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Monkeypox and Smallpox Vaccine Guidance - CDC

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  • Monkeypox and Smallpox Vaccine Guidance - CDC

    Page last reviewed: December 2, 2019

    When properly administered before exposure to monkeypox vaccines are effective at protecting people against monkeypox.

    ACAM200 and JYNNEOSTM (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) are the two currently licensed vaccines in the United States to prevent smallpox. JYNNEOS is also licensed specifically to prevent monkeypox.

    ACAM2000 is administered as a live virus preparation that is inoculated into the skin by pricking the skin surface. Following a successful inoculation, a lesion will develop at the site of the vaccination. The virus growing at the site of this inoculation lesion can be spread to other parts of the body or even to other people. Individuals who receive vaccination with ACAM2000 must take precautions to prevent the spread of the vaccine virus.

    JYNNEOSTM is administered as a live virus that is non-replicating. It is administered as two subcutaneous injections four weeks apart. There is no visible “take” and as a result, no risk for spread to other parts of the body or other people. People who receive JYNNEOS TM are not considered vaccinated until they receieve both doses of the vaccine.

    ... Smallpox and monkeypox vaccines are effective at protecting people against monkeypox when given before exposure to monkeypox. Experts also believe that vaccination after a monkeypox exposure may help prevent the disease or make it less severe.

  • #2
    Treatment / Monkeypox

    Page last reviewed: July 17, 2021

    At this time, there are no specific treatments available for monkeypox infection, but monkeypox outbreaks can be controlled.

    Smallpox vaccine, cidofovir, ST-246, and vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) can be used to control a monkeypox outbreak. CDC guidance was developed using the best available information about the benefits and risks of smallpox vaccination and drug use for the prevention and management of monkeypox and other orthopoxvirus infections. ...

    Cidofovir and Brincidofovir (CMX001)

    Data is not available on the effectiveness of Cidofovir and Brincidofovir in treating human cases of monkeypox. However, both have proven activity against poxviruses in in vitro and animal studies. ...

    Tecovirimat (ST-246)

    Data is not available on the effectiveness of ST-246 in treating human cases of monkeypox.

    Studies using a variety of animal species have shown that ST-246 is effective in treating orthopoxvirus-induced disease. Human clinical trials indicated the drug was safe and tolerable with only minor side effects. ...

    Vaccinia Immune Globulin (VIG)

    Data is not available on the effectiveness of VIG in treatment of monkeypox complications. Use of VIG is administered under an IND and has no proven benefit in the treatment of smallpox complications. It is unknown whether a person with severe monkeypox infection will benefit from treatment with VIG, however, its use may be considered in such instances. ...

    Clinician Treatment. Mpox (monkeypox) is a viral disease that occurs mostly in central and western Africa. It was first identified in laboratory monkeys. However, it is much more common among animals such as rats, mice, rabbits, and the African Squirrel.


    • #3
      Infection Control: Hospital

      There are few scientific studies pertaining to the transmission of monkeypox virus and most were conducted in Africa. Person-to-person transmission of monkeypox virus is believed to occur by the same mechanisms exploited by variola virus during the smallpox era, namely via respiratory droplets or by direct contact with lesion material.

      Precautions to Prevent Monkeypox Transmission

      ...In addition, because of the theoretical risk of airborne transmission of monkeypox virus, airborne precautions should be applied whenever possible. ...


      Isolate patients suspected of having monkeypox in a negative air pressure room as soon as possible....

      Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

      ... Optimal personal protective measures include:
      • Use of disposable gown and gloves for patient contact.
      • Use of NIOSH-certified N95 (or comparable) filtering disposable respirator that has been fit-tested for the healthcare worker using it, especially for extended contact in the inpatient setting.
      • Use of eye protection (e.g., face shields or goggles), as recommended under standard precautions, if medical procedures may lead to splashing or spraying of a patient’s body fluids.
      Additional Precautions