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Avian and Pandemic Influenza: Vietnam's Experience (IMCAPI, Preface, edited)

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  • Avian and Pandemic Influenza: Vietnam's Experience (IMCAPI, Preface, edited)

    Avian and Pandemic Influenza: Vietnam's Experience (IMCAPI, Preface, edited)

    [Source: 2010 International Ministerial Conference on Animal and Pandemic Influenza: The Way Forward, Full PDF Document (LINK). Extract. Edited.]

    Avian and Pandemic Influenza: Vietnam's Experience

    Hanoi, April 2010


    (...)
    1. Preface

    The goal of the Interministerial Conference on Animal and Pandemic Influenza (IMCAPI) Ha Noi 2010 is to set the scene for a worldwide effort, over the next 20 years, for tackling threats to people?s health that will emerge from domestic and wild animals within different environments.

    The meeting will share the lessons learned from actions taken so far in preparing for future pandemics and controlling and preventing avian influenza and other emerging infectious diseases.

    This exchange will allow us to devise new and improved strategies for the future.

    Vietnam has been at the forefront of the battle against avian influenza. International agencies have used the response to highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1) (H5N1 HPAI(1)) by the Government of Vietnam (GoV) as an example of the successes that can be achieved in controlling this disease. Our successes have been attributed to the commitment of government to disease control from the highest level through to the commune and village level, to our hard work, our openness in sharing information, and to the close cooperation we have with international agencies, financial institutions, civil society organizations and donors.

    We believe that the lessons from Vietnam are extremely valuable for other countries dealing with similar crises. The lessons learned are also relevant when, during this meeting, we consider how to move forward in our quest to eliminate H5N1 HPAI viruses from poultry globally, a job that is far from completed, and in preventing emergence of and control of other serious pathogens of humans and animals in the future.

    In 1997, the world watched with concern when avian influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype first caused severe disease in poultry and humans in Hong Kong. Never before had avian influenza viruses transmitted directly to humans causing severe disease, raising fears of emergence of a new, severe human influenza pandemic.

    Fortunately, the actions taken to control the disease in Hong Kong were successful and our fears died away. However H5N1 HPAI viruses did not disappear; they continued to circulate and evolve in the broader region. The few reports of disease caused by H5N1 HPAI viruses in Hong Kong after 1997 provided little warning of the severe challenges that we would all face when H5N1 HPAI viruses spread widely in 2003-04 and disease was reported almost simultaneously from nine Asian countries (Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Japan, Lao PDR, Republic of Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and slightly later Malaysia).

    In some infected countries, the virus was detected soon after it arrived (Republic of Korea, Japan, Malaysia) allowing rapid elimination through stamping out. In other places (notably China, Indonesia and Vietnam), by the time concerted government action could be taken, H5N1 HPAI viruses were already widespread and entrenched within the existing production and marketing systems to such an extent that country-wide virus elimination could not be achieved. It will not be achieved for some time.

    In retrospect, we can see that the poultry sector in Vietnam in 2003(2) was, in many ways, an ideal target for H5N1 HPAI viruses when they spread across Asia. Poultry production had expanded rapidly during the previous 10 years, with the number of poultry rising from 133 million in 1993 to 254 million in 2003. The rapid spread of H5N1 HPAI viruses in 2003-04 showed that few farmers (commercial or small-scale) had effective biosecurity measures in place to prevent influenza viruses from entering their farms and infecting their poultry. The system of poultry marketing involved movements of some one million live poultry every day, often through large live poultry markets that operated continuously (with larger volumes of trade during the New Year (Tet) festival period). Vietnam?s duck production had grown faster than chicken production and by 2003 the country was home to more than 60 million domestic ducks, a species now known to play an important role in the transmission and persistence of H5N1 HPAI viruses in the region. Ducks are important because they can be infected with H5N1 HPAI viruses without showing signs of disease, yet still transmit the virus. Most ducks in Vietnam were (and continue to be) reared outdoors, some travelled over long distances, and few biosecurity measures were in place to protect them from infection.

    Vietnam is a developing country and its veterinary services, both public and private, were also undergoing development. The challenges posed by avian influenza in 2004 highlighted the inherent weaknesses in the veterinary systems at that time.

    All of the factors described above conspired to make control and elimination of H5N1 HPAI viruses in poultry an extremely difficult task for Vietnam.

    On the human health side the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) epidemic drew attention to the problems that arise from emerging infectious diseases that spread globally. This epidemic resulted in some strengthening of both the curative and preventive sectors of the health system and awareness of emerging infectious diseases in the human sector]. These systems were tested again when Influenza A(H5N1) caused disease in humans late in 2003. Yet, despite all the constraints, considerable progress has been made in Vietnam to control and prevent H5N1 avian influenza and to prepare for a human influenza pandemic. As a country we have had some major successes, most notably a marked reduction in the number of reported cases in both humans and poultry since the peaks in 2004-05 as can be seen in Figure 1. The veterinary services in Vietnam have done a remarkable job despite the constraints they faced but, without additional strengthening, virus eradication will not be achieved.

    H5N1 HPAI viruses have not been eliminated from Vietnam. This is not unexpected. Vietnam?s Integrated National Operational Program for Avian and Human Influenza (the OPI or Green Book), drafted in 2006, states clearly that country-wide virus elimination would not occur during the time period covered by the program (i.e. up to 2010), an assessment that proved to be correct. We are now in the process of developing plans to tackle this disease over the next 5 years, including moves towards elimination of H5N1 influenza viruses from poultry in zones and/or compartments. Pandemic preparedness has also been tested by the recent pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus. The preparations and improved intersectoral cooperation that followed the emergence of avian influenza contributed to the coordination and success of Vietnam's response.

    This document provides information on the actions taken by the Vietnam Government, supported by international agencies and donors and the private sector, in tackling H5N1 avian influenza viruses in poultry. It also includes our experiences in preparing for and managing human influenza pandemics. The paper also provides insights into the significance of the measures taken and the implications of the likely changes to human demographics and the livestock sector over the next 20 years for the control and prevention of avian influenza and other diseases. One of the important lessons we have learned in the past 6 years is that the manner in which we rear and sell livestock plays a major role in determining the risks we face from emerging pathogens and serious diseases of both animals and humans. Over the next 20 years to 2030 our population of both humans and animals will grow and we will need to be extremely vigilant, to understand the drivers of livestock sector development, and to plan carefully if we are to prevent emergence of new problems or re-emergence of existing diseases.
    (...)

    (1) Throughout the document H5N1 HPAI is used for the disease and viruses in poultry and Influenza A(H5N1) is used for the disease and viruses in humans.
    (2) And in other countries with entrenched infection such as Indonesia and China.

    -
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  • #2
    Re: Avian and Pandemic Influenza: Vietnam's Experience (IMCAPI, Preface, edited)

    International Conference of the 7th ministerial level on animal influenza pandemic in 2010 (Hanoi IMCAPI 2010) with the theme: 'Vision for the Future', by the host Government of Vietnam, opened the morning 20 / 4 , in Hanoi.

    Speaking at the opening ceremony, Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan, warmly welcomed over 300 delegates was the Minister of Agriculture, Livestock, Health from the countries, territories, along with leaders of international organizations International and regional conferences attended.

    Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan said IMCAPI Hanoi in 2010 as a continuation from the previous six conferences to share experiences in preventing avian influenza and pandemic influenza in humans.

    The first conference was to analyze the challenges as well as preparedness for a pandemic risk occurring in the future.

    The international organizations have jointly committed effort to reduce the risk of disease transmission from animals to humans, with a multidisciplinary approach rather limited field of medical and veterinary According to Deputy Prime Minister Nguyen Thien Nhan, nations are aware of the H5N1 virus exist and circulate in the environment, potential risks and challenges are common. So IMCAPI Hanoi 2010 with the goal given the general orientation and 2030 is very urgent.

    Deputy Prime Minister thanked the international community, donors have supported Vietnam repulsed pandemic risk, reduce injury in the economy over time.

    In two days (from 20-21/4), Hanoi 2010 IMCAPI will evaluate changes in controlling global pandemic caused by highly pathogenic H5N1 virus causes and propose solutions to mitigate the next search capabilities and eliminate this serious threat.

    Conference will also review measures for pandemic influenza A/H1N1 current situation and prepare for the world.

    The important point is the conference will propose ways to strengthen protection against health threats arising from domestic animals through the establishment of integrated systems, efficient and sustainable. The ministers will discuss and make a joint declaration as the basis guiding the cooperation and coordination between countries and international organizations after 2010. Report of Mr. Jean Marc Oliv?, representing the World Health Organization in Vietnam, avian influenza that appears first in Asia in 2003 and has spread to many countries.

    Up to now, the world has 491 cases of suffering bird flu and 290 deaths (59%). The level of spread of avian influenza as well as the number of people suffering and dying from this epidemic and have fallen far only three countries as Egypt, Vietnam and Indonesia have the flu A. /.

    http://www.hanoimoi.com.vn/newsdetai...m-dong-vat.htm

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