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Aedes aegypti Information

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  • Aedes aegypti Information

    Good morning Wise Elderlies, Mothers, Fathers, Sisters and Brothers and Near Ones.

    And thank you to the Great Spirit, the one that indeed manifest itself.
    Via Mother Earth Creation that I thanks too.

    I would like to first adress myself to central and South Americas First Nations.

    For all of you living on melting winter soil, as usual moquitoes are stretching their Wings.

    There are diligent behaviors from quite a few governments on Mosquitoes Control Measures and here are the reasons.

    First here is the mosquitoes that we must deal with

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    <table style="margin: 0pt 0pt 0.5em 1em; background: white none repeat scroll 0% 50%; position: relative; border-collapse: collapse; float: right; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial; clear: right; width: 200px;" border="1" cellpadding="0"><tbody><tr style="text-align: center;"><td>
    </td> </tr> <tr style="text-align: center;"> <th style="background: pink none repeat scroll 0% 50%; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial;">Scientific classification</th> </tr> <tr style="text-align: center;"> <td> <table style="margin: 0pt auto; background: white none repeat scroll 0% 50%; text-align: left; -moz-background-clip: -moz-initial; -moz-background-origin: -moz-initial; -moz-background-inline-policy: -moz-initial;" cellpadding="2"> <tbody><tr valign="top"> <td>Kingdom:</td> <td>Animalia
    </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td>Phylum:</td> <td>Arthropoda
    </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td>Class:</td> <td>Insecta
    </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td>Order:</td> <td>Diptera
    </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td>Family:</td> <td>Culicidae
    </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td>Genus:</td> <td>Aedes
    </td> </tr> <tr valign="top"> <td>Species:</td> <td>A. aegypti
    </td> </tr> </tbody></table> </td> </tr> <tr bgcolor="pink"> <th> <center>Binomial name</center> </th> </tr> <tr style="text-align: center;"> <td>Aedes aegypti
    <small>(Linnaeus, 1762)</small></td></tr></tbody></table>
    Aedes aegypti, commonly known as the Yellow Fever Mosquito, is a mosquito that can host the dengue fever, Chikungunya and yellow fever viruses (and other diseases as well).

    One group of researchers recently proposed that A. aegypti be renamed Stegomyia aegypti (Reinert et al. 2004), but this proposal has yet to be widely accepted by the scientific community.

    This species was also formerly known as Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti.

    Aedes aegypti is considered the primary vector for both dengue and yellow fever. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings, although other mosquitoes may have only slightly different patterns.

    The mosquito is most frequently found in the tropics; it has some presence in the southeastern part of the US (such as the lower half of Florida), but it seems to have been competitively displaced by the introduction of Aedes albopictus.

    The CDC traveler's page on preventing dengue fever suggests using mosquito repellents that contain N, N-diethylmetatoluamide (DEET).

    Presumably this has some effectiveness in repelling A. aegypti.

    The CDC traveler's page also explains the following:
    1) Although it may feed at any time, the mosquito bites humans only between a few hours after dawn till an hour or so after sunset.
    2) The mosquito's preferred breeding areas are in areas of stagnant water, such as flower vases, uncovered barrels, buckets, and discarded tires, but the most dangerous areas are wet shower floors and toilet bowls, as they allow the mosquitos to breed right in the residence.

    ]I still have the screech stick, bear with me.

    Snowy Owl

  • #2
    For Medicine Woman and Man and Health Care Workers please take knowledge of the following.

    There are many hints and tips

    Home -> Impacts -> Projects -> Dengue Early-warning
    <!-- end all top link --> <center>
    A dengue early-warning system
    Background information on dengue/DHF:
    The World Health Organization considers dengue to be the most important vector-borne viral disease, potentially affecting 2.5 billion people in more than 100 tropical and sub-tropical countries throughout the world (View geographic distribution). Current estimates suggest that up to 50 to 100 million dengue cases occur annually, in addition to 500,000 cases of the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF has a 5% case-fatality rate in many countries, with most fatalities occurring among children and young adults. The principal vector for dengue is the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

    Symptoms of dengue/DHF:
    Classical dengue fever, also known as breakbone fever, is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, headache, sore muscles and joints, with occasional nausea/vomiting and rash; these symptoms may persist for several days. Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) is a much more serious illness mainly affecting children and young adults and is a leading cause of childhood mortality in several Asian countries. Symptoms include a sudden onset of fever and hemorrhagic manifestations that result in significant fluid loss and may lead to shock--dengue shock syndrome. Five percent of DHF cases are fatal. A prior infection with one of the four dengue viruses results in a greater probability of contracting DHF.

    Humans acquire dengue viruses from bites of infective female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes; the mosquitoes become infected, and remain so for the rest of their life, by feeding on infected human blood. An infected person has the virus circulating in them for 2-7 days, about the time he/she experiences fever. It is during this period of time that the mosquito may acquire the dengue virus through blood feeding or probing. The blood meal provides essential proteins for the female?s developing eggs.
    No vaccine currently exists for dengue and it may be several years before one is available due to the difficulty in developing one vaccine effective against all four dengue viruses. It is essential that the vaccine protect against all four viruses because vaccination against only one or two could potentially increase the risk of more serious illness for people exposed to one of the other viruses. The dengue virus is a single-stranded RNA virus, polyhedral in shape, referred to as a ?flavivirus?, from the Family Flaviviridae and Genus Flavivirus. The yellow fever virus is also a Flavivirus.

    History of dengue/DHF:
    The earliest reports of dengue fever epidemics date back to 1779-1780 in Asia, Africa and North America, indicating a widespread tropical distribution of Ae. aegypti during the past 200 years. After World War II, a global dengue pandemic began in Southeast Asia. This pandemic intensified in the Americas during the 1980s with outbreaks in Caribbean and Latin American countries including Venezuela, Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Suriname, and Puerto Rico. More recently, outbreaks of dengue have occurred in Brazil, Puerto Rico and Southeast Asia and in the western Pacific, including Vietnam, Singapore, Cambodia, Philippines, Malaysia, and Fiji. Prior to 1970, DHF epidemics had occurred in 9 countries in the world; by 1995 that number increased more than four-fold.

    History of dengue/DHF in the Americas:
    The reemergence of dengue in the Americas has renewed current interest in this disease. The Aedes aegypti mosquito is the principal vector of dengue. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) directed Ae. aegypti eradication programs, eliminating the mosquito from most of Central and South America. After the United States officially ended its eradication program in 1970, however, other nations discontinued their programs. This resulted in the reinfestation of the mosquito in many countries (Figure 1: Distribution of Ae. aegypti (shaded areas) in the Americas in 1970, at the end of the mosquito

    eradication program, and in 1995. Figure 2. Countries with laboratory-confirmed dengue hemorrhagic fever (shaded areas) before 1981 and from 1981 to 1995). As a possible consequence of the reinfestation, Cuba experienced an unprecedented 344,000 cases of dengue and DHF in 1981. Since then, the number of cases in the Americas has been steadily rising over the years. In 1998, there were more than 616,000 reported cases of dengue in the Americas, including 11,000 DHF cases. Most of these cases (475,000) occurred in Brazil between January and October 1998. The numbers in Brazil represent more cases than were reported for the entire continent in previous years.

    Mosquito Model Description:
    The modeling focuses on the global-scale relationships between climate and the development, population dynamics, and potential distribution of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Our mosquito model runs on a daily timestep, across a 1 degree by 1 degree (~100 km per side) resolution global grid. Using cohorts to track the abundance (a function of survivorship), age, and development of the mosquito in its four life stages (specifically the egg, larval, pupal and adult stages), the model simulates a life table of population structure.
    Click to see details.

    Model Results:
    In general, there is good agreement between the observed and modeled global distribution of the mosquito; however, the model results indicate the potential for increased latitudinal distributions during warmer months. Seasonal fluctuations in mosquito abundance also compare well to observed data. Discrepancies possibly reflect the relatively low resolution of the climate data and model output, and the inability of the model to account for local microclimate effects, especially in coastal areas.

    El Nino and modeled mosquitoes. Analyses of the relationship between the modeled Aedes aegypti mosquito and ENSO events suggest that densities are significantly greater during El Ni?o months, in the tropical regions of the world, than during La Ni?a months. A strong correlation exists between the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI-an ENSO index) and mosquito densities, particularly when an SOI lead of 6 months is used. This implies that ENSO forecasts may be used to estimate future mosquito densities.

    Modeled mosquitoes and dengue/DHF cases. Significant correlations exist between modeled mosquito densities and reported dengue/DHF cases, particularly in Southeast Asia where dengue has been a leading cause of childhood mortality for several decades. These results suggest that the ability to forecast mosquito densities may provide estimates of potential dengue caseloads. Such information could potentially serve as an advanced warning system to help reduce the adverse effects of dengue epidemics.

    WHO publication:
    "Dengue haemorrhagic fever: diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control"

    Health-related Data in the IRI Data Library
    The IRI Data Library contains both historical and real-time climate data of use in assessing climate-health relationships. Monthly real-time data includes:
    Monthly temperature anomaly
    Monthly precipitation anomaly
    Monthly relative humidity
    Pentad (5 days) satellite estimates of precipitation

    A collection of real-time monitoring tools, including analysis of African drought for use in assessing malaria vulnerability, is available in the IRI Map Room.
    The IRI Data Library is searchable here.

    Other useful web sites:
    ? Columbia University's Earth Institute (CEI)
    ? CIESIN (Center for International Earth Science Information Network)
    ? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
    ? Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
    ? World Health Organization (WHO)
    ? Program for Monitoring Emerging Diseases (ProMED)
    ? NOAA ENSO Experiment

    More to come


    • #3
      There is more in the site for hints and tips, please go around.

      Now the Journey of Aedes aegypti since the Austral Spring of 2005, Boreal fall of 2005.

      Isle de la R?union, a French possession in the Indian Ocean, Austral Spring of 2005.

      An old virus got into the island via
      Aedes aegypti carrier of the Chickungunya virus. Chickungunya means in African language the disease that bent. Since its symptoms is painful.

      This strain of Chickungunya as proved later by Pasteur Institute of Paris and Lyon was highly virulent.

      As usual, First nations of La R?union were not told the Truth on what was going on. In matter of months half of the 750 000 people got infected. It took some courageous GP's to denounced the situation and denied the French Helath Ministry datas as not realistic.

      You see, once you get the Chick via
      a bite of Aedes aegypti the same mosquito can go bite another person around you and transmit it.

      In the fall of 2005, we were less than 30 Communicators pushing on this isuue so that something would be done.

      We knew it was a pandemic but where not allowed to use this word.

      Stubborns as we are we hold the road and we got results.

      The French Gov allowed to share with us the latest datas on treatments and research so we could forward it to Health Public Officer where the
      Aedes aegypti was spreading the disease.

      India has and still badly blst by
      Aedes aegypti , on top of this a virulent strain of Hemorragic Dengue was spread by the same mosquitos.

      The same started in Indonesia and far east countries.

      A couple of months ago we had bad reports from central Americas sountries and south americas countries.

      This matter as to be adressed, period.

      India managed to reduce the morbidity and mortality by having swift access to up-dated datas on all this.

      We need some datas from Mother Clans and Medicine Women and Man on how to repell mosquitoes and what are the traditional treatments.

      As ususal we will find some pragmatic help from this.

      Traditionalists in India stated that Camphor Oil odors are hated by
      Aedes aegyptis.

      First Nations of South Wales of Australias are categoric, Melaleuca Alternifolia oil are hated by
      Aedes aegyptis.

      Please share uour wisom with this problem in the following thread

      More to come bu later. I now let the creech stick to who it may concern.



      • #4
        Chikungunya spread example of globalization of disease

        Africa Germ, Asian Mosquito Meet at Italy Resort, Spur Outbreak
        2007-09-24 19:04 (New York)

        By Jason Gale
        Sept. 25 (Bloomberg) -- A virus from Africa, a mosquito
        from Asia and a tourist from India met one day this summer on
        the Italian seaside, showing how globalization hastens the
        spread of disease from one continent to another.
        More than 250 people in Italy's province of Ravenna have
        been infected with chikungunya, a virus that causes fever, rash
        and joint pain, since it arrived with a tourist three months
        ago. The outbreak was caused by the same viral strain that
        sickened about 235,000 people on Reunion island in the Indian
        Ocean last year, says an Italian virologist investigating the
        Now Italy is threatened by a contagious illness that may
        also spread elsewhere in Europe and North America the same way
        it got to Ravenna -- through an infected traveler. There were
        2.1 billion airplane passengers last year, driving the spread of
        new diseases that are emerging at ``an unprecedented rate,'' the
        World Health Organization said last month.
        ``We are in a world where things are whizzing around so
        fast we inevitably are going to see more and more of this kind
        of thing happening,'' said Paul Reiter, director of the insects
        and infectious diseases unit at the Pasteur Institute in Paris.
        At least 39 new pathogens have been identified during the
        past 40 years, the WHO said in its 2007 World Health Report last
        month. They include the HIV virus that causes AIDS, Ebola
        hemorrhagic fever, Marburg fever and SARS -- the respiratory
        infection that cost Asian businesses an estimated $60 billion in
        2003, or more than $2 million per person infected.

        `More Expensive'

        Bugs that have infected people for ``thousands of years''
        in local areas are now causing disease on an international
        scale, says Duane Gubler, director of the University of Hawaii's
        Asia-Pacific Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious
        Diseases. Epidemics resulting from ``globalization are going to
        be progressively more expensive,'' he says.
        First described by doctors in Tanzania in 1953, chikungunya
        regularly causes epidemics in 23 countries in Africa, Asia and
        the Pacific. Until last month, Europe had only recorded cases in
        travelers who returned with the infection and didn't pass it on.
        Scientists say chikungunya, for which there is no vaccine
        or specific treatment, could become established in parts of
        Europe and the Americas as a result of travel and commerce.


        --Editor: Fourcade (mrw/ecw).