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  • Majors constituents of life and the chain of biochemical influence

    Now that some of you have see how life is complex
    http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=5604

    I want to retreat back to basics.

    Everything in the cell's biology is link with one another.
    One of these day (hope this summer maybe) I'll start a thread about the polymerase.
    But to fully understand how Influenza replicates itself, we need to understand how it act as a evil pirate inside our cells.
    And to understand that we need to understand how influenza take control over the biological machine that our cells use to read our genes.
    You see... a question brings another...what is a gene?... what does it do... etc.

    To understand this we must first retreat to basics.

    What are the major constituents of life and how do they interact with one another ?
    Last edited by Mellie; May 24, 2006, 12:12 AM.

  • #2
    Re: Majors constituents of life

    Almost everything in life is made of:

    -Water (including salts and oligos in solution)
    -Nucleid Acids
    -Amino Acids
    -Lipids
    -Sugars

    There is also other minors constituents but the skeleton of what we are made of is of thoses.

    How are they organized, how the organism is built up? Is there a plan ? What is driving the naturals forces to go on a particular direction ?....

    (Stop me someone, my questions are too much existentials :p )

    I'll wait until tomorrow for more hint!

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    • #3
      Re: Majors constituents of life

      What are the majors constituent of life and how are they interact with one another ?


      I think my professor hit the meaning of basic. He said that the meaning of life was to reproduce and sustain.

      Reproduction and sustainability seem to be the very, most basic topic when it comes to discussions about how viruses, bacteria, fungi, and the human species interact.
      "Predictable is Preventable" by Safety Expert Dr. Gordon Graham.

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      • #4
        Re: Major constituents of life

        Primary Constituents of Life:

        Water is formed of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

        It's a solvent, stays separate from lipids (fats and water don't mix), has a high surface tension (balls up in a drop on a flat surface) and lets organic compounds -- nucleic acids, lipids, proteins, peptides, amino acids, polysaccharides, carbohydrates, sugars, hormones neurotransmitters, enzymes, etc -- react with one another so living things can replicate. It is required for life. 72% of the human body is water, or something like that.


        Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA (deoxuribose nucleic acid and ribose nucleic acid, respectively)

        Nucleic acids are found in living cells and viruses. A nucleic acid is a big complex molecule made up of nucleotide chains conveying genetic info. They're the way living things store and transmit genetic information. Biochemically they're comprised nucleotides which, in turn, are made up of a base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, and either thymine (DNA) and uracil (RNA)); a pentose sugar; and a phosphate group (a purine or a pyrimidine).

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nucleic_acids


        Amino Acids are the building blocks of life; they're the building blocks of protein. Humans have 22 different amino acids; 20 come from food. These building units form polypeptides or chains that make up proteins.

        Proteins can have four levels of structure from a simple chain of amino acids, to a coiled alpha-helix, to a further coiling tertiary structure, to the more complex quaternary structure.

        Proteins include neurotransmitters, hormones, enzymes, etc. Often associated with DNA, RNA, and with lipids they form cell membranes (proteins inside the glycophospholipid membrane). They help synthesize proteins, transport lipids (fats) in our cells and participate in carrying out many other human metabolic and structural functions. Because of their beautiful, complex chemical structure, they create interesting topographies on the micro landscape. Proteins may be extremely selective in what they bind. They can help form the "keyhole" or "lock" of the host cell membrane. They are also the hemaglutanin "key" on the virus surface...

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acids


        Lipids (fats) are not soluble in water and, with proteins, make up cell membranes (glycophospholipid).

        Lipid metabolism is closely regulated by enzymes (catalysts that speed up biochemical reactions) and hormones in humans. Lipids are an energy source, and are used by the body both as a direct energy source and a way of storing energy.

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lipids

        Sugars are a major energy source and a way for living organisms to store energy.

        (aarg, cellular respiration: Glycolysis, all I remember is that it produces ATP -- and Krebs Cycle is another bad boy in the creation of ATPs and and and oxidative phosphorylation (sp???). Thank goodness viruses don't do this. I hope it won't be on the test!

        Monosaccharides are simple sugars like glucose and fructose, disaccharides (doubles) are like sucrose and lactose; there are trisaccharides;
        Oligosaccharides -- several monosaccharides -- on the other hand can serve as biochemical markers or signals.
        Hmmm, polysaccharides are important for structure (cellulose and glycogen).


        Mingus, there's a start, but it's mostly not at the viral and immune system level...
        Last edited by Mingus; May 27, 2006, 01:14 PM.

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        • #5
          Re: Majors constituents of life

          Thank you very much Mellie!

          Yes, theses components are like bricks or "Lego blocks" that built almost everything of what we are.
          They exist in theyres fundamental form and also as very complex polymer(chain or construction). That's why I use the "Lego blocks" analogy.

          Some scientists of the fifties haved undergoes fery fascinating experiments.

          They have put in a glass ball what they think could be the originals gases present in the atmosphere billions years ago before the apearance of life on earth.
          After a long period of "electric sparks" to simulate electric thunderstorms in the original earth, they found severals "Amino acids" and others fundamentals constituents of life in that glass's ball.
          Some think, that this experiment proved that the natural tendency of chemical equilibrium on earth is the natural apearance of life !

          The Original Origin-of-Life Experiment

          Stanley Miller's Origin of Life experimentIn the early 1950s Stanley L. Miller, working in the laboratory of Harold C. Urey at the University of Chicago, did the first experiment designed to clarify the chemical reactions that occurred on the primitive earth. In the flask at the bottom, he created an "ocean" of water, which he heated, forcing water vapor to circulate through the apparatus. The flask at the top contained an "atmosphere" consisting of methane (CH4), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen (H2) and the circulating water vapor. Next he exposed the gases to a continuous electrical discharge ("lightning"), causing the gases to interact. Water-soluble products of those reactions then passed through a condenser and dissolved in the mock ocean. The experiment yielded many amino acids and enabled Miller to explain how they had formed. For instance, glycine appeared after reactions in the atmosphere produced simple compounds - formaldehyde and hydrogen cyanide - that participated in the set of reactions that took place. Years after this experiment, a meteorite that struck near Murchison, Australia, was shown to contain a number of the same amino acids that Miller identified (table) and in roughly the same relative amounts (dots); those found in proteins are highlighted in blue. Such coincidences lent credence to the idea that Miller's protocol approximated the chemistry of the prebiotic earth.
          From http://www.geocities.com/capecanaver...948/orgel.html
          Last edited by Mingus; May 28, 2006, 08:04 AM.

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          • #6
            The majors constituents of life and the chain of biochemical influence

            These major constituents cannot by their sole presence, make a complex life form appear.

            Billions of years of evolution inscribes in the Nucleic Acid the "database of life" gives us the world that we know now.

            So there is a special organisation in these constituents.

            Everything happen in water, Water = Life.
            Every little cell we have tries to recreate and keep the perfect condition for our biochemistry. Every cells we have is a little soap (phospholipids) bubble full of water in which our fundamental constituents have the ideal media to acheive their goal... replicate themselves.

            Nucleic Acid are the Library (database) of life.

            Nucleics Acid (DNA, RNA) direcly code for all the proteins in a special alphabet.
            Proteins catalyze all the others' reactions to create Lipids and Sugars.

            Sugars and Lipids serve as the energy to drive the system, as well as for structural uses ( ex: cell membrane, wood, and so )

            So like the commandment chain in a army, there is the cascade of influence

            DNA---> RNA--->Proteins---> Sugars, Lipids and other complex components

            When life first appeared, RNA was the first kind of chemical to have enzymatic properties. There was no complex protein at that time.
            We found this more often in archa?c species.

            In complex organisms (like mammals & plant), only the Ribosome which is a mix of protein and RNA have that RNA component.

            The task of the Ribosome is to translate the Nucleic acid 3-letter code direcly in protein.

            Like that, Nucleic acids control all our biological chemistry

            I'll come back later for more

            Just think that viruses specifically target this fundamental process to disrupt our cells function and replicate themselves.
            Last edited by Mingus; May 29, 2006, 08:08 PM.

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            • #7
              Chain of biochemical influence

              DNA ( http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/19/concept/index.html ) is the primary library of complex organism.

              DNA is stable, and double stranded (All the information is double inscibed) like a good server with backup and it never quit the nucleus.

              RNA is instable, and single stranded, they are transcribed from every singles gene of the DNA chromosomes and transported outside of the nucleus to be translated by the ribosomes in proteins. Like a soft drive who is perishable.

              RNA is like a book full of recipes that you can get outside of the library when you want to cook at home!
              RNA have a short life, they are destoyed after usage.
              You don't have to return this cook-book to the library, it is biodegradable:p

              Theses short life RNA that code for one gene are called "messenger RNA" or "mRNA"


              Ribosome is the Cook that read the RNA book to built the protein who is the main meal. Mmmm, a good steak full of proteins

              Each 3 nucleotides code one of the 22 amino acids so every tree nucleotide, the ribosome match this codon to the complementary transferRNA(another kind of RNA that carries singles amino acid with a complementary sequence to the codon also called tRNA) which is a carrier for the amino acid coded by this codon.

              One codon after on codon an other aminoacid is linked with the last one until the processus create a full lenght protein which is a polymer(chain) of aminoacid.
              Last edited by Mingus; May 28, 2006, 12:43 PM.

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              • #8
                Virus's RNA try to emulate our own messenger RNA

                Influenza is a RNA virus

                This is at this level that his action begin after the hemagglutinin haved made the virus's genetic material enter the cell.

                By using our own protein's factory, the Virus's RNA begin to take control over our entire cellulars process.

                A pure act of piracy!

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                • #9
                  A pure act of piracy!

                  If one or few virus's RNA get their way to the cells ribosomes, they will only have time to translate few proteins since their half-life inside the cell is short.

                  That's why one of the first protein to translate for the virus to acheive his only goal (to replicate himself) is the polymerase.

                  The polymerase have the ability to replicate endlessly and specifically the viral RNA.

                  The more fast and effective this polymerase is, the more overflooded the host's cell will be by the viral RNA's presence.

                  The more this polymerase built new RNA that will be traduct by the host's machinery, the more his efficiency will be.

                  This process occur more and more until all the cell's resources is being allowed to the replication and and building-up of the virus !

                  And this so, until the cell died of it, all of his resources haven been put to replicate the pirate. Completely exhausted !

                  Sad story...

                  By chance our immune system have a complex mechanism in charge of eliminate thoses kind of evil-critters.
                  Last edited by Mingus; May 28, 2006, 12:34 PM.

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                  • #10
                    Re: Majors constituents of life

                    This is getting exciting Mingus, can?t wait for the next episode.

                    My money is on the Mr. Polymerase in the Ribosome with the candlestick.

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                    • #11
                      Re: Majors constituents of life

                      Mingus, fabulous description! Awaiting with great anticipation the rest of the story... the cook's mistakes, the swarm of banquet dishes that were supposed to be identical but weren't.

                      Oh my, much food for thought!

                      Thank you for this!

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                      • #12
                        Clue to who kill the cell and how!

                        Originally posted by JJackson
                        My money is on the Mr. Polymerase in the Ribosome with the candlestick.
                        Ha! Ha! Ha!(lol) :p

                        Ask questions, get me feedback of what is clear what is not, bring me scientific data about polymerases. This is more fun when it's a collective work.
                        Last edited by Mingus; May 29, 2006, 08:10 PM.

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                        • #13
                          The killer use our own vital energy to fuel his own cycle

                          Now, if you have read the tread from the start I think you can understand that whole cycle.
                          Note that RNA's can be both of negative sense or positive sense.
                          Negative sense RNAs are to become the genetic material inside the virus
                          Positive sense RNAs are to become a pseuso-mRNA that take control of the cells replication machine.
                          Click image for larger version

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                          I reffer you this tread for a explanation about how the virus enter the cell.
                          http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/showthread.php?t=3901

                          And again a more simple picture of the whole replication cycle.
                          Click image for larger version

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                          You should understand that chemicals that take the polymerases as target against virus can be effective but can also be very very toxic because this process of nucleic acid replication is on the the most fundamental in life's biochemistry and is located inside our cell.
                          Last edited by Mingus; May 29, 2006, 08:12 PM.

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