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Emerg Infect Dis. Human Monkeypox Outbreak Caused by Novel Virus Belonging to Congo Basin Clade, Sudan, 2005

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  • Emerg Infect Dis. Human Monkeypox Outbreak Caused by Novel Virus Belonging to Congo Basin Clade, Sudan, 2005

    [Source: US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal, full PDF Document (LINK). Edited.]

    DOI: 10.3201/eid1610.100713

    Suggested citation for this article: Formenty P, Muntasir MO, Damon I, Chowdhary V, Opoka ML, Monimart C, et al. Human monkeypox outbreak caused by novel virus belonging to Congo Basin clade, Sudan, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010 Oct; [Epub ahead of print]

    Human Monkeypox Outbreak Caused by Novel Virus Belonging to Congo Basin Clade, Sudan, 2005

    Pierre Formenty, Mohammed O. Muntasir, Inger Damon, Vipul Chowdhary, Martin L. Opoka, Charlotte Monimart, Elmangory M. Mutasim, Jean-Claude Manuguerra, Whitni B. Davidson, Kevin L. Karem, Jeanne Cabeza, Sharlenna Wang, Mamunur R. Malik, Thierry Durand, Abdalhalim Khalid, Thomas Rioton, Andrea Kuong-Ruay, Alimagboul A. Babiker, Mubarak E.M. Karsani, and Magdi S. Abdalla

    Author affiliations:
    World Health Organization Global Alert and Response, Geneva, Switzerland (P. Formenty); Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan (M.O. Muntasir, A.A. Babiker, M.S. Abdalla); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA (I. Damon, W.B. Davidson, K.L. Karem); Médecins Sans Frontières France Office in Sudan, Khartoum (V. Chowdhary, C. Monimart, J. Cabeza, T. Durand, A. Khalid, T. Rioton); World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt (M.L. Opoka); Minister of Health of Unity State, Bentiu, Sudan (A. Kuong-Ruay); National Public Health Laboratory, Khartoum (E.M. Mutasim, M.E.M. Karsani); Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (Jean-Claude Manuguerra); and World Health Organization Country Office, Khartoum (S. Wang, M.R. Malik)


    To determine the outbreak source of monkeypox virus (MPXV) infections in Unity State, Sudan, in November 2005, we conducted a retrospective investigation. MPXV was identified in a sub-Sahelian savannah environment. Three case notification categories were used: suspected, probable, and confirmed. Molecular, virologic, and serologic assays were used to test blood specimens, vesicular swabs, and crust specimens obtained from symptomatic and recovering persons. Ten laboratory-confirmed cases and 9 probable cases of MPXV were reported during September–December 2005; no deaths occurred. Human-to-human transmission up to 5 generations was described. Our investigation could not fully determine the source of the outbreak. Preliminary data indicate that the MPXV strain isolated during this outbreak was a novel virus belonging to the Congo Basin clade. Our results indicate that MPXV should be considered endemic to the wetland areas of Unity State. This finding will enhance understanding of the ecologic niche for this virus.

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