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Poor little pigs, poor farmers (How Mixing vessels mix)

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  • Poor little pigs, poor farmers (How Mixing vessels mix)

    I took that one from others tread of this week

    This article really tell much of how swine influenza are close to human influenza in general.

    Swine Flu Antibody in human farm worker
    1: Emerg Infect Dis. 2006 Jun;12(6):996-1000. Related Articles, Links

    Preventing zoonotic influenza virus infection.

    Ramirez A.

    University of Iowa College of Public Health, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.

    We evaluated 49 swine industry workers and 79 nonexposed controls for antibodies to swine influenza viruses. Multivariate modeling showed that workers who seldom used gloves (odds ratio [OR] 30.3) or who smoked (OR 18.7) most frequently had evidence of previous H1N1 swine virus. These findings may be valuable in planning for pandemic influenza.

    PMID: 16707061 [PubMed - in process]

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  • #2
    Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers

    This tread also have good complentary info.


    • #3
      Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers

      Do you know that last summer a big epidemic of H3N2 swine influenza struck in Canada. Before that, swineH3N2 was not endemic or reported in Qu?bec.

      So no pigs in Qu?bec had antibodies against H3N2. Farmers did only vaccinate for swineH1N1 and they did only occasionnally outbreak and it was a minor problem.

      In just 4 month the epidemic had gone from a single case reported in Alberta to the majority of pigs farm in Canada from British-Columbia to Quebec via Ontario.
      New positive farms (Unless in Indonesia !!! Vets consider a farm positive when some samples are found positive in it even if it was common to see all the swabs samples from theses farm to be positive for PCR at the same time; timing is crucial in this) were found two to three times every week for two months after a period of sporadic activities.

      The same strain had also struck on a turkey bird farm where the only symptoms were that egg production stopped almost totally (economically, it was bad for producer).

      Swine H3N2 is now endemic here, we found sporadic cases sometimes but not an epidemic.

      Sequencing had proven the Neuraminidase from this strain to be from human origin!

      Some vets have claimed they experienced a kind of "Muscular flu" during that time but no proof had been found. (At least a vet did have his blood tested.)

      In a disscution with a pfizer representative, we have been told that the first Albertan farm was in a very isolated place with ablolutely no proximity from other pig farms. The farm worker on this farm said he experienced this kind of "Muscular Flu" during January before the flu struck the farm.

      Now, that was just H3N2...
      Last edited by Mellie; May 23, 2006, 02:18 PM. Reason: practice


      • #4
        Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers

        So Mingus, do you think that the farmworkers and vets or other mostly asymptomatic humans were carrying the virus to the different pig (and turkey) farms?

        Was it possible this is a case of the humans being the "mixing vessels" and carriers of some kind of new recombination and infecting the livestock?

        Interesting story.

        Here's the slide of the surface antigens (proteins) HA and NA.

        Wonder what they had exactly...

        Click image for larger version

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        • #5
          Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers

          For those (Mellie you where there) who want more info or examples about pigs acting like helper for avian virus to adapt for humans, there was a interesting series of post about that ranging from post#36 to post #48 in that tread.

          We explore a theory about the possibility that pigs could have been at the source of the present indonesian series of human clusters.

          __________________________________________________ ______________

          Back on the Canadian Swine Flu

          The rumours about the "muscular flu" a not been proven to be influenza but from what I saw, the same story came from two different source and in two different location with the H3N2 in pigs farm as the sole common element.

          Sanitary standards of swine industry here in Quebec are amongst the best in the world.
          Just to picture it, every time a virus of PRRSv made an outbreak in a farm, the virus is sequences at our labs and the surface antigen is compared in a private sequences bank (owned by each veterinarian). With that information, they know wich pigs can be moved in wich farm or building without being sick.

          Did your doctor sequence every single cold or flu that your children catch before decided in wich school send-it ? I don't think so...

          The vet-medecine is far more advanced that the human counterpart.
          It's easy to understand, you do not produce this valuable bacon
          Money and productiveness... even in medecine...

          So, if even with this high-standard, this epidemic had not being controlled at all and have hit exacly like a pandemic could have do in humans ( The peak was in summer !), I just dont'want to see that happen with H5N1 in a coutry with low sanitary profile where they "just culled the positive animal" as if false positive could not be possible.

          But my personal opinion is that the veterinarians themselves could have been silent carrier of that swine virus and carry it from farm to farm.

          So in a pandemic, should we fear our doctors ?


          • #6
            Mixing vessels !

            Mixing vessels

            25 May 2006, Rome - While not ruling out the possibility of human-to-human transmission in the case of seven close family members who have died from avian flu in a Sumatran village, the World Health Organisation (WHO) said this week that the search for a possible alternative source of exposure is continuing.



            • #7
              Swine Canadian H3N2-Human cases

              Swine Canadian H3N2-Human cases

              Folowing the story I related in the post #3 of this thread, a paper ahead of print from CDC haved been just released.
              Originally posted by Mellie
              Interesting story.

              Wonder what they had exactly...
              They haved found a confirmed human case of this swine/turkey/H3N2 canadian virus.

              So the rumours I related here was founded !
              As the fact that this neuraminidase was from human origin !

              For the completed paper with full image treeview:

              here are some quotes
              Since January 2005, H3N2 influenza viruses have been isolated from pigs and turkeys throughout Canada and from a swine farmer and pigs on the same farm in Ontario. These are human/classical swine/avian reassortants similar to viruses that emerged in US pigs in 1998 but with a distinct human-lineage neuraminidase gene.

              Influenza viruses of the classical H1N1 lineage were the dominant cause of influenza among North American pigs for >60 years (1). However, in 1998, H3N2 viruses emerged and rapidly spread throughout the US swine population (2?4). These were unique triple reassortant genotype viruses, with hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and RNA polymerase (PB1) genes of human influenza virus lineage; nucleoprotein (NP), matrix (M), and nonstructural (NS) genes of classical swine virus lineage; and RNA polymerase (PA and PB2) genes of North American avian virus lineage. Further reassortment between these viruses and classical H1N1 swine viruses led to the emergence of reassortant H1N2 and H1N1 viruses among pigs in the United States (1). The reassortant H3N2 and H1N2 viruses have also been isolated from turkeys and ducks in the United States (5?8). Despite geographic proximity and cross-boundary trade in pigs and turkeys between the United States and Canada (9, D. Harvey, pers. comm.), these reassortant viruses did not initially infect animals in Canada. However, beginning in approximately January 2005, H3N2 influenza viruses swept rapidly across Canada. We describe the genetic characterization of reassortant H3N2 viruses from pigs, turkeys, and a swine farm worker in contact with sick pigs during this outbreak.

              To our knowledge, this report describes the first isolation of a human/classical swine/avian triple reassortant H3N2 virus from a human. This isolation could not have occurred through cross-contamination in a laboratory since the animal and human virus isolations and sequencing were conducted in different locations.
              this farm worker had a febrile respiratory illness and no other etiologic agent was identified,
              Last edited by Mingus; June 19, 2006, 11:05 AM.


              • #8
                Swine Canadian H3N2-Human cases

                The GenBank numbers assigned to the gene sequences of viruses investigated in this study are as follows: A/Ontario/RV1273/05, DQ469955?DQ469962; A/Swine/Alberta/14722/05, DQ469963?DQ469970; A/Swine/British Columbia/28103/05, DQ469971?DQ469978; A/Swine/Manitoba/12707/05, DQ469979?DQ469986; A/Swine/Ontario/33853/05, DQ469987?DQ469994; and A/Turkey/Ontario/31232/05, DQ469995?DQ470002.

                We thank Gabriele Landolt, Bruce McNab, Paul Innes, Grant Maxie, Eng-Soon Chan, Theresa Tam, Kerri Watkins, Jean Wilson, and staff members from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care and the Perth District Health Unit for helpful discussions; Alireza Eshaghi for excellent technical support; and Mo Saif for providing sequence information on A/Turkey/Ohio/313053/04 before submission to GenBank.

                Yes, this last sequence was the first found to have that human neuraminidase lineage.

                But at the time we ( in our lab) published our partial sequence, this one was not public and was keep lock in the non-public domain of genebank.

                Our partial sequences where the first public sequences of that lineage and they not even mention it, as the fact that this epidemic was raging all over Quebec as well !

                Here is our sequences
                1: DQ241766 Reports Links

                Influenza A virus (A/swine/Alberta/Biovet1/05(H3N2)) neuraminidase (NA) gene, partial cds

                2: DQ241765 Reports Links

                Influenza A virus (A/swine/Ontario/Biovet1/05(H3N2)) neuraminidase (NA) gene, partial cds

                3: DQ241764 Reports Links

                Influenza A virus (A/swine/Quebec/Biovet1/05(H3N2)) neuraminidase (NA) gene, partial cds

                4: DQ241763 Reports Links

                Influenza A virus (A/swine/Alberta/Biovet1/05(H3N2)) hemagglutinin (HA) gene, partial cds

                5: DQ241762 Reports Links

                Influenza A virus (A/swine/Ontario/Biovet1/05(H3N2)) hemagglutinin (HA) gene, partial cds

                6: DQ241761 Reports Links

                Influenza A virus (A/swine/Quebec/Biovet1/05(H3N2)) hemagglutinin (HA) gene, partial cds
                Last edited by Mingus; June 19, 2006, 11:05 AM.


                • #9
                  Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers (How Mixing vessels mix)

                  Any information on this sequence?


                  • #10
                    Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers (How Mixing vessels mix)

                    There is, hawkeye...


                    1: Avian Dis. 2005 Jun;49(2):207-13. Related Articles, Links

                    Isolation and characterization of H3N2 influenza A virus from turkeys.

                    Tang Y, Lee CW, Zhang Y, Senne DA, Dearth R, Byrum B, Perez DR, Suarez DL, Saif YM.

                    Food Animal Health Research Program, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH 44691, USA.

                    Five 34-wk-old turkey breeder layer flocks in separate houses of 2550 birds each in a single farm in Ohio experienced a drop in egg production from late January to early February 2004. Tracheal swabs (n = 60), cloacal swabs (n = 50), and convalescent sera (n = 110) from the flocks were submitted to the laboratory for diagnostics. Virus isolation was attempted in specific-pathogen free embryonating chicken eggs and Vero and MDCK cells. Virus characterization was performed using agar gel immunodiffusion, the hemagglutination test, the hemagglutination inhibition test, the virus neutralization test, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. A presumptive influenza virus was successfully propagated and isolated on the first passage in MDCK cells, but initially not in Vero cells or specific-pathogen free chicken embryos. After two passages in MDCK cells, it was possible to propagate the isolate in specific-pathogen free chicken embryos. Preliminary sequence analysis of the isolated virus confirmed that it was influenza A virus with almost 100% (235/236) identity with the matrix gene of a swine influenza A virus, A/Swine/Illinois/100084/01 (H1N2). However, it was not possible to subtype the virus using conventional serotyping methods. The results of genetic characterization of the isolated virus showed that it was the H3N2 subtype and was designated as A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2). Phylogenetic analysis of the eight gene segments of the virus showed that A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) isolate was most closely related to the triple-reassortant H3N2 swine viruses [A/Swine/WI/14094/99 (H3N2)] that have been circulating among pigs in the United States since 1998, which contains gene segments from avian, swine, and human viruses. The A/Turkey/OH/313053/04 (H3N2) isolated from turkeys in this study was classified as a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus because it only caused a drop in egg production with minor other clinical signs and no mortality.

                    PMID: 16094824 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]


                    • #11
                      Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers (How Mixing vessels mix)

                      Thank you.



                      • #12
                        Swine Canadian H3N2-Human cases

                        So now this is proven,

                        clearly, this strain that is widesprean and endemic in canada have the capacity of infecting both Avian, Swine and Human species.

                        So, the probability of H5N1 being present in North-America (that story in PEI) really is not a good news.

                        The mixing vessel system is well established here and polymorphisms, if we beleive the recombination theory, have the freedom to choose their host freely via this swine strain.

                        This made the Avian-->Swine-->Human corridor more fluid


                        • #13
                          Re: Swine Canadian H3N2-Human cases

                          I would dearly love, just for curiosities sake, to see if I had antibodies to AI.
                          Back in about 1990, I had 25 broilers on the little farm I rented, that I was raising for meat. They suddenly died, in about 36 hrs, I lost all but 2 or 3 IIRC. Severe diarrhea, some bloody, and shreds of thick mucous hanging from their beaks.

                          Withn a week, I was fighting off a cold and cough. Felt pretty crappy, temp, aching all over. Couldn't shake it. Within 2 or 3 wks of the birds dying, cant recall the timing exactly now- I was in ICU with both lungs whited out, diagnosed with interstitial viral pneumonia that evolved to ARDS. I remember them wheeling the vent in, to have it ready in case. Made it thru without intubation, though. They tested me for lots of stuff- even did a nasal swab to rule out AI from the chickens. That came back negative. Finally decided it might have been a chlamydia pneumonia- and gee, erythromycin worked! I still have a residual delight- the overdose of gent they gave me by accident has permanantly affected my hearing.

                          Gues thats why I'm a bit of a nut about AI and flu pandemics- I can really empathize with the victims. From what Ive learned here, thanks to Dr. Niman, that nasal swabs may well be negative by the time ARDS appears-well, I wonder if AI was the real cause after all.

                          So seeing that a swine farmer brings it to mind once again- sure would love to know what it was that darn near killed me. I think its just way too coincidental that I started with symptoms by the end of the week that my chickens died and I cleaned out that dusty chicken house. The fact that they found it in a farmer, makes me think that its really possible I had AI after all.

                          If so, then I can say for sure that the erythromycin probably saved my life- since I got worse when they filled me up with steroids. Doctor said th esame thing, actually. Sounds a lot like the research we've been doing on other threads, that emycin helps, doesnt it?

                          About 15 yrs ago, guess the chance of finding antibodies is pretty slim by now. I'll have to just live with the curiosity! But I sure would like to know.
                          Upon this gifted age, in its dark hour,
                          Rains from the sky a meteoric shower
                          Of facts....They lie unquestioned, uncombined.
                          Wisdom enough to leech us of our ill
                          Is daily spun, but there exists no loom
                          To weave it into fabric..
                          Edna St. Vincent Millay "Huntsman, What Quarry"
                          All my posts to this forum are for fair use and educational purposes only.


                          • #14
                            Re: Swine Canadian H3N2-Human cases

                            OooF !

                            What a story

                            Probably theses kind of thing happen more often than we think we know.


                            • #15
                              Re: Poor little pigs, poor farmers (How Mixing vessels mix)


                              So the increase in swine pneumonia among my neighbors could be Canadian AI carried via wild birds?

                              "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation