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  • CHERRIES AND BERRIES

    Add some canned cherries to your preps. They have medicinal qualities, vitamins and minerals too. I found some canned cherries in glass jars, imported from Macedonia, Poland, and Germany in several import stores - cherry jams, preserves and juices also. Here is some info on cherries:

    Cherry
    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    Scientific classification
    Kingdom: Plantae

    Division: Magnoliophyta

    Class: Magnoliopsida

    Order: Rosales

    Family: Rosaceae

    Subfamily: Prunoideae

    Genus: Prunus

    Subgenus: Cerasus


    Species
    Several, including:
    Prunus apetala
    Prunus avium (Wild/Sweet Cherry)
    Prunus campanulata
    Prunus canescens
    Prunus cerasus (Sour Cherry)
    Prunus concinna
    Prunus conradinae
    Prunus dielsiana
    Prunus emarginata (Bitter Cherry)
    Prunus fruticosa
    Prunus incisa
    Prunus litigiosa
    Prunus mahaleb (Saint Lucie Cherry)
    Prunus maximowiczii
    Prunus nipponica
    Prunus pensylvanica (Pin Cherry)
    Prunus pilosiuscula
    Prunus rufa
    Prunus sargentii
    Prunus serotina (Black Cherry)
    Prunus serrula
    Prunus serrulata (Japanese Cherry)
    Prunus speciosa
    Prunus subhirtella
    Prunus tomentosa (Nanking Cherry)
    Prunus x yedoensis (Yoshino Cherry)

    Cherries (sweet, edible parts)
    Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

    Energy 60 kcal 260 kJ
    Carbohydrates 16 g
    - Sugars 13 g
    - Dietary fibre 2 g
    Fat 0.2 g
    Protein 1.1 g
    Vitamin C 7 mg 12%
    Iron 0.4 mg 3%

    Percentages are relative to US
    recommendations for adults.
    Source: USDA Nutrient database


    The word cherry refers to both the tree and the fleshy fruit (drupe) that contains a single stony seed. The cherry belongs to the family Rosaceae, genus Prunus, along with almonds, peaches, plums, apricots and bird cherries. The subgenus, Cerasus, is distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together (not singly, nor in racemes), and by having a smooth fruit with only a weak groove or none along one side. The subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in North America, three in Europe, and the remainder in Asia. The word "cherry" comes from the French word "cerise," which comes in turn from the Latin words cerasum and Cerasus.



    Background
    The cherry is generally understood to have been brought to Rome from Armenia. [1]

    The cherries selected for eating are derived primarily from two species, the Wild Cherry (P. avium), which has given rise to the Sweet Cherry to which most cherry cultivars belong, and the Sour Cherry (P. cerasus), used mainly for cooking and jam making. Both species originate in Europe and western Asia; they do not cross-pollinate each other. The other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Given the high costs of production, from irrigation, sprays and labour costs, in addition to their proneness to damage from rain and hail, the cherry is relatively expensive. Nonetheless, there is high demand for the fruit.

    Major commercial cherry orchards in Europe extend from the Iberian peninsula east to Asia Minor; they are also grown to a smaller extent north of the British Isles and southern Scandinavia. In the United States, most sweet cherries for fresh use are grown in California and Washington. Important sweet cherry cultivars include 'Bing', 'Brooks', 'Tulare', 'King', and 'Rainier'.

    Oregon and Michigan provide light-coloured 'Royal Ann' ('Napoleon'; alternately 'Queen Anne') cherries for the maraschino cherry process. Most sour (also called tart) cherries are grown in four states bordering the Great Lakes, in Michigan (the largest producers of cherries among the states), New York, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin, however, native and non-native cherries grow well in Canada (Ontario and British Columbia) as well. Sour cherries include Nanking and Evans Cherry. Traverse City, Michigan claims to be the "Cherry Capital of the World", hosting a National Cherry Festival and making the world's largest cherry pie.

    Likewise in Australia the New South Wales town of Young is famous nationwide as the "Cherry Capital of Australia", and also host The National Cherry Festival which is famous internationally. Popular varieties include the 'Montmorency', 'Morello', 'North Star', 'Early Richmond', 'Titans', 'Lamberts' and the very sweet and highly demanded 'Ron'.

    Cherries have a very short fruiting season. In Australia they are usually at their peak around Christmas time, in southern Europe in June, in America in June, and in the UK in mid July, always in the summer season. Annual world production (as of 2003) of domesticated cherries is about 3 million tonnes, of which a third are sour cherries. In many parts of North America they are among the first tree fruits ripe; hence the colloquial term "cherry" to mean "new" or "the first", e.g. "in cherry condition".

    As well as the fruit, cherries also have attractive flowers, and they are commonly planted for their flower display in spring; several of the Asian cherries are particularly noted for their flower display. The Japanese sakura in particular are a national symbol celebrated in the yearly Hanami festival. Many flowering cherry cultivars (known as 'ornamental cherries') have the stamens and pistils replaced by additional petals ("double" flowers), so are sterile and do not bear fruit. They are grown purely for their flowers and decorative value. The most common of these sterile cherries is the cultivar 'Kanzan'.

    Cherry trees provide food for the caterpillars of several Lepidoptera. See List of Lepidoptera which feed on Prunus.


    Cherries have been shown to have several health benefits.
    Cherries contain anthocyanins, which is the red pigment in berries. Cherry anthocyanins have been shown to reduce pain and inflammation. Anthocyanins are also potent antioxidants.

    Cherries have also been shown to contain high levels of melatonin. Research has shown that people who have heart attacks have low melatonin levels. Besides being an anti-oxidant, melatonin has also been shown to be important for the function of the immune system. Research also indicates that melatonin suppresses COX-2.

    There is considerable interest at present in the use of fresh cherries or cherry juice to treat gout - a painful inflammatory joint condition.


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cherry



    I had a sweet black cherry tree in my yard years ago. It produced over 100 lbs of fruit every year. One year I went out to start picking, and a flock of birds had eaten every single cherry on the tree - and on the ground -in one night. It never happened again.

  • #2
    Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

    MSU First to Identify Anthocyanins in Cherries


    Researchers at Michigan State University were among the first to identify the presence of three powerful anthocyanins in tart cherries with the potential to inhibit the growth of colon cancer tumors. Tart cherries contain anthocyanins and bioflavonoids which inhibit the enzymes Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, and prevent inflammation in the body. These compounds have similar activity as aspirin, naproxen and ibuprofen. Further investigations revealed that daily consumption of tart cherries has the potential to reduce the pain associated with inflammation, arthritis and gout. Many middle-aged and elderly consumers are choosing to drink cherry juice rather than take over-the-counter medications to stave off the pain of arthritis and gout.

    "Twenty cherries provide 25 milligrams of anthocyanins, which help to shut down the enzymes that cause tissue inflammation in the first place, so cherries can prevent and treat many kinds of pain," says Muraleedharan Nair, the lead researcher on the cherry project at Michigan State University. The anthocyanins also may protect artery walls from the damage that leads to plaque build up and heart disease. In fact, the latest research shows that anthocyanins do a better job of protecting arteries than vitamins C and E.

    [III] Wang, H. et al. 1999. Antioxidant and Antiinflammatory Activities of Anthycyanins and their Aglycon, Cyanidin, from Tart Cherries. Journal of Natural Products 62(2): 294-296.
    Credit: Cherry Marketing Institute Cherry Advantage Issue 1

    http://www.fruitinstitute.org/cherry_health2.htm

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

      Cherries


      Cherries are members of the Rosaceae (Rose) family, subfamily Prunoideae. They occupy the Cerasus subgenus within Prunus, with Prunus avium being the Sweet Cherry, and Prunus cerasus the Sour, Pie, or Tart Cherry. Popular varieties of the Sweet Cherry are: 'Napoleon' (syn. 'Royal Ann'), 'Ranier', and 'Lambert'. 'Montmorency' and 'Balaton®' are two Sour Cherry varieties.

      Michigan leads the nation in the production of tart cherries, producing 70 to 75 percent of the crop each year. Other states with commercial crops of tart cherries include Utah, New York, Wisconsin, Washington, Oregon and Pennsylvania. Sweet cherries are primarily grown in Washington, Oregon and California. Other states with commercial crops of sweet cherries are Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Montana, Idaho and Utah.

      There are new reasons to love? tart cherries. America’s ruby-red fruit is loaded with antioxidants and nutrients. In addition, Montmorency frozen tart cherries have a low glycemic index. Today, thousands of people depend on the anti-inflammatory properties found in Tart Cherries to treat their Arthritis and Gout symptoms.

      Scientific tests show that tart cherry juice concentrate has 12,800 ORAC units per 100 grams of concentrate. This is a very high value, significantly higher than other fruits, including prunes, blueberries and strawberries. The ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) tests, which were conducted by Brunswick Laboratories in Wareham, Massachusetts, quantifies how many antioxidants are in a food and how powerful they are. Brunswick Labs is a leader in ORAC testing and has set the standard for other testing companies.

      Dried cherries have 6,800 ORAC units per 100 grams; frozen tart cherries, 2,033 units and canned tart cherries, 1,700 units. Other fruits that have been tested range from 700 to 5,700 ORAC units per 100 grams. Nutritionists suggest that people consume 3,000 to 5,000 ORAC units per day to have an impact on health.

      Tart cherries have 19 times as much vitamin A and beta carotene as strawberries and blueberries. They also are high in fiber and potassium and contain iron, magnesium, vitamins C, B6, E and folic acid; they have virtually no fat and no sodium. “This variety of nutrients in tart cherries translates into good nutrition,” says Rainville. A complete nutritional analysis of tart cherries was recently done on frozen, canned and dried tart cherries as well as tart cherry juice concentrate.

      Montmorency tart cherries were also tested for glycemic index (GI) at the Glycemic Index Laboratories in Toronto, Canada. Montmorency frozen tart cherries showed a low GI. The GI is a system that ranks foods by how they affect blood sugar levels in the body. Low GI foods produce a gradual rise in blood sugar that’s easy on the body. Foods with high GI numbers make blood sugar as well as insulin level spike fast. Foods are ranked as low, medium and high.(source: Cherry Marketing Institute).

      Click here to read: Cherry Juice Testimonials Cherry Capsule Testimonials


      Health Studies:

      Tart Cherries - Pain Relief Never Tasted So Good

      Montmorency Tart Cherries - The Natural Choice

      Tart Cherries - Anthocyanins Inhibit Tumor Development

      Cherries And Their Benefits For Gout

      Why Antioxidants and Other Natural Compounds are Important

      MSU First to Identify Anthocyanins in Cherries

      Cancer-Fighter Perillyl Alcohol Found in Tart Cherries

      ILab Verifies Cancer-Fighting Agents in Cherries

      New Research Shows the Power of Cherries

      Cox Inhibition May Fight Heart Attacks

      The 'Dean of Melatonin Research' Gives Tart Cherries High Marks

      Fibromyalgia and Cherries

      Chemicals Found in Cherries May Help Fight Diabetes

      Consumption of Cherries Lowers Plasma Urate in Healthy Women



      You Can Also Link To These Additional Websites Related To The Health Benefits Of Tart Cherries As Well As Other Fruits:

      www.cancer.org
      www.cancer.gov
      www.diabetes.org
      www.kidney.org
      www.ific.org
      www.mayoclinic.com
      www.usda.gov
      www.vitamins-nutrition.org
      www.cdc.gov
      www.5aday.com
      www.americanheart.org
      www.arthritis.org


      http://www.fruitinstitute.org/cherries.htm

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

        THANKS for the information. Anyone know a good website to buy the tart berries or juice?

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

          Originally posted by unpathedhaunt View Post
          THANKS for the information. Anyone know a good website to buy the tart berries or juice?
          I have not purchased cherries, but have been very happy with Vitacost. I checked and they do sell tart cherries.

          Note: I have no affiliation with Vitacost. Flutrackers does not endorse any commercial products.
          "In the beginning of change, the patriot is a scarce man (or woman https://flutrackers.com/forum/core/i...ilies/wink.png), and brave, and hated and scorned. When his cause succeeds, the timid join him, for it then costs nothing to be a patriot."- Mark TwainReason obeys itself; and ignorance submits to whatever is dictated to it. -Thomas Paine

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

            Herbalcom.com has these berry/cherry products. (There may be some I missed.) All dry:

            Wild cherry bark c/s
            Schizandra berry powder
            Wild cherry bark powder
            Lycii berries whole
            Juniper berries powder
            Hawthorn berries whole
            Elder berries whole
            Cranberry powder
            Hawthorn berries powder
            Bilberry fruit powder
            Acerola berry extract powder,
            Acai (Assai) berry powder
            Chaste tree berries whole


            "Think of how silly all us health fanatics will feel one day ... lying in the hospital ... dying of nothing"

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

              Originally posted by unpathedhaunt View Post
              THANKS for the information. Anyone know a good website to buy the tart berries or juice?
              R.W. Knudsen lists a few online suppliers:
              http://www.knudsenjuices.com/locate/default.aspx

              I buy their products from Meijer stores. Their "Just Black Cherry" is 100% juice, no additives. It is sweet.
              They also sell a tart cherry juice..
              Trader Joe's also sells Montmorency cherries with juice and other cherry juices.

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                Thank you so much!

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                  Originally posted by Jonesie View Post
                  ...Trader Joe's also sells Montmorency cherries with juice and other cherry juices.
                  I've used the 100% wild blueberry juice from Trader Joe's to successfully stop a mild asthma attack. I use 1-2 ounces straight - but be prepared for the tart taste. The cost is about $5.00 per quart so it's not something I use without reason.

                  I've purchased from herbalcom.com several times. Quick service, great product, and good value. I also recommend it.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                    Trader Joe's also sells Dried Tart Montmorency Cherries. The dried cherries come in 8 oz. (227g) packages. They are great in mock chicken salad made with seitan.
                    We were put on this earth to help and take care of one another.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                      Here is another source of cherry products:
                      http://www.mi-cherries.com/juice.htm


                      They have more info on cherry/berry testing, recipes, and informative charts.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                        CSC -- May 4, 2007


                        A Healthy Heart Means A Healthier Brain - Strawberries Are Among Foods That Benefit Both Organs



                        Watsonville, CA – As nutritionist Joy Bauer said on NBC’s Today Show recently, “The plain truth is that a healthy heart makes for a healthy brain.”

                        “Because oxygen and nutrients are carried in the bloodstream, anything that impedes blood-flow will starve those all-important brain cells,” Bauer says.

                        Strawberries are rich in an array of nutrients that may play important roles in heart and brain disease prevention, including vitamin C, folate, potassium, and flavonoids such as anthocyanins, the natural pigments responsible for the red color of strawberries, quercetin and ellagic acid.

                        Research indicates that consumption of strawberries not only increases blood levels of these nutrients but also lowers markers of cardiovascular disease levels and blood pressure. In an analysis of data from large dietary studies in the U.S., strawberry eaters had higher levels of folate, fiber and vitamin C and lower blood pressure than non-strawberry eaters.

                        Dr. Jim Joseph, Director of the Neuroscience Laboratory at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University in Boston, explains more about how strawberries promote heart and brain health. “Strawberries have good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory qualities and since most cardio-vascular problems involve inflammation and oxidation, strawberries can protect you from their effects. They cut off the signal to free radicals and cut off the production of substances that can be toxic. In the brain, they help neurons work better and help with motor function and memory.”

                        Last fall at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference on Prevention of Dementia, scientists said that eating delicious foods such as strawberries and other berries have a positive effect on protecting the brain because they are rich sources of important nutrients.

                        http://www.calstrawberry.com/commiss...s.asp?itnID=53

                        I found canned strawberries in glass jars at an import store. Since truckers may not be able to deliver fresh strawberries cross-country in a pandemic, you may wish to add them to your preps now. (19 0z. for $2.69. Product of Bulgaria. No sugar added.)
                        If you plan on growing strawberries, be sure to buy some netting from a fabric store to cover the plants . Robins and ants love ripe stawberries.



                        "One must ask children and birds how cherries and strawberries taste.”
                        ~ Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (German Playwright, Poet, Novelist and Dramatist. 1749-1832) ~

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                          Strawberries most effective at inducing cancer cell death

                          Medical Studies/Trials
                          Published: Wednesday, 10-Aug-2005


                          Strawberries may be the most effective of the five most commonly consumed berries at inducing cancer cell death, according to a recent study conducted at the UCLA Center for Human Nutrition. The center recently tested extracts of six berries -- strawberries, raspberries, black raspberries, blueberries, blackberries and cranberries -- to determine their ability to induce apoptosis, a process that enhances the death of cancer cells.

                          In one phase of the study, all of the berry extracts exhibited anti-proliferative effects and did so in a dose-dependent manner. The strongest strawberry effects were seen against two types of oral cancer cells and one type of colon cancer cells. A second phase of the experiment measured their ability to induce programmed cell death (apoptosis) against a cyclooxygenase (COX)-II expressing enzyme colon cancer cell. The results showed that the berries were potent inducers of apoptosis in the human colon cancer cells.

                          Navindra Seeram, Ph.D., presented the findings of this study at the International Berry Health Benefits Symposium, June 13-14, 2005.

                          Strawberries account for 75% of the fresh berry volume sold at retail, followed by blueberries, raspberries, blackberries and cranberries, in descending order. Strawberries and other berries contain high levels of the phytochemicals that are believed to be responsible for the protective effects of diets high in fruits and vegetables against chronic illnesses such as cancer, inflammation, heart disease and neurodegenerative diseases.

                          The investigators concluded that more in vivo studies are warranted to investigate the impact of berry phytochemicals on human health.

                          http://www.calstrawberry.com/

                          MORE READING:
                          http://postharvest.ucdavis.edu/datas...es/234-772.pdf

                          http://www.whfoods.org/genpage.php?t...dspice&dbid=32

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                            Cherries and arthritis


                            If you’ve got arthritis, summer’s plump, fresh, delicious cherries may be especially good for you.


                            Researchers from Michigan State University found anthocyanins, the same chemicals that give tart cherries their color, may have more powerful anti-inflammatory effects than aspirin. It's still unknown whether this might translate into pain relief for arthritis patients in the real world.


                            Dr. Muralee Nair, associate professor with the Bioactive Natural Products Laboratory in the Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center at MSU, isolated various components of tart cherries. He was aided in this research by Dr. Gale Strasburg, MSU associate professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition. Dr. Strasburg developed a technique to rapidly assess the antioxidant activity of the purified components. Other techniques to detect antioxidant activity are time consuming. Dr. Strasburg's technique condenses the process to a few minutes. Dr. Nair used frozen tart cherries blended with water to isolate the compounds. Then Dr. Strasburg tested the compounds to find out whether they showed promising antioxidant activity.



                            They discovered that a number of the tart cherry compounds analyzed by Dr. Strasburg's method had excellent antioxidant properties. "This was the first time that we knew these compounds had antioxidant properties," says Dr. Nair. "The antioxidant activity of the tart cherry compounds, under our evaluation systems, is superior when compared to vitamin E, vitamin C and some synthetic antioxidants." In particular, there are three anthocyanins associated with the bright red color of tart cherries that are excellent antioxidants. However, as many as 14 other compounds in tart cherries also have antioxidant activity. During the next year, the MSU researchers plan to investigate what levels of tart cherry consumption are needed to obtain beneficial antioxidant effects.



                            Antioxidants are believed to inhibit the cycling of highly reactive compounds, called free radicals, which occur in normal human metabolism. However, in certain circumstances, these compounds may be factors in diseases, especially cancer. Consumer concerns about synthetic food additives have fueled interest in the identification and use of naturally occurring antioxidants to replace the synthetic ones. "Based on the combined research at MSU, we hypothesize that tart cherries are a rich source of naturally occurring antioxidants, which could be effective replacements for synthetic antioxidants in foods," says Dr. Strasburg.



                            "Twenty cherries provide 25 milligrams of anthocyanins, which help to shut down the enzymes that cause tissue inflammation in the first place, so cherries can prevent and treat many kinds of pain," says Muraleedharan Nair, the lead researcher on the cherry project at Michigan State University. The anthocyanins also may protect artery walls from the damage that leads to plaque build up and heart disease. In fact, the latest research shows that anthocyanins do a better job of protecting arteries than vitamins C and E.


                            The current research on the health benefits of cherries began with a study conducted by Dr. Alden Booren, professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition at MSU, in 1994. He investigated the use of cherries in very lean ground beef. "Our trained taste testers found the cherry-beef mixtures to be very desirable and had equal to or better flavor than those from lean ground beef," says Dr. Booren. "We also found that reheated ground beef with cherries was essentially devoid of oxidized or rancid flavors." Dr. Booren and other researchers suspected that it was the antioxidant properties of tart cherries that were responsible for these effects, which lead to the current research projects.



                            Dr. Won Song, a professor in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at MSU and a registered dietitian, reviewed all of the previously published literature on the health benefits of cherries. She was amazed at the number of references in consumer publications. "There is even anecdotal information on the Internet," says Dr. Song. "While I found no scientific research to support the anecdotal information in these publications, we have learned enough that I believe there is a potential scientific connection that can be tested and proven." Dr. Song believes that tart cherries in some way modify enzyme and/or chemical activity in the body. She would like to pursue this idea with clinical studies in the near future.


                            Research cited above by the Cherry Marketing Institute is from research conducted by the National Safety and Toxicology Center at Michigan State University;

                            Wang, H. et al. 1999 Anti-oxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Anthocyanins and their Alglycon, Cyanid, from Tart Cherries. Journal of Natural Products 62(2): 294-296.


                            In this study (Journal of Natural Products, 1999), researchers used the equivalent of 20 tart cherries. They found anthocyanins in the tart cherries inhibited two enzymes, COX-1 and COX-2, that play a role in the body's production of prostaglandins, natural chemicals involved in inflammation. This process to block inflammation is similar to the effects of aspirin and traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as ibuprofen and naproxen. Tart cherries are also good sources of antioxidants, substances which destroy the damaging molecules thought to contribute to many diseases, including arthritis.


                            Other fruits, berries, and vegetables may contain substantial amounts of similar substances as well. According to lead researcher Muralee Nair, Ph.D., both cherries and blueberries, for example, contain potent antioxidants. However, Nair found that the inflammation-blocking activity of tart cherries was considerably greater. It's still unknown how sweet cherries would stack up.


                            One caveat is research in humans has not yet been done to determine whether cherries will actually relieve arthritis symptoms outside the lab. "The Arthritis Foundation does not see any harm in eating cherries for antioxidant protection, but does not believe there is enough proven clinical evidence to suggest that eating cherries is beneficial for reducing the pain and inflammation associated with arthritis," says John Klippel, M.D., the foundation's medical director.



                            If you still want to give tart cherries a try, there is also the question of how to consume them. The raw cherries are tart and cooking destroys many of the beneficial compounds. So, eating a slice of cherry pie won't do. Other options are tart cherry juice and tart cherry concentrate, both of which are sold at supermarkets and health food stores. According to the Cherry Marketing Institute, an 8-ounce glass of cherry juice contains the equivalent of about 100 cherries. Once again, though, some beneficial compounds can be lost during processing. Says Nair, "If the juice has been heated too much, there will be less anthocyanins in it." The juice is also acidic, so people with a sensitive stomach may not be able to tolerate it.



                            According to even more recent research at Michigan State University, tart cherries are an excellent source of compounds with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Anti-oxidants are generally recognized as useful in preventing cancer and other diseases. The anti-oxidant activity of the tart cherry compounds, under the MSU evaluation system, is superior when compared to vitamin E, vitamin C and some synthetic anti-oxidants.


                            Tart cherries contain natural anti-inflammatory compounds. In laboratory tests, MSU research indicates that tart cherry compounds are at least 10 times more active than aspirin. The advantage of tart cherries is that they are more effective without any of the adverse side effects of aspirin.


                            In addition, other research has revealed that the production of a hormone (prostaglandin) is the cause of joint pain. The production of this hormone is directly related to two enzymes. The tart cherry anti-inflammatory compounds are suspected to have the ability to inhibit the enzymes that ultimately cause joint pain."


                            This research, which is still ongoing, substantiates what some consumers have believed for years -- that tart cherries have important health benefits. There are numerous references in consumer publications, such as newspapers, magazines, books and even Web sites, that link cherries to beneficial health effects. In addition, a recent survey of cherry growers (see below) shows that they have a lower incidence of cancer and heart conditions than the general public. The growers, on average, eat about six pounds of tart cherries per year, while other Americans eat about one pound of tart cherries annually.


                            Recently published research conducted at Michigan State University investigated a range of fruits and berries for the level and activity of anthocyanins found in each.


                            Researchers analyzed the ability of the fruits to inhibit cyclooxygenase and act as antioxidants to destroy free radicals. The researchers then quantified the anthocyanin levels of tart and sweet cherries, raspberries, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, elderberries and bilberries.


                            Cyclooxygenase is produced in the body in two or more forms, termed COX-1 and COX-2, for different purposes. COX-1 is built in many different cells to create prostaglandins, which are used for basic “housekeeping” messages throughout the body. The second enzyme, COX-2, is built only in special cells and is used for signaling pain and inflammation.


                            Some pain relief medication works by blocking the messages carried by COX-1, COX-2, or both, and thus the body does not feel pain or inflammation. The anthocyanins that are able to block COX-1 and COX-2 are called Anthocyanins 1 and 2, respectively.


                            Researchers discovered that the antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was superior to vitamin E at a test concentration of 125 µg/ml. The COX inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from cherries were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 µM concentrations.


                            Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberries. The yields of pure Anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g of cherries and raspberries were the highest of the fruits tested at 26.5 and 24 mg, respectively.



                            Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only Anthocyanin 2 at a total level of 22.5 and 18.2 mg/100 g, respectively; whereas Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries.


                            Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.


                            2001 Sept; Seeram NP, Momin RA, Nair MG, Bourquin LD. Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing 48824, USA.


                            Anthocyanins from tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton and Montmorency; sweet cherries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae); bilberries, Vaccinum myrtillus L. (Ericaceae); blackberries, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae); blueberries var. Jersey, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae); cranberries var. Early Black, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae); elderberries, Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceae); raspberries, Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae); and strawberries var. Honeoye, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (Rosaceae), were investigated for cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The presence and levels of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside 1 and cyanidin-3-rutinoside 2 were determined in the fruits using HPLC.


                            The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was comparable to the commercial antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, and superior to vitamin E, at a test concentration of 125 microg/ml.


                            Anthocyanins from raspberries and sweet cherries demonstrated 45% and 47% cyclooxygenase-I and cyclooxygenase-II inhibitory activities, respectively, when assayed at 125 microg/ml. The cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from these fruits were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 microM concentrations.


                            Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberry. The yields of pure anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries, sweet cherries and raspberries were 21, 16.5; 11, 5; 4.95, 21; and 4.65, 13.5 mg, respectively.



                            Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only anthocyanin 2 in yields of 24 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries.



                            Degradation products of cyanidin glycosides from tart cherries and their bioactivities.



                            2001 Oct.; Seeram NP, Bourquin LD, Nair MG. Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA. nairm@msu.edu


                            The bioactive anthocyanins present in tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton, are cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (1), cyanidin 3-rutinoside (2), and cyanidin 3-glucoside (3). Cyanidin (4) is the major anthocyanidin in tart cherries. In our continued evaluation of the in vivo and in vitro efficacy of these anthocyanins to prevent inflammation and colon cancer, we have added these compounds to McCoy's 5A medium in an effort to identify their degradation products during in vitro cell culture studies. This resulted in the isolation and characterization of protocatechuic acid (5), the predominant degradation product. In addition, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (6) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (7) were identified as degradation products. However, these degradation products were not quantified.


                            Compounds 5-7 were also identified as degradation products when anthocyanins were subjected to varying pH and thermal conditions. In cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and -II enzyme inhibitory assays, compounds 5-7 did not show significant activities when compared to the NSAIDs Naproxen, Celebrex, and Vioxx, or Ibuprofen, at 50 microM concentrations. However, at a test concentration of 50 microM, the antioxidant activity of protocatechuic acid (5) was comparable to those of the commercial antioxidants tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and superior to that of vitamin E at 10 microM concentrations



                            http://www.arthritis-treatment-and-r...arthritis.html

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                            • #15
                              Re: CHERRIES AND BERRIES

                              Recent research


                              Richly concentrated as pigments in berries, anthocyanins were the topics of research presented at a 2007 symposium on health benefits that may result from berry consumption[2]. Scientists provided laboratory evidence for potential health effects against

                              • cancer
                              • aging and neurological diseases
                              • inflammation
                              • diabetes
                              • bacterial infections


                              Cancer research on anthocyanins is the most advanced, where black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) preparations were first used to inhibit chemically induced cancer of the rat esophagus by 30-60% and of the colon by up to 80%. Effective at both the initiation and promotion/progression stages of tumor development, black raspberries are a practical research tool and a promising therapeutic source, as they contain the richest contents of anthocyanins among native North American berries[3].

                              Work on laboratory cancer models has shown that black raspberry anthocyanins inhibit promotion and progression of tumor cells by

                              1. stalling growth of pre-malignant cells
                              2. accelerating the rate of cell turnover, called apoptosis, effectively making the cancer cells die faster
                              3. reducing inflammatory mediators that initiate tumor onset
                              4. inhibiting growth of new blood vessels that nourish tumors, a process called angiogenesis
                              5. minimizing cancer-induced DNA damage.


                              On a molecular level, berry anthocyanins were shown to turn off genes involved with proliferation, apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis. In 2007, black raspberry studies entered the next pivotal level of research – the human clinical trial – for which several approved studies are underway to examine anti-cancer effects of black raspberries and cranberries on tumors in the esophagus, prostate and colon[4].

                              In December 2004 a peer-reviewed study at Michigan State University published by the American Chemical Society noted that anthocyanins could boost insulin production by up to 50%. However the study leader noted that despite the initial excitement, more study would be needed. Also in 2005, an article published in Applied and Environmental Microbiology demonstrated for the first time the biosynthesis of anthocyanins in bacteria [5].

                              In 2007 a study at the University of Pittsburgh discovered that anthocyanins kills human cancer cells while not affecting healthy cells. At low doses of cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C-3-R), half of the cancer cells in all lines of the test human leukemia and lymphoma cells died witin 18 hours. When the amount of C-3-R was more than doubled, all of the cancer cells died within 18 hours. The mechanism seems to be that cancereous cells respond to C-3-R by releasing peroxides which kill the cancer cells. Normal cells do not release peroxides when C-3-R is administered. [6]


                              References
                              ^ Kong J. M., Chia L. S., Goh N. K., Chia T. F., Brouillard R. (2003). "Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins.". Phytochemistry 64 (5): 923-33. DOI:10.1016/S0031-9422(03)00438-2.
                              ^ Gross PM (2007). Scientists zero in on health benefits of berry pigments. Natural Products Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
                              ^ Wada L, Ou B (2002). Antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Oregon caneberries.. J Agric Food Chem. Jun 5;50(12):3495-500.. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
                              ^ Stoner GD, Wang LS, Zikri N, Chen T, Hecht SS, Huang C, Sardo C, Lechner JF (2007). Cancer prevention with freeze-dried berries and berry components.. 1: Semin Cancer Biol. May 10; [Epub ahead of print]. Retrieved on 2007-07-27.
                              ^ Metabolic engineering of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Escherichia coli..
                              ^ Fighting cancer by the bramble.
                              Andersen, O.M. Flavonoids: Chemistry, Biochemistry and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton FL 2006.
                              G. M. Robinson, Robert Robinson (1931). "A survey of anthocyanins. I". Biochem J. 25 (5): 1687–1705.

                              External links
                              • Anthocyanin Biosynthesis
                              • Red leaves - Catalyst ABC
                              • Super Blackcurrants With Boosted Vitamin C
                              • Quantification of anthocyanins in commercial black currant juices by simple high-performance liquid chromatography. Investigation of their pH stability and antioxidative potency.
                              • Chemicals Found in Cherries May Help Fight Diabetes
                              • Biochemicals found in dark raspberries may help fight Diabetes and Cancer (in German)
                              • A discussion of the role of anthocyanins in hydrangea coloration
                              • Anthocyanins FAQ MadSci Network Functions and uses as pH indicators or for pigment chromatography.


                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anthocyanin


                              “When the water of a place is bad it is safest to drink none that has not been filtered through either the berry of a grape,
                              or else a tub of malt. These are the most reliable filters yet invented.”
                              ~ Samuel Butler (English novelist, essayist and critic, 1835-1902) ~

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