:
                              Efficacy of disinfectants and hand sanitizers against avian respiratory viruses.
                              Patnayak DP, Prasad AM, Malik YS, Ramakrishnan MA, Goyal SM.
                              Avian Dis. 2008 Jun;52(2):199-202.
                              PMID: 18646446 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              6:
                              Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: a randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention.
                              Sandora TJ, Shih MC, Goldmann DA.
                              Pediatrics. 2008 Jun;121(6):e1555-62.
                              PMID: 18519460 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              7:
                              Nonpharmaceutical Interventions for Military Populations During Pandemic Influenza.
                              Kiliç S, Gray GC.
                              TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007;6(4):285-290.
                              PMID: 18516249 [PubMed]
                              Related Articles Free article in PMC | at journal site
                              8:
                              Lessons learned from the 2007-2008 cold and flu season: what worked and what was worthless.
                              Moyad MA, Robinson LE.
                              Urol Nurs. 2008 Apr;28(2):146-8, 145. Review.
                              PMID: 18488594 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              9:
                              Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households.
                              Cowling BJ, Fung RO, Cheng CK, Fang VJ, Chan KH, Seto WH, Yung R, Chiu B, Lee P, Uyeki TM, Houck PM, Peiris JS, Leung GM.
                              PLoS ONE. 2008 May 7;3(5):e2101.
                              PMID: 18461182 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article in PMC | at journal site
                              10:
                              It's not just about the mask.
                              Devlin HR, Abou-Sweid S, King J.
                              Healthc Pap. 2007;8(1):29-33; discussion 50-5.
                              PMID: 18030034 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              11:
                              Antivirals and the control of influenza outbreaks.
                              Hota S, McGeer A.
                              Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Nov 15;45(10):1362-8. Epub 2007 Oct 11.
                              PMID: 17968836 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              12:
                              Interventions for the interruption or reduction of the spread of respiratory viruses.
                              Jefferson T, Foxlee R, Del Mar C, Dooley L, Ferroni E, Hewak B, Prabhala A, Nair S, Rivetti A.
                              Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD006207. Review.
                              PMID: 17943895 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              13:
                              Infection prevention and control in pediatric ambulatory settings.
                              American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Infectious Diseases.
                              Pediatrics. 2007 Sep;120(3):650-65.
                              PMID: 17766540 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article at journal site
                              14:
                              Handwashing: back to the basics.
                              Maher HK.
                              AAOHN J. 2007 Mar;55(3):132. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 17405590 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              15:
                              Anticipated and current preventive behaviors in response to an anticipated human-to-human H5N1 epidemic in the Hong Kong Chinese general population.
                              Lau JT, Kim JH, Tsui HY, Griffiths S.
                              BMC Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15;7:18.
                              PMID: 17359545 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article in PMC | at journal site
                              16:
                              Factsheet: pandemic influenza.
                              [No authors listed]
                              N S W Public Health Bull. 2006 Sep-Oct;17(9-10):152-3. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 17354329 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              17:
                              Suitability of vaccinia virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) for determining activities of three commonly-used alcohol-based hand rubs against enveloped viruses.
                              Kampf G, Steinmann J, Rabenau H.
                              BMC Infect Dis. 2007 Feb 9;7:5.
                              PMID: 17291338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article in PMC | at journal site
                              18:
                              Flu season and the threat of a pandemic.
                              Miller-Meeks M.
                              Iowa Med. 2006 Nov-Dec;96(6):8. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 17269575 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              19:
                              Personal (non-pharmaceutical) protective measures for reducing transmission of influenza--ECDC interim recommendations.
                              Nicoll A.
                              Euro Surveill. 2006 Oct 12;11(10):E061012.1. No abstract available. Erratum in: Euro Surveill. 2006 Nov;11(11):E061103.4.
                              PMID: 17213533 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article at journal site
                              20:
                              N-95 face mask for prevention of bird flu virus: an appraisal of nanostructure and implication for infectious control.
                              Wiwanitkit V.
                              Lung. 2006 Nov-Dec;184(6):373-4. Epub 2006 Nov 3. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 17086463 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              21:
                              Acute respiratory tract infections among Hajj medical mission personnel, Saudi Arabia.
                              Al-Asmary S, Al-Shehri AS, Abou-Zeid A, Abdel-Fattah M, Hifnawy T, El-Said T.
                              Int J Infect Dis. 2007 May;11(3):268-72. Epub 2006 Aug 14.
                              PMID: 16905350 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              22:
                              Bird flu: don't fly into a panic. Whether the H5N1 virus will "make the jump" and spread among humans is uncertain, but here are some tips to protect yourself.
                              [No authors listed]
                              Harv Health Lett. 2006 Jun;31(8):1-3. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 16835948 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              23:
                              Non-pharmaceutical interventions for pandemic influenza, national and community measures.
                              Bell DM; World Health Organization Writing Group.
                              Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jan;12(1):88-94.
                              PMID: 16494723 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article at journal site
                              24:
                              Focusing on this year's flu...use healthy handwashing...and when soap and water aren't handy, hand gels work well, too.
                              [No authors listed]
                              Child Health Alert. 2005 Nov;23:1-2. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 16416537 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              25:
                              The bird flu conundrum.
                              Ashley KE, Deshazo RD.
                              Am J Med Sci. 2006 Jan;331(1):2-3. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 16415655 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              26:
                              Nosocomial rotavirus infection in European countries: a review of the epidemiology, severity and economic burden of hospital-acquired rotavirus disease.
                              Gleizes O, Desselberger U, Tatochenko V, Rodrigo C, Salman N, Mezner Z, Giaquinto C, Grimprel E.
                              Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Jan;25(1 Suppl):S12-21. Review.
                              PMID: 16397425 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              27:
                              Dental health professionals vital in reducing effects of influenza.
                              Wessner M.
                              Pa Dent J (Harrisb). 2005 Sep-Oct;72(5):35-6. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 16379153 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              28:
                              Virucidal activity of a new hand disinfectant with reduced ethanol content: comparison with other alcohol-based formulations.
                              Kramer A, Galabov AS, Sattar SA, Döhner L, Pivert A, Payan C, Wolff MH, Yilmaz A, Steinmann J.
                              J Hosp Infect. 2006 Jan;62(1):98-106. Epub 2005 Nov 22.
                              PMID: 16307826 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              29:
                              Influenza vaccine 2005-2006.
                              [No authors listed]
                              Med Lett Drugs Ther. 2005 Oct 24;47(1220):85-7. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 16264371 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              30:
                              Preventive strategies for aspiration pneumonia in elderly disabled persons.
                              Ohrui T.
                              Tohoku J Exp Med. 2005 Sep;207(1):3-12. Review.
                              PMID: 16082150 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article at journal site
                              31:
                              Immunizations, neonatal jaundice, and animal-induced injuries.
                              Lee MS, Bernstein HH.
                              Curr Opin Pediatr. 2005 Jun;17(3):418-29. Review.
                              PMID: 15891438 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              32:
                              What to do about the flu.
                              [No authors listed]
                              Harv Mens Health Watch. 2005 Jan;9(6):7-8. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 15773011 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              33:
                              Preventing exposure to influenza: steps health care workers can take.
                              de Castro AB, Peterson C.
                              Am J Nurs. 2005 Jan;105(1):112. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 15660013 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              34:
                              Patient education. Vaccination is not the only way to help prevent the flu.
                              [No authors listed]
                              Geriatrics. 2004 Nov;59(11):61-2. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 15615162 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              35:
                              Can antiviral tissues prevent the spread of colds?
                              [No authors listed]
                              Consum Rep. 2004 Dec;69(12):56. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 15586956 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              36:
                              Evolution of equine infection control programs.
                              Smith BP.
                              Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2004 Dec;20(3):521-30, v. Review.
                              PMID: 15519815 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              37:
                              Protecting children from the flu: the flu vaccine is one way...and there's handwashing.
                              [No authors listed]
                              Child Health Alert. 2002 Dec;20:2. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 12523276 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              38:
                              Fighting the flu.
                              Bren L.
                              FDA Consum. 2001 Jan-Feb;35(1):12-3. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 11930917 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article at journal site
                              39:
                              Hand washing decreases risk of colds and flu.
                              Carter JM.
                              J Natl Med Assoc. 2002 Feb;94(2):A11. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 11853053 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article in PMC | at journal site
                              40:
                              Beat the winter bugs. How to hold your own against colds and flu.
                              Meadows M.
                              FDA Consum. 2001 Nov-Dec;35(6):11-7. Review. No abstract available.
                              PMID: 11785487 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article at journal site
                              41:
                              [Epidemiology of viral nosocomial infections in pediatrics]
                              Aho LS, Simon I, Bour JB, Morales-Gineste L, Pothier P, Gouyon JB.
                              Pathol Biol (Paris). 2000 Dec;48(10):885-92. Review. French.
                              PMID: 11204919 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              42:
                              Occupationally acquired infections in health care workers. Part I.
                              Sepkowitz KA.
                              Ann Intern Med. 1996 Nov 15;125(10):826-34. Review.
                              PMID: 8928990 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles Free article at journal site
                              43:
                              Prevention of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia.
                              Simberkoff MS, Santos MR.
                              Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1996 May;2(3):228-35. Review.
                              PMID: 9363144 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
                              Related Articles
                              I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                              my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

                              Comment

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