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Euro Surveill. Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to 2010

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  • Euro Surveill. Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to 2010

    [Source: Eurosurveillance, full text: (LINK). Abstract, edited.]
    Eurosurveillance, Volume 18, Issue 8, 21 February 2013

    Review articles

    Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to 2010

    M Georgiev ()<SUP>1</SUP>, A Afonso<SUP>2</SUP>, H Neubauer<SUP>3</SUP>, Howard Needham<SUP>4</SUP>, R Thiéry<SUP>5</SUP>, A Rodolakis<SUP>6</SUP>, H J Roest<SUP>7</SUP>, K D Stärk<SUP>8</SUP>, J A Stegeman<SUP>9</SUP>, P Vellema<SUP>10</SUP>, W van der Hoek<SUP>11</SUP>, S J More<SUP>12</SUP>
    1. Royal Veterinary College (RVC), London, United Kingdom
    2. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy
    3. Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute, Institute for Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Jena, Germany
    4. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Stockholm, Sweden
    5. ANSES, Laboratoire de Sophia-Antipolis, Unité pathologie des ruminants, Sophia-Antipolis, France
    6. Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Ur1282 Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique, Nouzilly, France
    7. Department of Bacteriology and TSEs, Central Veterinary Institute, part of Wageningen UR, Lelystad, Netherlands
    8. SAFOSO, Safe Food Solutions Inc., Bern, Switzerland
    9. University of Utrecht, Dept. Farm Animal Health, Utrecht, the Netherlands
    10. Department of Small Ruminant Health, Animal Health Service GD Deventer, Deventer, Netherlands
    11. Centre for Infectious Disease Control, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands
    12. Centre for Veterinary Epidemiology and Risk Analysis, UCD School of Veterinary Medicine, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland
    Citation style for this article: Georgiev M, Afonso A, Neubauer H, Needham H, Thiéry R, Rodolakis A, Roest HJ, Stärk KD, Stegeman JA, Vellema P, van der Hoek W, More SJ. Q fever in humans and farm animals in four European countries, 1982 to 2010. Euro Surveill. 2013;18(8):pii=20407. Available online:
    Date of submission: 20 April 2012
    <HR>Q fever is a disease of humans, caused by Coxiella burnetii, and a large range of animals can be infected. This paper presents a review of the epidemiology of Q fever in humans and farm animals between 1982 and 2010, using case studies from four European countries (Bulgaria, France, Germany and the Netherlands). The Netherlands had a large outbreak between 2007 and 2010, and the other countries a history of Q fever and Q fever research. Within all four countries, the serological prevalence of C. burnetii infection and reported incidence of Q fever varies broadly in both farm animals and humans. Proximity to farm animals and contact with infected animals or their birth products have been identified as the most important risk factors for human disease. Intrinsic farm factors, such as production systems and management, influence the number of outbreaks in an area. A number of disease control options have been used in these four countries, including measures to increase diagnostic accuracy and general awareness, and actions to reduce spill-over (of infection from farm animals to humans) and human exposure. This study highlights gaps in knowledge, and future research needs.
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