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Influenza's call of the wild

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  • Influenza's call of the wild

    What animals can help spread flu viruses? Two wildlife disease experts examined which species might act as reservoirs for influenza viruses and be "mixing vessels" in which new strains are generated. They analyzed complex carbohydrates found on the surface membranes of cells, which can act as "receptors" for influenza viruses.

    Mark Schrenzel and Bruce Rideout already knew H5N1, the avian strain of influenza, makes use of receptors containing an alpha 2,3 sialic-acid linkage, whereas H1N1 strains employ the alpha 2,6 sialic-acid bond. They also knew any species (domesticated swine being one) that carries receptors of both types could act as a mixing vessel. They set out to find which animals have what, focusing on species likely to meet waterfowl like geese and ducks, known to be vulnerable to H5N1. The researchers analyzed the receptors of 60 species.

    AT RISK OF H5N1 AND H1N1

    The North American striped skunk, left, and the Persian leopard were found to carry receptors for both H5N1 and H1N1 and could serve as mixing vessels.

    POSSIBLE H5N1 THREAT

    The opossum has the avian flu receptor, as do the arctic fox, Chinese wolf and corsac fox.

    UNLIKELY TO BE INFECTED

    The bald eagle, along with the European otter, polar bear and raccoon, lacks the receptors to make it vulnerable to H5N1.

    http://www.thestar.com/news/sciencet...ll-of-the-wild
    "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

  • #2
    Re: Influenza's call of the wild

    but flu doesn't maintain in any of these or evolve. (not even Pikas)
    They are all dead ends, like humans
    (ecept flu-B , swine,horses - but then it doesn't go back to birds)

    better examine which role the several species of birds
    play, with their habits and contacts and spreading. (IMO)


    BTW. what was with flu in whales ?
    Two samples from the 80s but nothing since then
    I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
    my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: Influenza's call of the wild

      species with flu:

      Avian Blow fly Camel Canine Cat Civet Environment Equine Ferret Giant anteater Human Leopard Mink Muskrat Pika Plateau pika Raccoon dog Reassortant Seal Stone marten Swine Tiger Unknown Whale



      raccoon dog is not raccoon ? (no such beasts in Europe)
      I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
      my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: Influenza's call of the wild

        Five of 418 (1.2%) belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) and 23 of 903 (2.5%) ringed seals (Phoca hispida) were serologically positive. None of the 210 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus), 76 narwhals (Monodon monoceros) and four bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) had detectable antibodies to influenza A.

        http://www.jwildlifedis.org/cgi/reprint/37/4/820
        I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
        my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: Influenza's call of the wild

          http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jvms/61/8/955/_pdf

          http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2...&ordinalpos=13

          A/squirrel/Vladivostok/1004/79 (H0N1)

          Hemagglutinin of a virus isolated in 1976 from blue whales, A/whale/TO/19/76, was serologically identified as HO, neuraminidase of this virus as Nav2

          The viruses have been also isolated from bats, whales, squirrels, deer, fishes and lake water.

          http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6192295?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.P ubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_SingleItemSupl.Pu bmed_Discovery_RA&linkpos=5&log$=relatedreviews&lo gdbfrom=pubmed



          while searching I just found:

          Novel influenza A viruses isolated from Canadian feral ducks: including strains antigenically
          related to swine influenza (Hsw1N1) viruses.
          (1978)
          I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
          my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: Influenza's call of the wild

            Originally posted by gsgs View Post
            but flu doesn't maintain in any of these or evolve. (not even Pikas)
            They are all dead ends, like humans
            (ecept flu-B , swine,horses - but then it doesn't go back to birds)

            better examine which role the several species of birds
            play, with their habits and contacts and spreading. (IMO).........
            How can you be certain it doesn't maintain or evolve? I thoroughly doubt there has been extensive testing in these species.

            Both skunks and foxes eat eggs, so their interaction with birds is at that point.

            .
            "The next major advancement in the health of American people will be determined by what the individual is willing to do for himself"-- John Knowles, Former President of the Rockefeller Foundation

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: Influenza's call of the wild

              the sequences would show it.
              Non-bird genes don't appear later in birds
              I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
              my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: Influenza's call of the wild

                raccoons:

                http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/14/12/pdfs/07-1371.pdf
                I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                my current links: [url]http://bit.ly/hFI7H[/url] ILI-charts: [url]http://bit.ly/CcRgT[/url]

                Comment

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