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H5N8 HPAI GLOBAL situation update (FAO, May 03, 2018)

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  • H5N8 HPAI GLOBAL situation update (FAO, May 03, 2018)

    H5N8 HPAI GLOBAL situation update

    03 May 2018, 17:00 hours; Rome

    The next update will be issued on 06 June 2018

    Disclaimer

    Information provided herein is current as of the date of issue. Information added or changed since the last H5N8 situation update appears in red. Human cases are depicted in the geographic location of their report. For some cases, exposure may have occurred in one geographic location but reported in another. For cases with unknown onset date, reporting date was used instead. FAO compiles information drawn from multiple national (Ministries of Agriculture or Livestock, Ministries of Health, Provincial Government websites; Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]) and international sources (World Health Organization [WHO], World Organisation for Animal Health [OIE]) as well as peer-reviewed scientific articles. FAO makes every effort to ensure, but does not guarantee, accuracy, completeness or authenticity of the information. The designation employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of FAO concerning the legal or constitutional status of any country, territory or sea area, or concerning the delimitation of frontiers.


    Overview

    Situation: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) 2016 virus in Africa, Asia, Europe and Middle East with pandemic potential.
    Confirmed countriesx: Austria*, Belgium*, Bosnia and Herzegovina*,Bulgaria*, Cameroon*, China, Croatia*, Cyprus, the Czech Republic*, Democratic Republic of the Congo*, Denmark*, Egypt*, Finland, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*, France*, Germany*, Greece*, Hungary*, India*, Iran (Islamic Republic of)*, Iraq*, Ireland, Israel*, Italy*, Kazakhstan, the Republic of Korea*, Kuwait*, Lithuania, Luxembourg*,Nepal*, the Netherlands*, Niger*, Nigeria*, Pakistan, Poland*, Portugal, Romania*, Russian Federation*, Saudi Arabia*, Serbia*, Slovakia*, Slovenia, South Africa*, Spain*, Sweden*, Switzerland, Tunisia, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland*, Uganda*, Ukraine* and Zimbabwe*.

    Number of human cases: None reported to date.

    x Reports of H5N8 HPAI events in Taiwan, Province of China, are not included in this update since the virus belongs to a genetically different strain.
    * Countries in which the virus was detected in poultry.
    Map 1. H5N8 HPAI events officially reported in Asia, Europe and Africa by onset date

    Click to enlarge - Note: The large map shows confirmed H5N8 HPAI events observed since 01 October 2017; the small map in the insert shows confirmed events observed between 01 June 2016 and 30 September 2017

    Map 2. Global context: H5Nx HPAI events officially reported between 01 October 2017 and 03 May 2018
    Click to enlarge


    For a phylogenetic tree of A(H5) clade 2.3.4.4 HA genes please click here. WHO report ‘Antigenic and genetic characteristics of zoonotic influenza viruses and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic preparedness’ – February 2018 [reference].

    Domestic bird species affected
    Anas platyrhynchos domesticus (Duck) Anserinae sp. (Goose) Gallus gallus domesticus (Chicken)
    Meleagris gallopavo (Turkey)
    Farmed wildlife species affected
    (Private collections, displays or production)
    Dromaius novaeollandiae (Emu) Pavo cristatus (Peacock)
    Grus paradisea (Blue Crane) Perdicinae (Partridge) Struthio camelus (Ostrich)
    Numida meleagris (Common Guineafowl) Phasianus colchicus (Common Pheasant)
    Wild bird species affected
    Involved in transmission
    Anas clypeata (Northern Shoveler) Anser anser (Greylag Goose) Cygnus columbianus (Tundra Swan)
    Anas crecca (Common Teal) Anser brachyrhynchus (Pink-footed Goose) Cygnus cygnus (Whooper swan)
    Anas falcata (Falcated Duck) Anser fabalis (Been Goose) Cygnus olor (Mute Swan)
    Anas penelope (Eurasian Wigeon) Aythya ferina (Common Pochard) Marmaronetta angustirostris (Marbled teal)
    Anas platyrhynchos (Mallard) Aythya fuligula (Tufted Duck) Netta rufina (Red-crested Pochard)
    Anas strepera (Gadwall) Aythya nyroca (Ferruginous Pochard) Tadorna tadorna (Common Shelduck)
    Anas undulata (Yellow-billed Duck) Aythyinae or Anatinae sp. (Wild Duck)
    Anser albifrons (Greater White-fronted Goose) Bucephala clangula (Common Goldeneye)
    Accidental hosts
    Alopochen aegyptiaca (Egyptian Goose) Cygnus atratus (Black Swan) Plectopterus gambensis (Spur-winged Goose)
    Anser erythropus (Lesser white-fronted goose) Egretta garzetta (Little Egret) Plegadis falcinellus (Glossy Ibis)
    Ara cloropterus (Green and red macaw) Fulica atra (Common Coot) Ploceus velatus (Southern Masked-Weaver)
    Ardea alba (Great Egret) Gallinula chloropus (Common Moorhen) Podiceps cristatus (Great Cested Grebe)
    Ardea cinerea (Grey Heron) Grus grus (Common Crane) Recurvirostra avosetta (Pied avocet)
    Ardea melanocephala (Black-headed Heron) Grus japonensis (Red-crowned Crane) Somateria mollissima (Eider)
    Balearica regulorum (Crowned crane) Haematopus moquini (African Black Oystercatcher) Spheniscus demersus (Jackass Penguin)
    Botaurus stellaris (Eurasian bittern) Himantopus himantopus (Black-winged Stilt) Sterna hirundo (Common Tern)
    Branta canadensis (Canada Goose) Lonchura sp. (Munia) Streptopella senegalensis (Laughing Dove)
    Bubulcus ibis (Western Cattle Egret) Mycteria leucocephala (Painted Stork) Streptopella decaocto (Eurasian Collared Dove)
    Cairina moschata (Muscovy Duck) Numenius arquata (Eurasian Curlew) Sturnus vulgaris (Common Starling)
    Calidris minuta (Little stint) Numenius sp.( Curlew) Tachybaptus ruficollis (Little Grebe)
    Charadrius alexandrines (Kentish Plover) Passer domesticus (House Sparrow) Thalasseus bergii (Swift tern)
    Charadrius dubius (Little ringed plover) Pavo cristatus (Indian Peafowl) Thalasseus sandvicensis (Sandwich Tern)
    Charadrius hiaticula (Common ringed plover) Pelecanus onocrotalus (Great White Pelican) Threskiornis aethiopicus (Sacred Ibis)
    Chlidonias leucoptera (White-winged Black Tern) Pelecanus sp. (Pelican) Tringa glareola (Wood Sandpiper)
    Ciconia ciconia (White Stork) Phalacrocorax capensis (Cape Cormorant) Tringa ochropus (Green Sandpiper)
    Ciconiidae sp. (Stork) Phalacrocorax carbo (Great Cormorant) Turdus merula (Eurasian Blackbird)
    Columba guinea (African rock pigeon) Phalacrocorax pygmaeus (Pygmy Cormorant) Turdus philomelos (Song Thrush)
    Columba palumbus (Common Wood-Pigeon) Philomachus pugnax (Ruff) Turdus pilaris (Fieldfare)
    Columba livia (Rock Pigeon) Phoenicopterus roseus (Greater Flamingo)
    Columbidae sp. (Pigeon) Platalea leucorodia (Eurasian Spoonbill)
    Scavenger birds and birds of prey
    Accipiter gentilis (Northern Goshawk) Corvus cornix (Hooded Crow) Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)
    Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk) Corvus frugilegus (Rook) Larus fuscus (Lesser Black-backed Gull)
    Accipiter nisus (Eurasian Sparrowhawk) Corvus sp. (Crow) Larus marinus (Great black-backed Gull)
    Asio otus (Long Eared Owl) Falco cherrug (Saker Falcon) Larus michahellis (Yellow-legged Gull)
    Bubo africanus (Spotted Eagle-Owl) Falco peregrinus (Peregrine Falcon) Pica pica (Common Magpie)
    Bubo bubo (Eurasian Eagle-Owl) Falco tinnunculus (Common Kestrel) Strigiformes (Owl)
    Buteo buteo (Common Buzzard) Falco vespertinus (Red-footed Falcon) Sula capensis (Cape Gannet)
    Buteo rufofuscus (Jackal Buzzard) Falco vespertinus (Red-footed Falcon) Tyto alba (Common Barn-Owl)
    Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus (Grey Headed Gull) Haliaeetus albicilla (White Tailed Eagle)
    Chroicocephalus hartlaubii (Hartlaub’s Gull) Laridae (Gull)
    Chroicocephalus ridibundus (Black-headed Gull) Larus argentatus (Herring Gull)
    Corvus albidae (Pied Crow) Larus armenicus (Armenian Gull)
    Corvus Corax (Common Raven) Larus canus (Mew Gull)
    Note: For each bird species, common name, genus and species name are listed. Species in subcategories are listed in alphabetic order, by their Latin name.


    FAO's support to countries

    Global level

    • Report of the WHO Vaccine Composition Meeting February 2018 [link] and September 2017 [link]
    • A webinar titled Intercontinental spread of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza – Analysis of the current situation and recommendations for preventive action, targeting national veterinary services and FAO regional and country teams, was conducted by FAO on 24 November 2016 [link]
    • EMPRES Watch, September 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) of clade 2.3.4.4 detected through surveillance of wild migratory birds in the Tyva Republic, the Russian Federation – potential for international spread [link]
    • EMPRES news, 4 November 2016: H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza detected in Hungary and in the Republic of India [link]
    Regional level

    • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, November 2016: Highly pathogenic avian influenza spreading in Europe, South Asia [link]
    • FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news, September 2016: Emergent Avian Influenza virus detected in surveillance of migratory birds in Russian Federation (FAO Regional Office for Europe and Central Asia news [link]

    Recent Publications

    Mellor K.C., Meyer A., Elkholly D.A., Fournié G., Long P.T., Inui K., […], Stevens K.B. Comparative Epidemiology of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus H5N1 and H5N6 in Vietnamese Live Bird Markets: Spatiotemporal Patterns of Distribution and Risk Factors. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, April 2018 5; doi: 10.3389/fvets.2018.00051. [reference]. Data collected through active surveillance of Vietnamese live bird markets (LBMs) between 2011 and 2015 were used to explore and compare the spatiotemporal distributions of H5N1- and H5N6-positive LBMs. This study highlights marked differences in spatial patterns and risk factors for H5N1 and H5N6 in Vietnam, suggesting the need for tailored surveillance and control approaches.

    Van den Brand J.M.A., Verhagen J.H., Veldhuis Kroeze E.J.B., Van de Bildt M.W.G., Bodewes R., Herfst S., Kuiken T. Wild ducks excrete highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N8 (2014–2015) without clinical or pathological evidence of disease.Emerging Microbes and Infection. 2018 April 18;7(1):67. doi: 10.1038/s41426-018-0070-9. [reference]. In order to determine whether the virus is adapting to wild waterbirds, four key waterbird species were experimentally inoculated the HPAI H5N8 virus clade 2.3.4.4 group A from 2014 and virus excretion and disease severity were compared with historical data of the HPAI H5N1 virus infection from 2005 in the same four species. Excretion was highest in Eurasian wigeons for the 2014 virus, whereas excretion was highest in common pochards and mallards for the 2005 virus. The 2014 virus infection was subclinical in all four waterbird species, while the 2005 virus caused clinical disease and pathological changes in over 50% of the common pochards. In chickens, the 2014 virus infection caused systemic disease and high mortality, similar to the 2005 virus. The evidence was strongest for Eurasian wigeons as long-distance vectors for HPAI H5N8 virus from 2014.

    Anis A., AboElkhair M., Ibrahim M. Characterization of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N8 Virus from Egyptian Domestic Waterfowl in 2017.Avian Pathology. 2018 April 27:1-35, doi: 10.1080/03079457.2018.1470606. [reference]. In the present study, the HPAI virus H5N8 of clade 2.3.4.4 was identified from domestic waterfowl in Egypt, suggesting its transmission to the domestic poultry from the migratory birds. Based on partial hemagglutinin (HA) gene sequence, this virus has a close genetic relationship with subtype H5N8 viruses circulating in Asia and Europe. Pathologically, H5N8 virus in hybrid duck induced nervous signs accompanied with other organs congestion and inflammation (lung, kidney, spleen and pancreas). The co-circulation of both HPAI H5N1 and H5N8 subtypes with the low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 subtype complicate the control of AI in Egypt with the possibility of emergence of new reassortant viruses.

    Kim W.H., An J.U., Kim J., Moon O.K., Bae S.H., Bender J.B., Cho S. Risk factors associated with highly pathogenic avian influenza subtype H5N8 outbreaks on broiler duck farms in South Korea. Transboundary Emerging Diseases. 2018 Apr 19. doi: 10.1111/tbed.12882. [reference]. To evaluate the risk factors for HPAI infection in broiler duck farms, a retrospective case-control study was conducted on broiler duck farms. Forty-three farms with confirmed HPAI on premises were selected as the case group, and 43 HPAI-negative farms were designated as the control group. This study highlights that the HPAI H5N8 outbreaks in South Korea were associated with farm owner education, number of flocks and facilities and farm biosecurity.

    Recommendations for affected countries and those at risk

    Please refer to the Update published on 11 October 2017 for a list of recommendations.

    http://www.fao.org/ag/againfo/progra...on_update.html

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