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  • UK Genetic Evaluation thread

    edited to add:

    Please see corresponding news thread:


    UK: Reports of Approximately 57 Deaths and 800+ Patients in intensive care (50 deaths confirmed by HPA as for Jan. 06 2011) due to influenza



    Perhaps one of the contributing sparks in the <st1:place w:st="on"><st1:country-region w:st="on">UK</st1:country-region></st1:place> has been located.


    <o:p></o:p>
    <o:p></o:p>
    Two adjacent bird flu polymorphisms are emerging on the pandemic H1N1 NA segment primarily within 2010 human sequences that carry the HA 188T. This two change combination is found in PF11 on 17 Neuraminidase sequences, but more than 200 times in Avian H3N8, Avian H1N1 and every Avian HxN1 serotype from H2N1 to H12N1. The UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 carries these two adjacent NA changes.

    <o:p></o:p>
    <o:p></o:p>
    HA 188T is highly correlated with NA syn240T & 241I combination.

    <o:p></o:p>
    <o:p></o:p>
    HA<o:p></o:p>
    <o:p></o:p>
    . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 0A,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . syn55L [S9, H5N1], <o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Iran16273_2009_11_22 with 226R<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NZ_Waikato2_2010_01_04 with 233H,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tkOntarioFAV117_1C_2009_12_07, et al],<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 188T [H6N1, H7N7],<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . syn338G [H3N8, H4, H5, H6, sw],<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [OzBrisbane209_51F_2010_08_09<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 156E & 225G,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arizona05_2010_05_11 with 0A,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swine Asia 2005 with 0A, et al]<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 377K,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 454N [H7N3, H7N7, H9N2]
    . . . . . . . . . . [Florida14_24M_2010_08_05
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
    . . . . . . . . . . FL_Pen210_2009_11_10
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225E,
    . . . . . . . . . . SouthCarolina18_2009_09_16_VxX
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 159D, 224K, et al],<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . syn529L ctTgtagtctccctgggg)

    <o:p></o:p>
    <o:p></o:p>
    NA
    <o:p></o:p>
    <o:p></o:p>
    . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 79P,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 100H mix wt,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . syn109G,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . syn240T,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 241I,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . 369K,<o:p></o:p>
    . . . . . . . . syn377P)

    Notes:<o:p></o:p>
    syn240T with 241I
    BLAST string=ggttcttgctttaccata, <o:p></o:p>
    GISAID exam=212 matches
    pH1N1 2010 Human ~ 16
    pH1N1 2009 Human ~ 1
    Remainder are Avian Influenza:
    H3N8 mallard/Ohio/184/1986
    Avian H1N1, H2N1, H3N1, H4N1, H5N1, H6N1, H7N1, H9N1, H10N1, H11N1, H12N1
    Last edited by sharon sanders; January 9th, 2011, 12:04 AM. Reason: added edit at top

  • #2
    Single Genetic Variance May Elicit Substantial Viral Behaviour Changes

    Originally posted by ironorehopper View Post
    Although travel-log of the above mentioned gene polymorphisms is very useful to track evolution and to understand influenza viruses ecology and the development of distinct lineages, the actual impact on field epidemiology remains to be established.

    In other words, we have to wait at least for two or three week, when the epidemic peak should be reached and a first, retrospective analysis of transmissibility and intrinsic virulence of H1N1 (2009) strains are circulating in UK and elsewhere will be more clear.

    Human immune system can fight influenza probably even with immune memory and not only through the main humoral response, elicited by vaccines.

    Common-sense hygiene measures, such as handwashing, cough etiquette, and avoid crowded places, as well as remaining at home when ill or feverish represent also very useful instrument to reduce or slow the speed of propagation of the virus into community.

    Hindsight is practically more accurate than foresight. We all may agree on that fact.

    Once an event has passed, the deeper measurements that were taken during the event may be closely evaluated. Given that consideration, proposals should be in hand now across the UK. Field epidemiology, in this present matter, may be justified in increasing assets to the present cases so that these questions may be answered very soon . . . prior to a more distinct or more severe wave.

    In most cases of genetic variation, the clinical variation may only be known by closely tracking, correlating and culling the data points. In the UK today, severe disease is a fact, at a higher concentration than has been seen (another fact), whilst the overall case count remains low. Those general cumulative statistics guide us to a more detailed investigation which must occur at the individual case level. In order for those investigations of the actionable data to occur, the importance data points must be captured at the time of the event.

    When the count of ICU beds for ILI has risen from 100 to 302 over less than two weeks, clearly additional and improved surveillance is indicated.

    Ergo, very few genetic changes may be conclusively deemed as creating a generalised "severe" outcome.

    On the other hand, if the data is not gathered at the time of the event, neither the scientists, nor the public will ever discern the potential connections. Blind is blind, but closing one's eyes at the critical time immediately prior to any crisis is an intentional decision. Those types of decisions are predictable as to outcome: preparation time and quality is reduced.

    Let's continue to closely investigate and postulate each iota of information available, while encouraging more robust systems and deeper participation.

    The NA polymorphisms discussed here are highly correlated to the HA 188T that has recently begun spreading (rare yet) across the world. If that HA 188T is under inspection, perhaps we all should increase focus to this associated NA pair of changes at aa240 and aa241.

    This NA question is raised alongside the more distinct potential of a significant change in the RBS range from 225 to 230.

    What we do know is that present and historical data perfectly demonstrate that very slight changes in genetics, as few as one genetic change, may create much higher levels of severity.

    Is this change one of those types of variations? No risk at all exists in evaluating the potential. Significant risk is created when emerging data is tabled for "future study" during a crisis.

    Comment


    • #3
      Variation at Amino Acid 223 or 224

      Originally posted by ironorehopper View Post
      Although travel-log of the above mentioned gene polymorphisms is very useful to track evolution and to understand influenza viruses ecology and the development of distinct lineages, the actual impact on field epidemiology remains to be established.

      In other words, we have to wait at least for two or three week, when the epidemic peak should be reached and a first, retrospective analysis of transmissibility and intrinsic virulence of H1N1 (2009) strains are circulating in UK and elsewhere will be more clear.

      Human immune system can fight influenza probably even with immune memory and not only through the main humoral response, elicited by vaccines.

      Common-sense hygiene measures, such as handwashing, cough etiquette, and avoid crowded places, as well as remaining at home when ill or feverish represent also very useful instrument to reduce or slow the speed of propagation of the virus into community.
      Working with the current sparse data allows very few comprehensive and exacting responses; however, based on simple frequency analysis, a very slight potential also exists in the UK for HA changes upstream and adjacent to aa225, at residues 223 or 224.

      At this juncture, "Low Reactors" are recorded with 224 amino acid variation on backgrounds with additional changes, but the single change has not been evaluated alone on a pH1N1 background for Vaccine Escape as far as we've seen. Validation on this matter would be appreciated.

      223E was only recently documented in the PF11 reservoir from the early pandemic last year from the Southern Hemisphere in Brisbane. As the White Chapel sequence, UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28, taken from the 2 year old boy prior to the severe UK wave is closely related to an August 2010 Brisbane sequence as discussed, we all must be on watch for changes beyond the most likely aa225.

      Will the severity in the UK be caused by a single change or a complex of variation?

      No one will know until properly managed sequences are available in quantity with clinical metadata.

      Comment


      • #4
        UK and Brisbane Similarity

        The HPA released a set of 4 UK sequences at GISAID on 2010-12-20 from the pre-severity phase dating from 2010-08-07 to 2010-11-28. We provide our ongoing and quite skeletal notes from the focal analysis for the sake of timeliness in collaboration. Additional interpretation will be pursued at the weekend and updated here at FT.

        No imagination is required to see that 225G and / or 156E may be eventually, if not currently, attracted to the UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 background due to extensive homology shared with the previously discussed OzBrisbane209_51F_2010_08_09.

        HA

        . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (
        . . . . . . . . 0A [Arizona05_2010_05_01
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn338G & 377K,
        . . . . . . . . . . Alabama08_2009_12_04
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn226Q, 310A mix & 506V,
        . . . . . . . . . . RussiaPerm_ZTS_2009_11_30
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 377K & syn475D,
        . . . . . . . . . . RussiaBelgorod01_2009_11_30,
        . . . . . . . . . . RussiaBelgorod05_2009_11_30,
        . . . . . . . . . . Boston634_2009_11_09
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 100N & syn270I],
        . . . . . . . . syn55L [S9, H5N1],
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Iran16273_2009_11_22 with 226R
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NZ_Waikato2_2010_01_04 with 233H,
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tkOntarioFAV117_1C_2009_12_07, et al],
        . . . . . . . . 188T [H6N1, H7N7],
        . . . . . . . . syn338G [H3N8, H4, H5, H6, sw],
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [OzBrisbane209_51F_2010_08_09
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 156E & 225G,
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arizona05_2010_05_11 with 0A,
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swine Asia 2005 with 0A, et al]
        . . . . . . . . 377K,
        . . . . . . . . 454N [H7N3, H7N7, H9N2]
        . . . . . . . . . . [Florida14_24M_2010_08_05
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
        . . . . . . . . . . FL_Pen210_2009_11_10
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225E,
        . . . . . . . . . . SouthCarolina18_2009_09_16_VxX
        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 159D, 224K, et al],
        . . . . . . . . syn529L)

        NA Score# 2601 ~
        Johannesburg/115/2010 Score# 2584
        India/8910/2010
        Ghana/FS-10-4259/2010 Score# 2579
        Ghana/FS-10-4241/2010
        Johannesburg/119/2010
        India/5107/2010
        Florida/14/2010 Score# 2575
        Kenya/0025/2009 Score# 2573

        NA

        . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (
        . . . . . . . . 79P,
        . . . . . . . . 100H mix wt,
        . . . . . . . . syn109G,
        . . . . . . . . syn240T,
        . . . . . . . . 241I,
        . . . . . . . . 369K,
        . . . . . . . . syn377P)

        NA syn240T with 241I
        Avian H1N1, H2N1, H3N1, H4N1, H5N1, H6N1, H7N1, H9N1, H10N1, H11N1, H12N1
        17 human H1N1 2010

        HA

        . . . . UKCambridge118_4F_2010_11_19 (
        . . . . . . . . syn118E,
        . . . . . . . . 137T [41 sequences at GISAID],
        . . . . . . . . syn163K,
        . . . . . . . . 186P,
        . . . . . . . . syn251L,
        . . . . . . . . syn293L,
        . . . . . . . . syn363G [21 sequences at GISAID],
        . . . . . . . . syn455Q,
        . . . . . . . . syn474C,
        . . . . . . . . 504G,
        . . . . . . . . 513V)

        HA

        . . . . UKWhiteChapel4780352_5M_2010_10_26 (
        . . . . . . . . syn58C,
        . . . . . . . . 100N,
        . . . . . . . . 128D,
        . . . . . . . . syn131S,
        . . . . . . . . syn210S,
        . . . . . . . . 377K)

        NA Score# 2604 ~
        Hawaii/13/2010 Score# 2577
        California/VRDL129/2009
        Malaysia/15506/2009
        WAIKATO/118/2009
        Washington/58/2009
        ferret/Washington/WADDL13230/2009 Score# 2571
        Boston/617/2009 Score# 2571

        HA

        . . . . UKBirmingham3220137_44F_2010_08_07 (
        . . . . . . . . #8A,
        . . . . . . . . 175K,
        . . . . . . . . 311E,
        . . . . . . . . 377K,
        . . . . . . . . syn385V,
        . . . . . . . . syn451K,
        . . . . . . . . syn454S,
        . . . . . . . . syn494E,
        . . . . . . . . 537G)

        NA Score# 2604 ~
        NY3263_2009 Score# 2593
        ferret/Washington/WADDL13230/2009 Score# 2588

        Comment


        • #5
          Brisbane and UK Reservoir Sharing

          Are we cross-validating the fact that Brisbane, a potential donor into the UK severe wave, and all of Queensland are, at this moment, experiencing a 700% increase in case count for 2010 influenza over the December 2009 cases?

          Is it possible that the colder weather in the UK is creating aberrant host-pathogen behaviour or inducing genetic variation in-vivo that creates a more severe outcome though the overall case count remains low in the UK? Would the warmer weather of the Southern Hemisphere perhaps allow a higher transmissibility with less severe outcomes from the same initial infectious dosage of the same viral particles?

          Apparently, we may have been presented with the ideal experimental model to determine the effect of atmospheric measures against clinical outcomes and genetic acquisition (speed and quality) if we find that the UK and Australia are concurrently suffering under the same viral genetics reservoir.

          The release of sequences with clinical metadata from the UK fatalities alongside sequences from December in Australia would prove useful in these evaluations.

          Comment


          • #6
            Australia to Japan to UK to Iran

            The latest sequences soon to be on file at GenBank demonstrate ongoing transmission of pandemic H1N1 influenza carrying HA 188T. The Tehran University of Medical Sciences has made available A/Karaj/5327/2010(H1N1), sampled on 2010-12-06.

            The National Institute for Infectious Disease in Japan introduced 13 sequences at GISAID today. One from October 2010 appears to be an intermediate form in this emerging background with 188T, though the sequence is truncated at a critical point.

            Notice as we've mentioned in previous posts that the most recent IranKaraj sequence seems to have become more refined through simplification, perhaps culling the unnecessary changes (duplicate function / human species maladaption?) from JapanKanagawa74 (122I, 143R & 186P) while maintaining the useful foundation (syn34N, 146G, 188T & 200T) and extending recombination such as the syn465N found in Brisbane in August 2010, missing in the UK, then reapplied onto the IranKaraj sequence.

            In similar fashion to IranKaraj at syn538F, recall that 3 of 4 sequences from the latest UK deposit carry polymorphisms in the HA gene segment downstream of aa499, including 504G, 513V, syn529L and 537G.

            The PF11 viral reservoir appears to be introducing diversity with new genetic material at the head and the foot of the HA gene segment. Many of the recent related sequences to the UK backgrounds (at individual point variations) happen to carry polymorphisms in this post-aa499 area of the HA gene segment, including OzVictoria670_2010_11_14 (syn512R), OzSydney217_2010_09_19 (523A), Stockholm5_2010_08_27 (525G), GhanaFS10_4259_2010_08_27 (syn537S), GhanaFS10_4241_2010_08_25 (syn537S), Florida13_2010_08_02 (512M), OzVictoria800_2010_07_02 (502K, syn529L [CTa]), India3725_2010_04_03 (syn526S), Ukraine123_2010_02_14_xL (syn500R), Netherlands2629_2009_12_04 (507E), RussiaPermCREI_ZTS_2009_11_30 (syn542S), Brunei218_2010 (syn538F) & BrasilBahia15525_42M_2009_09_05 (syn499N mix wt, 511I mix wt).

            . . . . IranKaraj5327_2010_12_06 (
            . . . . . . . . syn34N [JapanKanagawa74_2010_10_16, et al],
            . . . . . . . . 146G [JapanKanagawa74_2010_10_16, et al],
            . . . . . . . . 188T,
            . . . . . . . . 200T,
            . . . . . . . . syn338G,
            . . . . . . . . 377K,
            . . . . . . . . 454N,
            . . . . . . . . syn465N [OzBrisbane209_51F_2010_08_09,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 156E & 225G,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL131_2009_12_30, et al],
            . . . . . . . . syn538F [Brunei218_2010 with 188T])

            . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (
            . . . . . . . . 0A (gCC) [1918 (GCT), S7 (GCT), S5 (GCA)]
            . . . . . . . . syn55L [S9, H5N1],
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Darwin47_2010_08_09 with syn529L,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iran16273_2009_11_22 with 226R
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NZ_Waikato2_2010_01_04 with 233H,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tkOntarioFAV117_1C_2009_12_07 mult domain matches,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . et al],
            . . . . . . . . 188T [H6N1, H7N7],
            . . . . . . . . syn338G [H3N8, H4, H5, H6, sw],
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [OzBrisbane209_51F_2010_08_09
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 156E & 225G,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arizona05_2010_05_11 with 0A,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swine Asia 2005 with 0A, et al]
            . . . . . . . . 377K,
            . . . . . . . . 454N [H7N3, H7N7, H9N2]
            . . . . . . . . . . [Florida14_24M_2010_08_05
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
            . . . . . . . . . . FL_Pen210_2009_11_10
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225E,
            . . . . . . . . . . SouthCarolina18_2009_09_16_VxX
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 159D, 224K, et al],
            . . . . . . . . syn529L (CTt) [Unique to PF11]
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [S7 (CTt), tn with syn338G (GGg)]
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [PF11 32 Worldwide (CTa),
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PF11 5 North America (tTG)],
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [swThailandCU_CHK4_2009_01 (tTG)
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 0A, syn338G, 189T, 377G, syn451K, syn456L])

            . . . . JapanKanagawa74_2010_10_16 (
            . . . . . . . . syn34N,
            . . . . . . . . 122I,
            . . . . . . . . 143R,
            . . . . . . . . 146G,
            . . . . . . . . 186P mix wt,
            . . . . . . . . 188T,
            . . . . . . . . 200T,
            . . . . . . . . HA truncated after aa330)

            Supporting Sequences

            . . . . OzBrisbane209_51F_2010_08_09 (
            . . . . . . . . 156E [H2N3, H3N8, H5N1, H10N7],
            . . . . . . . . 188T [H6N1, H7N7],
            . . . . . . . . 225G,
            . . . . . . . . syn338G [H3N8, H4, H5, H6, sw],
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [OzVictoria670_30M_2010_11_14
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Emergent across Australia
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . during late 2010 season,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Florida14_24M_2010_08_05
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OZVictoria512_2010_07_30
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NZChristchurch15_2010_07_12
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . India5107_2010_06_28
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MississippiAF2474_2010_03_10
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn235T,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FloridaAF2197_2010_03_07
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 156T,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL9_2010_02_09
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn193S,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Georgia06_2010_02_05
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn161Y,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NY4662_2010_02_03
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 97N, syn276H, syn283Q, syn304G,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TexasJMS406_2010_01_10
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 187A, syn193S, syn283Q,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TexasJMS405_2010_01_09
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 187A, syn283Q,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL131_2009_12_30
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225G, syn455Q,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LouisianaAF2435_2009_11_30
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn13N,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vienna291_2009_11_19
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . catOregon29573_2009_11_09
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 226R, syn283Q,
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calif_SanDiegoINS63_2009_10_26
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn283Q, et al],
            . . . . . . . . 377K,
            . . . . . . . . 454N [H7N3, H7N7, H9N2]
            . . . . . . . . . . [Florida14_24M_2010_08_05
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
            . . . . . . . . . . FL_Pen210_2009_11_10
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225E,
            . . . . . . . . . . SouthCarolina18_2009_09_16_VxX
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 159D, 224K,
            . . . . . . . . . . Texas45131774_2009_09_13
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn223V,
            . . . . . . . . . . IndiaPune9355_2009_08
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225G,
            . . . . . . . . . . IndiaBlore236_2009_06_xL
            . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 226R, et al],
            . . . . . . . . syn465N)

            Comment


            • #7
              UK to Iran

              Neuraminidase homology exists between IranKaraj and the UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 at aa240, 241, 369 and 377.

              The UK NA bears a combination of successfully human-adapted H1N1 polymorphisms that have not been found together with the H3N8-matched 79P polymorphism.

              NA

              . . . . IranKaraj5327_2010_12_06 (
              . . . . . . . . 44S,
              . . . . . . . . syn45Q,
              . . . . . . . . syn126P,
              . . . . . . . . syn240T [UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28],
              . . . . . . . . 241I [UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28],
              . . . . . . . . syn366S,
              . . . . . . . . 369K [UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28],
              . . . . . . . . syn377P [UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28])

              . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (
              . . . . . . . . 79P [SNP H3N8 (cAA), H7N7 (cTG), H9 Vx (cAt)],
              . . . . . . . . . . . [PF11 12 Instances, None with syn240T or 241I],
              . . . . . . . . 100H mix wt [S8, S7, WSN33 with syn240T & 241I],
              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Avian H5N1, H11N1],
              . . . . . . . . syn109G [S7],
              . . . . . . . . syn240T (ACc) [S7, tn],
              . . . . . . . . 241I (aTA) [1918, S7],
              . . . . . . . . 369K [swIndiana17311_2010_03_17]
              . . . . . . . . . . . . . [S9, S8, S7],
              . . . . . . . . syn377P (CCa) [WSN33 (CCt), S7 (CCt)])

              Comment


              • #8
                Early Pandemic 188T from Japan released this week

                The Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine in Sendai, Japan released a sequence dated only as 2009 (MDCK passage) that carries the 188T featuring on the sub-clade building recently in the UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 sequence.

                . . . . JapanSendaiTU617_2009 (
                . . . . . . . . syn16T,
                . . . . . . . . syn84E,
                . . . . . . . . 174R,
                . . . . . . . . syn177L (CTt),
                . . . . . . . . 188T,
                . . . . . . . . 200T)

                The Sendai sequence is complete and demonstrates none of the trailing polymorphisms of the emergent strains found across Australia, England and Iran. Additional date specificity and host meta-data would clarify the positioning of this sequence in the genetic acquisition train.

                HA 188T rapidly emerged geographically throughout 2010 and is now found in 26 pH1N1 Human and 1 pH1N1 swine sequences across Africa, Asia, India, Oceania, the UK, Brunei, Iran and the United States.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Data Transparency and Collaboration

                  Collaboration requires data sharing, sometimes when the data is uncomfortably rough or even inexplicable. But that's the purpose of collaboration, right?

                  We collaborate to discover something that we did not already know. We collaborate when world health is in question.

                  UK_December_Emerging_Genetics_v0.xls


                  This GeneWurx Version Zero Excel spreadsheet represents an effort to externalise to the public our current rough lab notes on the 4 published UK HA gene segments and worldwide HA sequences that we've ascertained may be related. UK titles and UK polymorphisms are color-coded green wherever they are found.

                  Each column represents a sequence of interest. The rows are filled with change data ordered by the amino acid position. This presentation of detailed data obviously required some careful editing for brevity. Even so, the reviewer will be inclined to scroll and / or hide columns in order to fully review relationships.

                  The materials demonstrate the flow of genetic data from the Southern Hemisphere 2010 into the Northern Hemisphere today. For example, investigate the various similarities from columns AQ to AZ. The UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 sequence in column AX is our primary interest due to patterning suggestive of a capability to carry 156E / 158E and / or 225G.

                  The authors are grateful to GenBank and GISAID for making their depository of valuable genetic material accessible and to those from many countries who have shared their sequences for the sake of public health. We also are thankful to a certain physicist who initiated the concept and layout for public presentation of this detailed genetics data.

                  As always, any errors are those of the authoring team. Please provide errata via private message as you discover required corrections.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    UK Potential 90% Increase of Influenza Cases to Total ICU Beds

                    ** Caveat **

                    Due to data scarcity, apparently sanctioned by officials, this evaluation is forced to extrapolate from media reports.

                    The factor used to fill the gap is defined clearly as to source and the calculations are presented via a reusable Excel spreadsheet.

                    ** End Caveat **

                    Total case count officially increased by 44.9% in the UK, but ICU beds with Influenza (London) appear to have potentially risen by up to 90%.

                    Notice also that official releases early today failed to provide a new count on total or district Influenza ICU cases.

                    The December 23rd official report (latest) showed that 1 of 7 ICU beds (~13%) were Influenza cases. Compare that figure to the 2009 pH1N1 Pandemic peak of roughly less than 1 of 12. The Health Emergency campaign group today claimed that London hospitals are reporting that up to 25% of ICU beds are Influenza cases.

                    For the purposes of least optimal projections, recasting the factors countrywide is a reasonable evaluation due to the fact that London appeared to be trailing in cases and severity until this report. Based on the 25% number and 3500 beds nationwide, a practical doubling is indicated of the Influenza cases percentage of ICU / ITU over 5 to 6 days and brings the total cases at this time to potentially ~875 people in Intensive Care at one time for Influenza, a 90% increase in 5 to 6 days.

                    GeneWurx_UK_ICU_Categories_v0.xls

                    Again these factors are recast from London across the entire nation due to lack of data reporting and, as such, the results may be heavily skewed in either direction. Understanding the assumptions behind the calculation allows a guidepoint to be reached. If the results prove solid, then the case count rose by ~45% while the ICU percentage, at least in one major city (London), may have increased by 90% or more.

                    These extrapolations suggest a severe wave that is continuing.

                    GeneWurx and the concerned public would be more than pleased to have these calculations invalidated by actual official reports of current information from the public health officials, alongside genetic sequences tagged according to mild, severe and fatal cases with clinical progression meta-data.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      2010-12-30 Epidemic Threshold Reached, 1 to 4 Year Old UK Age Bracket

                      Shiloh has opened a thread discussing the fact that an epidemic threshold has been reached officially in the UK for the age range of 1 to 4 years old, the very young children.

                      http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/sho...d.php?t=157361

                      The epidemic threshold is also being approached for the entire under 5 year old group, but has not been reached due to the low count in the under 1 year old category. The obvious question of whether these low results in the baby age bracket are accurate or due to failure to diagnose is not satisfied at this time.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        UK White Chapel Sequence Hybrid with animal H7N7 and Human Adapted Seasonal Polymorphisms

                        An inspection of the final syn529L polymorphism on the White Chapel sequence from the 2 year old boy, noted here and previously, demonstrates a change unique to pH1N1 even at this late stage.

                        Though 2 different additional versions (CCa, tTG) of this silent polymorphism at aa529 have been found in the reservoir in rare quantities, the change at the third base of the codon (CCt) for the White Chapel sequence appears to have propagated from an entirely separate origin, a human-adapted seasonal H1N1 strain circulating in 2007. With a total of 37 HA syn529L instances in human Pandemic H1N1 2009 on record for the earlier CCa and tTG codings, this novel change (CCt) may demonstrate new behaviour for this virus.

                        Consider that human-adapted changes from seasonal H1N1 2007 also share extensive homology with the NA for this White Chapel sequence.

                        Frequent change has been noted on emergent 2010 pH1N1 strains after amino acid position 500 and in some cases has been associated with fatality (502K and syn542S). In a domain briming with recent diversity, these 38 changes of three variant silent codings at a single position, aa529, offer a block of data that may interest keen investigators.

                        GeneWurx has prepared a rough estimation for public review in an Excel spreadsheet detailing the findings as of December 25, 2010 for syn529L as related to the current emerging epidemic in England, Wales and Scotland.

                        GeneWurx_UKWhiteChapel_Unique_syn529L_Variation_v0 .xls

                        . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (
                        . . . . . . . . 0A (gCC) [1918 (GCT), S7 (GCT), S5 (GCA)]
                        . . . . . . . . syn55L [S9, H5N1],
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Darwin47_2010_08_09 with syn529L,
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Iran16273_2009_11_22 with 226R
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NZ_Waikato2_2010_01_04 with 233H,
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tkOntarioFAV117_1C_2009_12_07 mult domain matches,
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . et al],
                        . . . . . . . . 188T [H6N1, H7N7],
                        . . . . . . . . syn338G [H3N8, H4, H5, H6, sw],
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [OzBrisbane209_51F_2010_08_09
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 156E & 225G,
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arizona05_2010_05_11 with 0A,
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Swine Asia 2005 with 0A, et al]
                        . . . . . . . . 377K,
                        . . . . . . . . 454N [H7N3, H7N7, H9N2]
                        . . . . . . . . . . [Florida14_24M_2010_08_05
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 188T, 454N,
                        . . . . . . . . . . FL_Pen210_2009_11_10
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225E,
                        . . . . . . . . . . SouthCarolina18_2009_09_16_VxX
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 159D, 224K, et al],
                        . . . . . . . . syn529L (CTt) [Unique to PF11]
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [S7 (CTt), tn with syn338G (GGg)]
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [PF11 32 Worldwide (CTa),
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PF11 5 North America (tTG)],
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [swThailandCU_CHK4_2009_01 (tTG)
                        . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 0A, syn338G, 189T, 377G, syn451K, syn456L])

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Novel UK White Chapel Neuraminidase Hybrid from animal H3N8 and Human Seasonal H1N1

                          Neuraminidase (NA) Review

                          UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28

                          Six of the seven polymorphisms on the Neuraminidase (NA) for UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 have now been confirmed with matches to various seasonal human H1N1 (S9, S8, S7). The seventh change, a T->C (T235C) SNP, coding for 79P, is found extensively in the zoonotic reservoirs across multiple species.

                          This first base donor for the UK PF11 NA 79P codon (cCA) occurs at least 19 times in H3N8 from 2009 to 2005, spanning a wide range of mammal species:
                          • Horses
                          • Dogs
                          • Swine
                          Geographic significance is found in Sydney, Australia where the SNP is found in the following 2007 H3N8 animal sequences.
                          • H3N8 canineSydney6692_2007_10_15
                          • H3N8 canineSydney6525_2007_10_14
                          • H3N8 equineSydney6085_2007_10_10
                          This fact becomes of higher interest when we inspect the similarity of the dates and sample identification numbers. The possibility exists that these 3 animals were in a transmission chain on a ranch that may have included undetected or unsequenced human infection.

                          Note that the HA of UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 is most closely matched to an Australian sequence. The three H3N8 sequences from Sydney also carry the HA syn474C found in a separate sub-clade within the 4 UK sequences on UKCambridge118_4F_2010_11_19. Evidently, pH1N1 is moving toward homology with non-human mammal H3N8 on the HA AND the NA gene segments in two separate genetic backgrounds within the UK.

                          Sub-segment genetic recombinations from H3N8 onto human backgrounds are considered of interest in relation to severity.

                          Furthermore, the SNP coding for the NA 79P is also demonstrated in two other zoonotic Influenza serotypes. In 2009, the change appears in Eastern Europe on an Avian H7N7 sample, mallardPolandM446_2009. Recall that the UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 HA 188T may have also originated from H7N7. Furthering the animal connection, the NA 79P SNP appears on a domestic poultry, lab-derived vaccine strain on the H9 background.

                          This NA 79P from the animal reservoirs may have accumulated onto a very human-adapted NA in Australia / UK, generating a novel gene segment with a combination previously unknown in humans.

                          . . . . UKWhiteChapel4880374_2M_2010_11_28 (
                          . . . . . . . . 79P [SNP H3N8 (cAA), H7N7 (cTG), H9 Vx (cAt)],
                          . . . . . . . . . . . [PF11 12 Instances, None with syn240T or 241I],
                          . . . . . . . . 100H mix wt [S8, S7, WSN33 with syn240T & 241I],
                          . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Avian H5N1, H11N1],
                          . . . . . . . . syn109G [S7],
                          . . . . . . . . syn240T (ACc) [S7, tn],
                          . . . . . . . . 241I (aTA) [1918, S7],
                          . . . . . . . . 369K [swIndiana17311_2010_03_17]
                          . . . . . . . . . . . . . [S9, S8, S7],
                          . . . . . . . . syn377P (CCa) [WSN33 (CCt), S7 (CCt)])

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            UK Severe Influenza Cases in ICU Percentage Update

                            ** Please note that the figure of 738 ICU Influenza patients has been defined by RoRo as being only for England. Figures for Wales, Scotland and Ireland will be produced as they are available. **

                            Total case count officially increased by 44.9&#37; in the UK, but ICU beds with Influenza (HPA Week 52) appear to have risen at the substantially higher rate of 60%.

                            The December 23rd official report (latest) showed that 1 of 7 ICU beds (~13%) were Influenza cases. Compare that figure to the 2009 pH1N1 Pandemic peak of roughly less than 1 of 12. The 738 ICU cases reported today demonstrate that UK hospitals are utilising 1 of 5 ICU beds for Severe Influenza cases.

                            GeneWurx_UK_ICU_Categories_v1.xls

                            These extrapolations suggest a severe wave that is continuing.

                            GeneWurx and the concerned public would like like to thank the officials who released the data today. Additional information is, however, required, including more frequent updates on cases, ICU cases and fatalities, alongside genetic sequences tagged according to mild, severe and fatal cases with clinical progression meta-data.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              HA 230I Cross-Linked in Slovakia on Broad Background

                              We may find this set of sequences to be instructive to the UK severe wave in the days to come when NIMR releases sequences.

                              HA 230I Cross-Linked in Slovakia on Broad Background

                              Last Updated 2010-12-31

                              The UK National Institute for Medical Research published a group of sequences on 2010-12-30 at GISAID. One group originated from the National Public Health Institute of Slovakia.

                              An unusual and persistent background pivoting around 8 polymorphisms on 5 sequences arose during March 2010 in Slovakia pairing two silent polymorphisms for the first time (syn23L and syn177L (CTt)). The Slovakian sequences are all cross-linked with the HA syn413K and the NA syn407V.

                              Of particular interest is the Slovakia1625_56X_2010_03_30_xL from a 56 year old of unspecified gender due to the 9th polymorphism, a very rare HA 230I. As of this deposit, the multiple backgrounds that are permissive to the HA 230I change extends to a new platform that appears to transmit (5 geographically similar sequences in 5 days).

                              GeneWurx has prepared an Excel spreadsheet investigating potential genetic acquisition in the currently uncharted severe Pandemic H1N1 wave in the UK. In Version 1 of this spreadsheet, the Slovakian 230I sequence takes Column U and provides homology to one UK White Chapel sequence of interest.

                              GeneWurx_UK_December_Emerging_Genetics_v1.xls

                              . . . . Slovakia1625_56X_2010_03_30_xL (
                              . . . . . . . . syn23L,
                              . . . . . . . . 100N,
                              . . . . . . . . syn177L (CTt),
                              . . . . . . . . syn216E,
                              . . . . . . . . 230I (ATa),
                              . . . . . . . . 324I,
                              . . . . . . . . syn400F,
                              . . . . . . . . syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . 461E [UKEngland712_2009_09 with 24K])

                              . . . . Slovakia1623_39X_2010_03_30_xL (
                              . . . . . . . . syn23L,
                              . . . . . . . . 100N,
                              . . . . . . . . syn177L (CTt),
                              . . . . . . . . syn216E,
                              . . . . . . . . 324I,
                              . . . . . . . . syn400F,
                              . . . . . . . . syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . 452I,
                              . . . . . . . . 461E [UKEngland712_2009_09 with 24K])

                              . . . . Slovakia1624_61X_2010_03_30_xL (
                              . . . . . . . . syn23L,
                              . . . . . . . . 100N,
                              . . . . . . . . syn177L (CTt),
                              . . . . . . . . syn216E,
                              . . . . . . . . 324I,
                              . . . . . . . . syn400F,
                              . . . . . . . . syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . 461E [UKEngland712_2009_09 with 24K])

                              . . . . Slovakia1626_59X_2010_03_30_xL (
                              . . . . . . . . syn23L,
                              . . . . . . . . 100N,
                              . . . . . . . . syn177L (CTt),
                              . . . . . . . . syn216E,
                              . . . . . . . . 324I,
                              . . . . . . . . syn400F,
                              . . . . . . . . syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . 461E [UKEngland712_2009_09 with 24K])

                              . . . . Slovakia1634_42X_2010_04_03_xL (
                              . . . . . . . . syn23L,
                              . . . . . . . . 100N,
                              . . . . . . . . syn177L (CTt),
                              . . . . . . . . syn216E,
                              . . . . . . . . 324I,
                              . . . . . . . . syn400F,
                              . . . . . . . . syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . 461E [UKEngland712_2009_09 with 24K])
                              Supporting Sequences

                              . . . . UKEngland712_2009_09 (
                              . . . . . . . . 24K,
                              . . . . . . . . syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . syn456L,
                              . . . . . . . . 461E [Slovakia1625_56X_2010_03_30_xL with 230I])

                              . . . . DenmarkHvidovreINS141_2009_11_20_xL (
                              . . . . . . . . syn23L,
                              . . . . . . . . syn238E,
                              . . . . . . . . 324I,
                              . . . . . . . . syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . syn484N,
                              . . . . . . . . syn549R)

                              . . . . Victoria508_2010_07_24 (
                              . . . . . . . . 35I [H5N1],
                              . . . . . . . . 88P [H2N3, H5N1, H11],
                              . . . . . . . . . . . [HunanHechengSWL1616_2009-11-23,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . KoreaAF2376_2009_10_27
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 280A and 290K],
                              . . . . . . . . syn102E [SingON2407_2009_12_13,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Singapore544_2009_12_10,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Brussels243_2009_11_09
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn44L and 89G],
                              . . . . . . . . syn152I [CalifVRDL115_2009_12_04,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NY6939_2009_12_11,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tkOntarioFAV117_1C_2009_12_07
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 35I, syn219I, syn276H, syn456L, 463V, 523A,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . England1050_2009_12,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scotland103_2009_12,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . England1051_2009_12,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ItalyAncona451_2009_11_27_f,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NY6607_2009_11_24,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL107_2009_11_15,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL101_2009_11_05,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DC_114_2009_11_04,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . England94800096_2009_11,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Calif_SD35_2009_10_26,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NY5447_2009_10_23,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL84_2009_10_09,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL87_2009_10_09,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IndiaPune6196_2009_08,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IndiaDhule9433_2009_08,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SantoDomingoWR1057N_2009_07_02,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SantoDomingoWR1058N_2009_07_02,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SantoDomingoWR1059N_2009_06_30],
                              . . . . . . . . 206S,
                              . . . . . . . . syn219I [CalifVRDL115_2009_12_04
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 35I, syn152I, syn276H, syn456L, 463V, 523A,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FL_Pen213_2009_11_17
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 35I, syn152I, 273A, syn456L, 463V, 523A,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL107_2009_11_15
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 35I, syn152I, syn276H, syn456L, 463V, 523A,
                              . . . . . . . . 238D (GAc) [H2N3, H7N3, H7N7],
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [Belgorod2_2010-03-15 (GAt),
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kaliningrad01_2009_11_02 (GAt)
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 225E and 226R,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AthensINS398_2010-01-24 GAt),
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KaliningradCRIE_DA_2009-09-26 (GAt),
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KaliningradCRIE_KG_2009-09-25 (GAt),
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KaliningradCRIE_MA_2009-09-25 (GAt),
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KaliningradCRIE_SHD_2009-09-25 (GAt),

                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KaliningradCRIE_ZD_2009-09-25 (GAt)],
                              . . . . . . . . syn247A [Belize8756_2009_10_08,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Singapore93_2009_06_22]
                              . . . . . . . . syn254P,
                              . . . . . . . . 272G [Niigata19_2009_12_31,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . GuangdongSWL36_2009_11_29],
                              . . . . . . . . syn276H,
                              . . . . . . . . syn388K [H5N1],
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [NagasakiHA_10_28_2010_03_23
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 22I,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NagasakiHA_10_26_2010_03_15
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 22I, syn103E,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NagasakiHA_10_24_2010_03_08
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn103E,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GuangxiLonganSWL1990_2010_02_08
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 453K, syn462E,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . JiangxiDonghuSWL15_2010_01_04
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn106E, 149R, syn456L (TTg),
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ViennaINS142_2009_11_26
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn97D, 99T,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CzechUsti208_2009_11_25
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 268T,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GhanaFS_1921_2009_11_11,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alaska44_2009_11_17
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn275V, 276N,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL76_2009_09_21
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with syn283Q,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taiwan206_2009_09_18,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taiwan177_2009_09_18,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taiwan167_2009_09_18,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taiwan156_2009_09_18,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Taiwan143_2009_09_15
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 205E mix,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utah20_C2_2_2009_07_25_VxX
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 159D, 206S, 227G
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Slovenia2687_2009_07_01
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . with 35I, 206S],
                              . . . . . . . . syn456L,
                              . . . . . . . . 463V,
                              . . . . . . . . 523A [Nebraska02_2010_03_11,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . NagasakiHA1022_2010_03_01_syn413K,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . DomRepublic3768_2009_12_15,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . NY6939_2009_12_11,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL115_2009_12_04,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . NY6607_2009_11_24,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . RheinlandPfalz81_2009_11_23,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . Berlin210_2009_11_16,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . BadenWurttemberg511_2009_11_16,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL107_2009_11_15,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . FL_Pensacola40_2009_11_09,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL101_2009_11_05,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . DC114_2009_11_04,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . Calif_SD35_2009_10_26,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . NY5447_2009_10_23,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL84_2009_10_09,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . CalifVRDL87_2009_10_09,
                              . . . . . . . . . . . . KuwaitN13013_2009_08_31_syn413K]),

                              Comment

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