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CIDRAP - Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Sep 13, 2019 India joins antibiotic R&D hub; Resistant infections in African infants; Antibiotics in UK poultry

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  • CIDRAP - Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Sep 13, 2019 India joins antibiotic R&D hub; Resistant infections in African infants; Antibiotics in UK poultry

    Stewardship / Resistance Scan for Sep 13, 2019

    India joins antibiotic R&D hub
    ; Resistant infections in African infants
    ; Antibiotics in UK poultry

    Filed Under:
    Antimicrobial Stewardship

    India joins global effort to spur antibiotic research and development

    India announced yesterday that it has joined the Global Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) Research and Development (R&D) Hub, becoming the 16th nation to join the global partnership.
    The Global AMR R&D Hub, launched in May 2018 at the World Health Assembly, aims to provide more effective funding for research and development of new treatments and diagnostics for resistant pathogens by identifying and prioritizing R&D gaps, promoting increased investment in push and pull incentives, and fostering international collaboration. The European Commission, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and Wellcome Trust are also members of the group, which is financed through grants from Germany's Federal Ministry of Education and Research and Federal Ministry of Health.
    "By partnering with the Global AMR R&D Hub, India looks forward to working with all partners to leverage their existing capabilities and resources and collectively focus on new R&D intervention to address drug resistant infections," India's Ministry of Science and Technology said in a press release.
    Sep 12 Government of India press release

    Bacterial infections and AMR in newborns in sub-Saharan Africa

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of data on bacterial infections in newborns in sub-Saharan Africa highlights the causative pathogens in bacteremia, sepsis, and meningitis and the burden of AMR.
    In a study published yesterday in The Lancet Infectious Diseases, researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine reviewed studies in sub-Saharan Africa published from 1980 through 2018 that reported the cause of invasive bacterial infections. For their analysis, the team included 151 studies comprising data on 84,534 neonates from 26 countries, almost all of which were hospital-based. The studies were arranged into two groups according to year of publication: 1980-2007 and 2008-2018, but only the 82 studies published from 2008 through 2018 were included in the meta-analysis.
    The meta-analysis found that, from 2008 through 2018, Staphylococcus aureus infections accounted for 25% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19 to 31) of all reported cases of neonatal bacteremia or sepsis, Klebsiella accounted for 21% (95% CI, 16 to 27), and Escherichia coli accounted for 10% (95% CI, 8 to 10). For meningitis, group B streptococcus was identified as the cause in 25% of cases (95% CI, 16 to 33), while Streptococcus pneumoniae accounted for 17% (95% CI, 9 to 16), and S aureus accounted for 12% (95% CI, 3 to 25).
    Resistance to World Health Organization–recommended beta-lactam antibiotics was reported in 614 of 914 infections (68%), and resistance to aminoglycosides was reported in 317 of 1,176 cases (27%). For S aureus infections, resistance to cloxacillin and methicillin was reported in 40% and 50% of isolates, respectively.
    The authors write, "These data provide useful insights into the pathogens associated with neonatal invasive bacterial infection in sub-Saharan Africa and the status of AMR. Interventions that focus on hospital-based care around the time of birth could prevent millions of neonatal and maternal deaths, stillbirths, and disability. With poor quality care, dangers of infection transmission and AMR threaten the gains of neonatal survival."
    They suggest that a multipronged approach of infection prevention, expanded and improved clinical microbiology services, tailored local antimicrobial guidelines, implementation of antimicrobial stewardship policies, and new maternal vaccines against group B streptococcus and S pneumoniae could help reduce the burden of neonatal infection morbidity and mortality.
    Sep 12 Lancet Infect Dis study

    Report notes 80% drop in antibiotics in UK poultry in 7 years

    The British Poultry Council (BPC), in a report this week, says Britain's poultry meat sector has cut antibiotics 80.2% from 2012 to 2018 and "critically important" antibiotics 82.6%, despite a 12.4% increase overall in 2018.
    Total antibiotics used in the UK poultry sector amounted to 81.8 tons in 2012, but usage fell to 14.4 tons in 2017 before climbing slightly to 16.2 tons in 2018, according to the report, which attributed the uptick to seasonal illness in birds. "Having reached a low level of usage, it is inevitable that our annual figure will fluctuate up and down in response to the challenges we face during that period," the BPC report said. "What is key is that we continue to be open and honest about the reasons behind these fluctuations and what we are doing to mitigate them in the future."
    Also, the industry saw a 19% reduction in critical antibiotics from 2017 to 2018, the report authors noted. In 2012 the UK poultry meat industry used 21% of the total antibiotics licensed for food animals, but that portion dropped to 7.1% in 2017.
    British Poultry Council Chairman Graeme Dear said in a news release, "With poultry being half the meat eaten in the country, the British poultry meat industry's Antibiotic Stewardship is playing a crucial role in delivering good bird health and welfare; ensuring responsible use of antibiotics, safeguarding the efficacy of antibiotics, and helping produce food consumers trust."
    During the study years, the British poultry industry has stopped preventive use of antibiotics, stopped polymyxin (colistin) use in 2016, used fluoroquinolones and macrolides as a last resort, and in 2012 ceased using third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, the authors of the report wrote.
    Sep 11 BPC report and news release