Volume 23, Number 4—April 2017
Reassortment of Influenza A Viruses in Wild Birds in Alaska before H5 Clade 18.104.22.168 Outbreaks
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Nichola J. Hill, Islam T.M. Hussein, Kimberly R. Davis, Eric J. Ma, Timothy J. Spivey, Andrew M. Ramey, Wendy Blay Puryear, Suman R. Das, Rebecca A. Halpin, Xudong Lin, Nadia B. Fedorova, David L. Suarez, Walter M. Boyce, and Jonathan A. Runstadler
Author affiliations: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (N.J. Hill, I.T.M. Hussein, K.R. Davis, E.J. Ma, W.B. Puryear, J.A. Runstadler); University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska, USA (T.J. Spivey); US Geological Survey, Anchorage, Alaska, USA (T.J. Spivey, A.M. Ramey); Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA (S. Das); J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, Maryland, USA (R.A. Halpin, X. Lin, N.B. Fedorova); Department of Agriculture, Athens, Georgia, USA (D.L. Suarez); University of California, Davis, California, USA (W.M. Boyce)
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Sampling of mallards in Alaska during September 2014–April 2015 identified low pathogenic avian influenza A virus (subtypes H5N2 and H1N1) that shared ancestry with highly pathogenic reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Molecular dating indicated reassortment soon after interhemispheric movement of H5N8 clade 22.214.171.124, suggesting genetic exchange in Alaska or surrounds before outbreaks.