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American wild birds with Influenza

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  • gsgs
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Guerra : Columbus put 8 sows with flu in his ship from the Canaries.
    Columbis himself got sick on Dec.1493 but recovered.
    Cook ("born to die") doubts that it was flu.

    Lovell "heavy shadows and dark night"
    Lovell, W. George (1992). “'Heavy Shadows and Dark Night': Disease and
    Depopulation in Colonial Spanish America”. Annals of the AAG 82 (3): 426-443.
    http://geog.queensu.ca/faculty/lovell.asp

    http://books.google.de/books?id=i85n...review&f=false


    Influenza in America During the Sixteenth Century. Bulletin of the History of
    Medicine. 8:296-302. McCary,. Ben C. 1957.

    F. Webster McBryde, Influenza in America During the Sixteenth Century (Guatemala: 1523, 1559–62, 1576) [Notes and Comments], in: Bulletin of the History of Medicine 8, 1940, S. 296

    http://usmex.ucsd.edu/assets/022/10125.pdf

    Leave a comment:


  • Amish Country
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Originally posted by gsgs View Post
    how would influenza have come to America ?
    How jumped to humans without domesticated animals ?
    How successfully spread without ships,horses ?

    Why would not the Europeans be attacked by a
    native American virus ?
    Colonial era Europeans were trading with Africa, Asia, and Russia. They came in contact with more viruses and were more mobile. They had some immunity to the bugs they had already been exposed to for a few generations or more. The Native Americans did not have that luxury. It is possible they were exposed to new viruses in the Americas but the Europeans living in closely packed and unsanitary quarters, with domesticated animals, having inadequate medical treatment and with world wide trading networks may have had more opportunities and means than native Americans to pick up and transport viruses.

    Considering the amount of death and suffering caused in Hawaii by the European childhood disease measles, a flu with low CFR in Europeans may have had a significantly higher CFR in Native Americans with little or no resistance.

    Leave a comment:


  • gsgs
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    "travel logs" don't mean the viruses mixed.

    yes, America <--> Eurasian or Australian interchanges happen, but
    are surprisingly rare.

    The HAs and NAs seem to mix more often, but of course only whole viruses travel.
    Apparantly HA,NA reassort and survive in a new continent more frequently, while
    inner segments are more bound to one continent



    distribution of the genbank sequences of several types
    (flugenome.org) to the continents


    Code:
    segment
      type  Asia,EU , AFR, OZ ,N.Am, S.Am   total (human+avian)
    ------------------------------------------------
     1      773,  11,  10,  10,  58,    ,   1068 
     1 A       ,   2,    ,    ,    ,    ,   2444 
     1 B       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   93 
     1 C       ,   1,    ,    , 503,   1,   635 
     1 D       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1 
     1 E       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   3,   3 
     1 F       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   27 
     1 G    105, 104,    ,   2,   1,    ,   238 
     1 H       ,   5,    ,    ,   1,    ,   6 
     1 I       ,    ,    ,   9,    ,    ,   9 
     1 J       ,   5,    ,    ,  12,    ,   17 
     1 K    755,  82,  55,  28,   2,    ,   1087 
     1 L       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1 
     2      928,  27,  13,  13,  52,    ,   1272 
     2 A       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   817 
     2 B       ,    ,    ,    ,   6,    ,   6 
     2 C       ,   2,    ,    ,   1,    ,   3 
     2 D       ,    ,    ,  16,  16,    ,   1718 
     2 E       ,   6,    ,    ,    ,    ,   54 
     2 F      1,   1,    ,    , 508,   5,   563 
     2 G    685, 178,  54,  16,   8,    ,   1165 
     2 H       ,    ,    ,   2,    ,    ,   2 
     2 I       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   48 
     3      857,  21,  13,  11,  60,    ,   1156 
     3 1D      ,    ,    ,    ,   1,    ,   1 
     3 6E      ,    ,    ,    ,   1,    ,   1 
     3 A       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   31 
     3 B       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   2386 
     3 C       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   103 
     3 D    531, 159,  53,   5,   2,    ,   905 
     3 E    213,  16,   1,  35, 363,   1,   724 
     3 F       ,    ,    ,    ,  10,    ,   10 
     3 G       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   43 
     3 H       ,   6,    ,    , 123,    ,   148 
     3 I       ,   8,    ,    ,    ,    ,   41 
     3 J       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   5,   5 
     3 K       ,    ,    ,    ,  24,    ,   24 
     4      547,  82,  26,  13,  43,    ,   1556 
     4 10A     ,    ,    ,    ,  15,    ,   15 
     4 10B     ,    ,    ,    ,   1,    ,   1 
     4 10C     ,    ,    ,    ,   3,    ,   3 
     4 10D     ,   4,    ,    ,    ,    ,   4 
     4 10E    7,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   8 
     4 10F    1,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1 
     4 11A    4,   4,    ,   3,    ,    ,   11 
     4 11B     ,   5,    ,   1,   1,    ,   7 
     4 11C    2,    ,    ,    ,  46,    ,   52 
     4 12A     ,    ,    ,    ,  19,    ,   19 
     4 12B     ,    ,    ,   2,    ,    ,   2 
     4 13A     ,    ,    ,    ,   5,    ,   6 
     4 13B     ,   3,    ,    ,   1,    ,   4 
     4 13C     ,    ,    ,    ,   4,    ,   4 
     4 14A     ,   3,    ,    ,    ,    ,   3 
     4 14B     ,   1,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1 
     4 15A     ,    ,    ,   8,    ,    ,   8 
     4 16A     ,   3,    ,    ,    ,    ,   3 
     4 16B     ,   1,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1 
     4 16C     ,    ,    ,    ,   3,    ,   3 
     4 1A      ,    ,    ,    ,   3,    ,   206 
     4 1B     1,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1681 
     4 1C     9,   3,    ,   3,    ,    ,   64 
     4 1D      ,    ,    ,    ,  48,    ,   50 
     4 1E      ,    ,    ,    ,   2,    ,   2 
     4 2A      ,    ,    ,    ,   1,    ,   94 
     4 2B     4,   1,    ,    ,   4,    ,   9 
     4 2C      ,   2,    ,    ,    ,    ,   2 
     4 2D     8,   3,    ,    ,    ,    ,   11 
     4 2E      ,   6,    ,    ,   1,    ,   7 
     4 2F      ,    ,    ,    ,  12,    ,   12 
     4 2G      ,    ,    ,    ,   2,    ,   2 
     4 2H      ,    ,    ,    ,  36,   1,   40 
     4 2I      ,    ,    ,    ,   5,    ,   5 
     4 3A    20,   1,    ,   9,   5,    ,   4873 
     4 3B    46,   9,    ,    ,    ,    ,   59 
     4 3C      ,    ,    ,    ,  29,    ,   35 
     4 3D     1,    ,    ,    ,  39,    ,   48 
     4 3E      ,    ,    ,   1,    ,    ,   1 
     4 3F      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   140 
     4 4A      ,    ,    ,    ,  99,    ,   103 
     4 4B      ,    ,    ,   4,    ,    ,   4 
     4 4C    11,   5,    ,   1,   2,    ,   19 
     4 4D      ,    ,    ,   3,    ,    ,   3 
     4 5A      ,    ,    ,    ,  20,    ,   20 
     4 5B    14,    ,    ,    ,  60,    ,   74 
     4 5C     1,    ,    ,   1,  96,    ,   105 
     4 5D      ,    ,    ,    ,   1,    ,   1 
     4 5E      ,   4,   2,    ,    ,    ,   6 
     4 5F    15,  17,    ,    ,    ,    ,   32 
     4 5G      ,  19,   2,    ,    ,    ,   21 
     4 5H    24,  18,    ,    ,    ,    ,   42 
     4 5I     6,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   6 
     4 5J  1082, 168, 165,    ,    ,    ,   1688 
     4 5K      ,  13,    ,    ,    ,    ,   13 
     4 6A    32,    ,    ,    ,  11,    ,   43 
     4 6B   149,  29,   1,    ,  43,    ,   222 
     4 6C      ,   1,    ,    ,   9,    ,   10 
     4 6D      ,    ,    ,   3,    ,    ,   3 
     4 6E      ,    ,    ,   3,   6,    ,   9 
     4 6F      ,    ,    ,    ,   7,    ,   7 
     4 6G      ,    ,    ,    ,  87,    ,   87 
     4 7A    24, 190,   5,    ,   1,    ,   224 
     4 7B      ,   4,   1,    ,   1,    ,   6 
     4 7C      ,    ,    ,  15,    ,    ,   15 
     4 7D      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   13 
     4 7E      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   8,   8 
     4 7F      ,    ,    ,   1, 143,    ,   173 
     4 8A     1,    ,    ,    ,  13,    ,   14 
     4 9A     2,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   2 
     4 9B   143,   1,    ,    ,    ,    ,   147 
     4 9C   455,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   490 
     4 9D     6,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   6 
     4 9E      ,    ,    ,    ,  18,    ,   18 
     4 9F    27,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   32 
     4 9G    19,   9,   1,    ,   2,    ,   31 
     4 9H      ,    ,    ,    ,   3,    ,   3 
     4 9I     1,    ,    ,    ,   5,    ,   6 
     4 9J    11,    ,    ,   1,   1,    ,   13 
     5      897,  31,  13,  14, 174,   1,   1531 
     5 A       ,    ,    ,    ,   6,    ,   2749 
     5 B       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   3 
     5 C       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   4,   52 
     5 D       ,   5,    ,    ,  11,    ,   17 
     5 E       ,    ,    ,  20,    ,    ,   20 
     5 F    810, 216,  54,  14,   1,    ,   1325 
     5 G       ,    ,    ,   7,    ,    ,   7 
     5 H      1,    ,    ,    , 472,    ,   520 
     6      479,  63,  10,  26,  22,    ,   882 
     6 1A     2,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1042 
     6 1B      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   111 
     6 1C      ,   2,    ,    ,    ,    ,   2 
     6 1D      ,    ,    ,    ,   8,    ,   8 
     6 1E     7,   2,    ,   4, 114,   2,   131 
     6 1F    10,   4,    ,    ,    ,    ,   35 
     6 1G    98,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   122 
     6 1H    17,  48,   1,    ,    ,    ,   66 
     6 1I    34,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   34 
     6 1J   778, 112,  67,    ,    ,    ,   1146 
     6 1K     4,   3,    ,    ,    ,    ,   7 
     6 1L     2,    ,   1,    ,    ,    ,   3 
     6 2A      ,    ,    ,    ,   6,    ,   2757 
     6 2B   444,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   475 
     6 2C    15,   5,    ,    ,   1,    ,   21 
     6 2D    95,  23,   3,    ,  16,    ,   144 
     6 2E    65,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   67 
     6 2F      ,    ,    ,    ,   6,    ,   6 
     6 2G     3,    ,    ,    , 208,    ,   238 
     6 2H      ,    ,    ,   1,    ,    ,   1 
     6 2I     1,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1 
     6 3A      ,    ,    ,    ,  68,   1,   77 
     6 3B    28,  47,   2,   3,    ,    ,   80 
     6 3C      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   8,   8 
     6 3D      ,   5,    ,    ,    ,    ,   5 
     6 3E      ,   2,    ,    ,    ,    ,   2 
     6 3F      ,    ,    ,    ,   2,    ,   2 
     6 4A      ,    ,    ,    ,  17,    ,   17 
     6 4B     3,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   3 
     6 4C      ,    ,    ,   2,    ,    ,   3 
     6 5A      ,    ,    ,    ,   1,    ,   1 
     6 5B     3,   1,    ,    ,    ,    ,   4 
     6 5C     1,    ,    ,   6,    ,    ,   7 
     6 5D      ,    ,    ,    ,  32,    ,   32 
     6 6A     1,    ,    ,    ,  73,    ,   82 
     6 6B      ,   2,    ,    ,  11,    ,   13 
     6 6C    19,   2,    ,    ,   1,    ,   22 
     6 6D      ,   4,    ,    ,    ,    ,   4 
     6 6E      ,    ,    ,   2,    ,    ,   2 
     6 7A      ,   1,    ,    ,   1,    ,   2 
     6 7B      ,    ,    ,   3,    ,    ,   3 
     6 7C      ,   4,    ,    ,    ,    ,   4 
     6 7D     6,   5,    ,    ,   1,    ,   14 
     6 7E      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   5 
     6 7F      ,    ,    ,    ,   9,    ,   9 
     6 7G      ,    ,    ,    ,  12,    ,   14 
     6 8A    12,    ,    ,   7,  84,    ,   108 
     6 8B      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   54 
     6 8C     9,  17,   3,   7,    ,    ,   37 
     6 9A     6,   1,    ,   5,  43,    ,   58 
     6 9B     4,   2,    ,   3,    ,    ,   9 
     7      291,  13,  12,   1,  51,    ,   852 
     7 A       ,    ,    ,    ,   9,    ,   188 
     7 B      1,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   2709 
     7 C       ,    ,    ,    ,  26,    ,   26 
     7 D       ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   4 
     7 E      1,   2,    ,   6, 788,   9,   918 
     7 F   1519, 228,  55,  38,  35,    ,   2145 
     7 G       ,    ,    ,   9,    ,    ,   9 
     8      249,   6,   6,   3,   5,    ,   372 
     8 1A      ,    ,    ,    ,   8,    ,   2795 
     8 1B      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   4 
     8 1C      ,   4,    ,    ,  24,    ,   28 
     8 1D     3,  12,    ,  36, 482,   2,   628 
     8 1E  1512, 185,  55,  13,   6,    ,   2035 
     8 1F      ,    ,   4,    ,    ,    ,   4 
     8 1G      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   1 
     8 2A    63,  86,   3,   2,   3,    ,   158 
     8 2B      ,    ,    ,    , 334,    ,   363 
     8 2C      ,    ,    ,    ,    ,   9,   9 
     8 2D      ,   3,    ,   1,    ,    ,   4 
     8 2E      ,    ,    ,    ,   2,    ,   2

    Hokkaido/107 is too small, only partial sequence available, so it is not included

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  • AlaskaDenise
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Also see comments under Bar-tailed Godwit thread.

    .

    Leave a comment:


  • AlaskaDenise
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Prevalence of Influenza A viruses in wild migratory birds in Alaska: Patterns of variation in detection at a crossroads of intercontinental flyways

    Hon S Ip,<SUP></SUP><SUP>1</SUP> Paul L Flint,<SUP>2</SUP> J Christian Franson,<SUP>1</SUP> Robert J Dusek,<SUP>1</SUP> Dirk V Derksen,<SUP>2</SUP> Robert E Gill, Jr,<SUP>2</SUP> Craig R Ely,<SUP>2</SUP> John M Pearce,<SUP>2</SUP> Richard B Lanctot,<SUP>3</SUP> Steven M Matsuoka,<SUP>3</SUP> David B Irons,<SUP>3</SUP> Julian B Fischer,<SUP>3</SUP> Russell M Oates,<SUP>3</SUP> Margaret R Petersen,<SUP>2</SUP> Thomas F Fondell,<SUP>2</SUP> Deborah A Rocque,<SUP>3</SUP> Janice C Pedersen,<SUP>4</SUP> and Thomas C Rothe<SUP>5</SUP>
    <SUP></SUP>
    <SUP>(snipped)</SUP>
    <SUP></SUP>
    Of 16,797 birds sampled in Alaska between May 2006 and March 2007, low pathogenic avian influenza viruses were detected in 1.7&#37;....
    ......
    ...we detected low pathogenic AI viruses in 293 birds...
    .....
    ...189 low pathogenic viruses were detected by virus isolation...
    .....
    Detection of AI in 4 eider species, whose populations from Asia and North America co-mingle annually in Alaska, suggests they may be important hosts for the intercontinental transport of these viruses.


    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/art...id=2435106#B15

    .

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  • AlaskaDenise
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    1: Virus Genes. 2004 Aug;29(1):81-6. <SCRIPT language=JavaScript1.2><!-- var Menu15215686 = [ ["UseLocalConfig", "jsmenu3Config", "", ""], ["Nucleotide" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=nuccore&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName= pubmed_nuccore&LinkReadableName=Nucleotide&IdsFrom Result=15215686&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.P Entrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_Discovery Panel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""], ["Taxonomy via GenBank" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=taxonomy&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName =pubmed_taxonomy_entrez&LinkReadableName=Taxonomy% 20via%20GenBank&IdsFromResult=15215686&ordinalpos= 1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Result sPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus ' ", "", ""], ["Protein" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=protein&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName= pubmed_protein&LinkReadableName=Protein&IdsFromRes ult=15215686&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEnt rez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPan el.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""], ["PopSet" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=popset&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=p ubmed_popset&LinkReadableName=PopSet&IdsFromResult =15215686&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez .Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel. Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""], ["Cited in PMC" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=pmc&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubm ed_pmc_refs&LinkReadableName=Cited%20in%20PMC&IdsF romResult=15215686&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem 2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_Discov eryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""], ["LinkOut", "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Cmd=ShowLinkOut&Db=pubmed&TermToSearch=1521 5686&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubm ed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubme d_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""] ] --></SCRIPT>Links
    <DD class=abstract>
    Interregional transmission of the internal protein genes of H2 influenza virus in migratory ducks from North America to Eurasia.

    <!--AuthorList-->Liu JH, Okazaki K, Bai GR, Shi WM, Mweene A, Kida H.
    Laboratory of Microbiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100094, People' s Republic of China. ljh@cau.edu.cn
    </DD><DD class=abstract>
    H2 influenza virus caused a pandemic in 1957 and has the possibility to cause outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolutionary characteristics of H2 influenza viruses isolated from migratory ducks that congregate in Hokkaido, Japan, on their flyway of migration from Siberia in 2001, we investigated the phylogenetic relationships among these viruses and avian and human viruses described previously. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PB2 gene of Dk/Hokkaido/107/01 (H2N3) and the PA gene of Dk/Hokkaido/95/01 (H2N2) belonged to the American lineage of avian virus and that the other genes of the isolates belonged to the Eurasian lineage. These results indicate that the internal protein genes might be transmitted from American to Eurasian avian host. Thus, it is further confirmed that interregional transmission of influenza viruses occurred between the North American and Eurasian birds. The fact that reassortants could be generated in the migratory ducks between North American and Eurasian avian virus lineage further stresses the importance of global surveillance among the migratory ducks.
    </DD><DD class=abstract>
    PMID: 15215686 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    </DD>
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15215686

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  • AlaskaDenise
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    1: J Gen Virol. 1999 Dec;80 ( Pt 12):3167-71. <SCRIPT language=JavaScript1.2><!-- var Menu10567648 = [ ["UseLocalConfig", "jsmenu3Config", "", ""], ["Nucleotide" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=nuccore&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName= pubmed_nuccore&LinkReadableName=Nucleotide&IdsFrom Result=10567648&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.P Entrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_Discovery Panel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""], ["Taxonomy via GenBank" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=taxonomy&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName =pubmed_taxonomy_entrez&LinkReadableName=Taxonomy% 20via%20GenBank&IdsFromResult=10567648&ordinalpos= 1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_Result sPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus ' ", "", ""], ["Protein" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=protein&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName= pubmed_protein&LinkReadableName=Protein&IdsFromRes ult=10567648&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEnt rez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPan el.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""], ["Cited in PMC" , "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Db=pmc&DbFrom=pubmed&Cmd=Link&LinkName=pubm ed_pmc_refs&LinkReadableName=Cited%20in%20PMC&IdsF romResult=10567648&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem 2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_Discov eryPanel.Pubmed_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""], ["LinkOut", "window.top.location='/sites/entrez?Cmd=ShowLinkOut&Db=pubmed&TermToSearch=1056 7648&ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubm ed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_DiscoveryPanel.Pubme d_RVAbstractPlus' ", "", ""] ] --></SCRIPT>Links
    <DD class=abstract>
    Transmission of Eurasian avian H2 influenza virus to shorebirds in North America.

    <!--AuthorList-->Makarova NV, Kaverin NV, Krauss S, Senne D, Webster RG.
    The D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, Gamaleya Str. 16, Moscow 123098, Russia. finmed@glasnet.ru
    </DD><DD class=abstract>
    Influenza A virus of the H2 subtype caused a serious pandemic in 1957 and may cause similar outbreaks in the future. To assess the evolution and the antigenic relationships of avian influenza H2 viruses, we sequenced the haemagglutinin (HA) genes of H2 isolates from shorebirds, ducks and poultry in North America and derived a phylogenetic tree to establish their interrelationships. This analysis confirmed the divergence of H2 HA into two geographical lineages, American and Eurasian. One group of viruses isolated from shorebirds in North America had HA belonging to the Eurasian lineage, indicating an interregional transmission of the H2 gene. Characterization of HA with a monoclonal antibody panel revealed that the antigenicity of the Delaware strains differed from the other avian strains analysed. The data emphasizes the importance of avian influenza surveillance.
    </DD><DD class=abstract>
    PMID: 10567648 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
    </DD>
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10567648

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  • AlaskaDenise
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Originally posted by gsgs View Post
    it usually doesn't happen (for flu). No Asian viruses in NA or American
    viruses in Asia are observed. (and uploaded)


    .................
    See H3N8 Alaska tests & relevant travel logs at
    http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/sho...aska+sequences

    .

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  • gsgs
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    hmm, one sample from 2003, only HA and NA available, matching Mexico H5N2
    from 1994.
    Could be the Mexico-Taiwan-Chicken-flyway ;-)



    here is an American tern with Eurasian PB1:
    PB1(2) A/arctic tern/Alaska/300/1975 H5N3 G CY015154 Avian USA 1975

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  • HenryN
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Originally posted by gsgs View Post
    it usually doesn't happen (for flu). No Asian viruses in NA or American
    viruses in Asia are observed. (and uploaded)


    Code:
     
    nucleotide sequences Age Gender 
     CY012840 1703 Avian 4 (HA) H12N5 USA 2005/08/09 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/20/2005(H12N5)) Hatch year F 
     CY013263 1732 Avian 4 (HA) H3N6 USA 2005/08/08 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/53/2005(H3N6)) Hatch year M 
     CY015492 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/11 Influenza A virus (A/mallard/Alaska/256/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY015500 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/11 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/279/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY016180 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/10 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/211/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY016411 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/19 Influenza A virus (A/mallard/Alaska/715/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year M 
     CY017733 1701 Avian 4 (HA) H12N5 USA 2005/08/09 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/102/2005(H12N5)) Hatch year M 
     CY017741 1704 Avian 4 (HA) H4N6 USA 2005/08/11 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/310/2005(H4N6)) Hatch year F 
     CY017749 1705 Avian 4 (HA) H8N4 USA 2005/08/19 Influenza A virus (A/mallard/Alaska/708/2005(H8N4)) Hatch year F 
     CY017757 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/20 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/779/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY020877 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/08 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/49/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F
    H5N2 in Taiwan is North American.

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  • gsgs
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    it usually doesn't happen (for flu). No Asian viruses in NA or American
    viruses in Asia are observed. (and uploaded)


    Code:
    nucleotide sequences Age Gender 
     CY012840 1703 Avian 4 (HA) H12N5 USA 2005/08/09 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/20/2005(H12N5)) Hatch year F 
     CY013263 1732 Avian 4 (HA) H3N6 USA 2005/08/08 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/53/2005(H3N6)) Hatch year M 
     CY015492 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/11 Influenza A virus (A/mallard/Alaska/256/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY015500 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/11 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/279/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY016180 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/10 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/211/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY016411 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/19 Influenza A virus (A/mallard/Alaska/715/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year M 
     CY017733 1701 Avian 4 (HA) H12N5 USA 2005/08/09 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/102/2005(H12N5)) Hatch year M 
     CY017741 1704 Avian 4 (HA) H4N6 USA 2005/08/11 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/310/2005(H4N6)) Hatch year F 
     CY017749 1705 Avian 4 (HA) H8N4 USA 2005/08/19 Influenza A virus (A/mallard/Alaska/708/2005(H8N4)) Hatch year F 
     CY017757 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/20 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/779/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F 
     CY020877 1731 Avian 4 (HA) H3N8 USA 2005/08/08 Influenza A virus (A/pintail/Alaska/49/2005(H3N8)) Hatch year F

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  • AlaskaDenise
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Originally posted by gsgs View Post
    how would influenza have come to America ?
    ........

    Over 90 species of birds live in both Asia and just the Aleutian Islands of North America.

    Currently about 7 million birds annually migrate between Asia and the northwest side of North America.

    Plenty of opportunity for mixing pathogens.

    .

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  • Oracle
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    <i>Why would not the Europeans be attacked by a
    native American virus?</i>

    The case has been made for a well known bacterial pathogen:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syphilis

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  • Treyfish
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Birds fly. Influenza is an avian disease.

    Leave a comment:


  • HenryN
    replied
    Re: American wild birds with H5N1

    Originally posted by gsgs View Post
    how would influenza have come to America ?
    How jumped to humans without domesticated animals ?
    How successfully spread without ships,horses ?

    Why would not the Europeans be attacked by a
    native American virus ?
    Birds fly. Influenza is an avian disease.

    Leave a comment:

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