Journal of Environmental Immunology and Toxicology 1:1, 3-12; March/April 2013; ? 2013 STM Publishing
Immune Suppression by Neonicotinoid Insecticides at the Root of Global Wildlife Declines
Rosemary Mason1, Henk Tennekes2, Francisco S?nchez-Bayo3, Palle Uhd Jepsen1
1Hunters Hollow, Swansea, UK; 2Experimental Toxicology Services (ETS) Nederland BV, The Netherlands;
3Centre for Ecotoxicology, University of Technology Sydney, Australia
Research paper REVIEW
Outbreaks of infectious diseases in honey bees, fish, amphibians, bats and birds in the past two decades have coincided with the increasing use of systemic insecticides, notably the neonicotinoids and fipronil. A link between insecticides and such diseases is hypothesised. Firstly, the disease outbreaks started in countries and regions where systemic insecticides were used for the first time, and later they spread to other countries. Secondly, recent evidence of immune suppression in bees and fish caused by neonicotinoids
has provided an important clue to understand the sub-lethal impact of these insecticides not only on these organisms, but probably on other wildlife affected by emerging infectious diseases. While this is occurring, nvironmental authorities in developed countries ignore the calls of apiarists (who are most affected) and do not target neonicotinoids in their regular monitoring schedules. Equally, scientists looking for answers to the problem are unaware of the new threat that systemic insecticides have introduced in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems.
Journal of Environmental Immunology and Toxicology 2013; 1:3-12
Key words
systemic insecticides; imidacloprid; infectious diseases; honeybees; bats; birds; fish; frogs; pollinators
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