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  • IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

    IAEA Update on Japan Earthquake
    http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/...iupdate01.html

    Staff Report

    17.45 CET on 14 March 2011
    IAEA Director General Briefs Media on Nuclear Safety in Japan


    At 17.45 CET on 14 March 2011, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano briefed the media on the consequences of the twin natural disasters in Japan.
    The press conference was opened by IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano, followed by comments from James Lyons-Director of the Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, Denis Flory-Deputy Director General for the Department of Nuclear Safety and Security, and Alena Buglova, acting head of the Incident and Emergency Centre.


    Japanese Earthquake Update (14 March, 15:35 CET)

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant
    Japanese authorities have reported to the IAEA that Fukushima Daiichi Unit 2 has experienced decreasing coolant levels in the reactor core. Officials have begun to inject sea water into the reactor to maintain cooling of the reactor core.
    Sea water injections into Units 1 and 3 were interrupted yesterday due to a low level in a sea water supply reservoir, but sea water injections have now been restored at both units.
    Evacuation Status
    On 12 March, the Japanese Prime Minister ordered the evacuation of residents living within 10 kilometres of the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant and within 20 kilometres of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
    Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has reported that about 185,000 residents had been evacuated from the towns listed below as of 13 March, 17:00 (JST).
    Populations of evacuated towns near the affected nuclear power plants:
    <table> <tbody><tr> <td>Hirono-cho</td> <td>5,387</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Naraha-cho</td> <td>7,851</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Tomioka-cho</td> <td>15,786</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Okuma-cho</td> <td>11,186</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Futaba-cho</td> <td>6,936</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Namie-cho</td> <td>20,695</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Tamura-shi</td> <td>41,428</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Minamisouma-shi</td> <td>70,975</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Kawauchi-mura</td> <td>2,944</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Kuzuo-mura</td> <td>1,482</td> </tr> <tr> <td>Total</td> <td>184,670</td> </tr> </tbody></table> Iodine Distribution
    Japan has distributed 230,000 units of stable iodine to evacuation centres from the area around Fukushima Daiichi and Fukushima Daini nuclear power plants, according to officials. The iodine has not yet been administered to residents; the distribution is a precautionary measure in the event that this is determined to be necessary.
    The ingestion of stable iodine can help to prevent the accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid.
    Weather forecast
    In partnership with the World Meteorological Organization, the IAEA is continuing to monitor weather forecasts and is providing updates to member states. Since the incident began, winds have been moving away from the Japanese coast to the East, and predictions call for the same patterns to persist for the next three days.
    The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.

    0930 CET 14 March 2011
    IAEA Director General Briefed on Disaster Response and Nuclear Safety


    At the IAEA's Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) and at its International Seismological Safety Centre (ISSC), IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano received a briefing at 0930 CET 14 March 2011.
    The IAEA emergency management experts detailed the status of emergency communications with Japanese authorities, as well as with emergency management counterparts in other IAEA Member States and among international organizations.
    Director General Amano was briefed as well on nuclear safety, seismological activity, and the on-going disaster recovery efforts in Japan. The video of the briefing is available here.

    Japan Earthquake Update (14 March 2011, 07:00 CET)

    Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has provided the IAEA with further information about the hydrogen explosion that occurred today at the Unit 3 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. A hydrogen explosion occurred at unit 3 on 14 March at 11:01 am local Japan time.
    All personnel at the site are accounted for. Six people have been injured.
    The reactor building exploded but the primary containment vessel was not damaged. The control room of Unit 3 remains operational.
    The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.
    Japan Earthquake Update (14 March 2011, 05:15 CET)

    Based on information provided by Japanese authorities, the IAEA can confirm the following information about the status of Units 1, 2, 3 and 4 at Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant.
    All four units automatically shut down on 11 March. All units have off-site power and water levels in all units are stable. Though preparations have been made to do so, there has been no venting to control pressure at any of the plant´s units.
    At Unit 1, plant operators were able to restore a residual heat remover system, which is now being used to cool the reactor. Work is in progress to achieve a cold shutdown of the reactor.
    Workers at Units 2 and 4 are working to restore residual heat removal systems.
    Unit 3 is in a safe, cold shutdown.
    Radiation dose rate measurements observed at four locations around the plant´s perimeter over a 16-hour period on 13 March were all normal.
    Japan Earthquake Update (14 March, 2011, 04:00 CET)

    Japan´s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has informed the IAEA that there has been an explosion at the Unit 3 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.
    The explosion occurred at 11:01 am local Japan time.
    The IAEA is seeking further information on this development.
    Japan Earthquake Update (14 March 2011, 01:30 CET) - Clarified

    Based on information provided by Japanese authorities, the IAEA can confirm the following information about the status of Units 1, 2 and 3 at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
    Unit 1 is being powered by mobile power generators on site, and work continues to restore power to the plant. There is currently no power via off-site power supply or backup diesel generators being provided to the plant. Seawater and boron are being injected into the reactor vessel to cool the reactor. Due to the explosion on 12 March, the outer shell of the containment building has been lost.
    Unit 2 is being powered by mobile power generators on site, and work continues to restore power to the plant. There is currently neither off-site power supply nor backup diesel generators providing power to the plant. The reactor core is being cooled through reactor core isolation cooling, a procedure used to remove heat from the core. The current reactor water level is lower than normal but remains steady. The outer shell of the containment building is intact at Unit 2.
    Unit 3 does not have off-site power supply nor backup diesel generators providing power to the plant. As the high pressure injection system and other attempts to cool the reactor core have failed, injection of water and boron into the reactor vessel has commenced. Water levels inside the reactor vessel increased steadily for a certain amount of time but readings indicating the water level inside the pressure vessel are no longer showing an increase. The reason behind this is unknown at this point in time. To relieve pressure, venting of the containment started on 13 March at 9:20 am local Japan time. Planning is underway to reduce the concentration of hydrogen inside the containment building. The containment building is intact at Unit 3.
    The IAEA is seeking information about the status of spent fuel at the Daiichi plant.
    Japan Earthquake Update (13 March 2011, 21:45 CET)

    The Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that radioactivity levels at the site boundary of the Onagawa nuclear power plant have returned down to normal background levels. The first (ie lowest) state of emergency was reported at the plant earlier on Sunday after an increased level of radioactivity was detected at the site boundary. Investigations at the site indicate that no emissions of radioactivity have occurred from any of the three units at Onagawa. The current assumption of the Japanese authorities is that the increased level may have been due to a release of radioactive material from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
    The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.
    Japan Earthquake Update (13 March 2011, 13:35 CET)

    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) that venting of the containment of reactor Unit 3 of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant started at 9:20 am local Japan time of 13 March through a controlled release of vapour. The operation is intended to lower pressure inside the reactor containment.
    Subsequently, following the failure of the high pressure injection system and other attempts of cooling the plant, injection of water first and sea water afterwards started. The authorities have informed the IAEA that accumulation of hydrogen is possible.
    Japanese authorities have also informed the IAEA that the first (i.e. lowest) state of emergency at the Onagawa nuclear power plant has been reported by Tohoku Electric Power Company. The authorities have informed the IAEA that the three reactor units at the Onagawa nuclear power plant are under control.
    As defined in Article 10 of Japan´s Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness, the alert was declared as a consequence of radioactivity readings exceeding allowed levels in the area surrounding the plant. Japanese authorities are investigating the source of radiation. The IAEA has offered its "Good Offices" to Japan to support the nation´s response to the 11 March earthquake and tsunami. One IAEA capability intended to help member states during crises is the Response and Assistance Network (RANET). [http://www-ns.iaea.org/tech-areas/em...p?s=1&l=13]The network consists of nations that can offer specialized assistance after a radiation incident or emergency. Such assistance is coordinated by the IAEA within the framework of the Assistance Convention.
    The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.
    Japan Earthquake Update (13 March 2011, 02:35 CET) - CORRECTED

    An earlier version of this release incorrectly described pressure venting actions at Units 1, 2 and 4 at the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant. Venting did not occur at these units.
    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that Units 1, 2 and 4 at the Fukushima Daini retain off-site power. Daini Unit 3 is in a safe, cold shutdown, according to Japanese officials.
    Japanese authorities have reported some casualties to nuclear plant workers. At Fukushima Daichi, four workers were injured by the explosion at the Unit 1 reactor, and there are three other reported injuries in other incidents. In addition, one worker was exposed to higher-than-normal radiation levels that fall below the IAEA guidance for emergency situations. At Fukushima Daini, one worker has died in a crane operation accident and four others have been injured.
    In partnership with the World Meteorological Organization, the IAEA is providing its Member States with weather forecasts for the affected areas in Japan. The latest predictions have indicated winds moving to the Northeast, away from Japanese coast over the next three days.
    The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.
    Japan Earthquake Update (12 March 2011, 21:10 CET)

    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that the explosion at Unit 1 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi plant occurred outside the primary containment vessel (PCV), not inside. The plant operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), has confirmed that the integrity of the primary containment vessel remains intact.
    As a countermeasure to limit damage to the reactor core, TEPCO proposed that sea water mixed with boron be injected into the primary containment vessel. This measure was approved by Japan´s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) and the injection procedure began at 20:20 local Japan time.
    Japan has reported that four workers at Fukushima Daiichi were injured by the explosion.
    NISA have confirmed the presence of caesium-137 and iodine-131 in the vicinity of Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1. NISA reported an initial increase in levels of radioactivity around the plant earlier today, but these levels have been observed to lessen in recent hours.
    Containment remains intact at Fukushima Daiichi Units 1, 2 and 3.
    Evacuations around both affected nuclear plants have begun. In the 20-kilometre radius around Fukushima Daiichi an estimated 170 000 people have been evacuated. In the 10-kilometre radius around Fukushima Daini an estimated 30 000 people have been evacuated. Full evacuation measures have not been completed.
    The Japanese authorities have classified the event at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1 as a level 4 "Accident with Local Consequences" on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). The INES scale is used to promptly and consistently communicate to the public the safety significance of events associated with sources of radiation. The scale runs from 0 (deviation) to 7 (major accident).
    Japan has also confirmed the safety of all its nuclear research reactors.
    The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.
    IAEA Director General´s Update on Tsunami and Earthquake Emergency Response (12 March 2011, 20:00 CET)


    IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano provided a video statement on the aftermath of the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan. Director General Amano expressed his sincerest condolences for the lives and homes lost, and said: "My heart goes out to the people of my home country as they rise to the challenge of this immense tragedy."
    Director General Amano notes the current effort to prevent further damage to Unit 1 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.
    In response to the situation, Director General Amano also explained the IAEA´s dual role to use emergency communication channels to exchange verified, official information between Japan and other IAEA Member States, as well as to coordinate the delivery of international assistance, should Japan or other affected countries request it.
    The video statement can be accessed here.
    Japan Earthquake Update (12 March 2011, 13:40 CET)

    Japan´s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has informed the IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) that there has been an explosion at the Unit 1 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi plant, and that they are assessing the condition of the reactor core.
    The explosion was reported to NISA by the plant operator, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), at 0730 CET. Further details were not immediately available.
    Japanese authorities have extended the evacuation zone around the Fukushima Daiichi plant to a 20-kilometre radius from the previous 10 kilometres.
    At the nearby Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant, the evacuation zone has been extended to a 10-kilometre radius from the previous three kilometres.
    The authorities also say they are making preparations to distribute iodine to residents in the area of both the plants.
    The IAEA has reiterated its offer of technical assistance to Japan, should the government request this. The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities, and is in full response mode to monitor the situation closely around the clock as it evolves.
    Japan Earthquake Update (12 March 2011, 07:30 CET)

    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) that, starting at 12 March 9:00 am local Japan time, they have started the preparation for the venting of the containment of the Unit 1 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi plant through a controlled release of vapour. The operation is intended to lower pressure inside the reactor containment.
    Evacuation of residents living within ten kilometres of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is reported to be under way. An area with a radius of three kilometres around the plant had already been evacuated.
    The evacuation of residents living within three kilometres of the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant is also under way.
    The IAEA´s IEC continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities, and is in full response mode to monitor the situation closely around the clock as it evolves.
    Japan Earthquake Update (11 March 2011, 22:10 CET)

    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) that officials are working to restore power to the cooling systems of the Unit 2 reactor at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Mobile electricity supplies have arrived at the site.
    Japanese officials have also reported that pressure is increasing inside the Unit 1 reactor´s containment, and the officials have decided to vent the containment to lower the pressure. The controlled release will be filtered to retain radiation within the containment.
    Three reactors at the plant were operating at the time of the earthquake, and the water level in each of the reactor vessels remains above the fuel elements, according to Japanese authorities.
    The IAEA´s IEC continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities, and is in full response mode to monitor the situation closely round the clock.
    IAEA Director General Expresses Condolences Following Japan Earthquake (11 March 2011, 20:50 CET)

    "I would like to express my condolences and sympathies to the people of Japan who have suffered from this earthquake and to the Government of Japan," said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano.
    Japan Earthquake Update (11 March 2011, 20:30 CET)

    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) that today´s earthquake and tsunami have cut the supply of off-site power to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. In addition, diesel generators intended to provide back-up electricity to the plant´s cooling system were disabled by tsunami flooding, and efforts to restore the diesel generators are continuing.
    At Fukushima Daiichi, officials have declared a nuclear emergency situation, and at the nearby Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant, officials have declared a heightened alert condition.
    Japanese authorities say there has so far been no release of radiation from any of the nuclear power plants affected by today´s earthquake and aftershocks.
    The IAEA´s IEC continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities, and is in full response mode to monitor the situation closely round the clock.
    Japan Earthquake Update (11 March 2011, 17:55 CET)

    Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) that they have ordered the evacuation of residents within a three-kilometre radius of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, and told people within a 10-kilometre radius to remain indoors.
    The Japanese authorities say there has so far been no release of radiation from any of the nuclear power plants affected by today´s earthquake and aftershocks.
    "The IAEA continues to stand ready to provide technical assistance of any kind, should Japan request this," IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said.
    The IAEA´s IEC continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities, and is in full response mode to monitor the situation closely round the clock.
    Japan Earthquake Update (11 March 2011, 12:45 CET)

    The IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre has received information from Japan´s Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) that a heightened state of alert has been declared at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. NISA says the plant has been shut down and no release of radiation has been detected.
    Japanese authorities have also reported a fire at the Onagawa nuclear power plant, which has been extinguished. They say Onagawa, Fukushima-Daini and Tokai nuclear power plants were also shut down automatically, and no radiation release has been detected.
    The IAEA received information from its International Seismic Safety Centre that a second earthquake of magnitude 6.5 has struck Japan near the coast of Honshu, near the Tokai plant.
    The IAEA is seeking further details on the situation at Fukushima Daiichi and other nuclear power plants and research reactors, including information on off-site and on-site electrical power supplies, cooling systems and the condition of the reactor buildings. Nuclear fuel requires continued cooling even after a plant is shut down.
    The IAEA is also seeking information on the status of radioactive sources in the country, such as medical and industrial equipment.
    The World Meteorological Organization has informed the IAEA that prevailing winds are blowing eastwards, away from the Japanese coast.
    All IAEA staff in Japan, both in the Tokyo office and in nuclear facilities, are confirmed to be safe.
    Japan Earthquake Update (11 March 2011, 09:30 CET)

    The IAEA´s Incident and Emergency Centre received information from the International Seismic Safety Centre (ISSC) at around 08:15 CET this morning about the earthquake of magnitude 8.9 near the east coast of Honshu, Japan.
    The Agency is liaising with the Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) to confirm further details of the situation. Japanese authorities reported that the four nuclear power plants closest to the quake have been safely shut down.
    The Agency has sent an offer of Good Offices to Japan, should the country request support.
    Current media reports say a tsunami alert has been issued for 50 countries, reaching as far as Central America. The Agency is seeking further information on which countries and nuclear facilities may be affected.
    See Story Resources for more information.

    (Note to Media: We encourage you to republish these stories and kindly request attribution to the IAEA) http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/...iupdate01.html

  • #2
    Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

    Thank you LaMenchos.

    Also please see:

    CDC - How Protect Yourself in a Nuclear Blast - Radiation Exposure

    CDC - How to Shelter in Place in a Radiation Emergency

    CDC - Population Monitoring After a Release of Radioactive Material

    CDC - Evacuation in a Radiation Emergency

    CDC - Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public

    CDC - Radiation Emergencies Radiation and Pregnancy: A Fact Sheet for the Public

    CDC - Radiation Emergencies Radioactive Contamination and Radiation Exposure

    CDC - Radiation Emergencies Information for Public Health Professionals

    CDC - Radiation Emergencies Information for Clinicians

    CDC - Radiation Emergencies Information for Emergency Responders

    CDC - Laboratory Information for Radiation Emergencies
    "May the long time sun
    Shine upon you,
    All love surround you,
    And the pure light within you
    Guide your way on."

    "Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, lies your calling."
    Aristotle

    “In a gentle way, you can shake the world.”
    Mohandas Gandhi

    Be the light that is within.

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    • #3
      Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

      Japan Earthquake Update (15 March 2011, 22:30 UTC)
      Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that the evacuation of the population from the 20-kilometre zone around Fukushima Daiichi has been successfully completed.

      The Japanese authorities have also advised that people within a 30-km radius to take cover indoors. Iodine tablets have been distributed to evacuation centres but no decision has yet been taken on their administration.

      The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.

      Japan Earthquake Update (15 March 2011, 20:35 UTC)
      The Japanese government today requested assistance from the IAEA in the areas of environmental monitoring and the effects of radiation on human health, asking for IAEA teams of experts to be sent to Japan to assist local experts. Preparations for these missions are currently under way.

      The missions will draw on IAEA resources and may also possibly involve Response and Assistance Network (RANET) and Member States' capabilities.

      This development follows the IAEA's offer to Japan of its "Good Offices" - i.e. making available the Agency's direct support and coordination of international assistance.

      RANET is a network of resources made available by IAEA Member States that can be offered in the event of a radiation incident or emergency. Coordination of RANET is done by the IAEA within the framework of the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency.

      The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.

      Japan Earthquake Update (15 March 2011, 18:00 UTC)
      The IAEA can confirm the following information about the status of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant:

      Unit 4 was shut down for a routine, planned maintenance outage on 30 November 2010. After the outage, all fuel from the reactor was transferred to the spent fuel pool.

      Units 5 and 6 were shut down at the time of the earthquake. Unit 5 was shut down as of 3 January 2011. Unit 6 was shut down as of 14 August 2010. Both reactors are currently loaded with fuel.


      As of 00:16 UTC on 15 March, plant operators were considering the removal of panels from Units 5 and 6 reactor buildings to prevent a possible build-up of hydrogen in the future. It was a build-up of hydrogen at Units 1, 2 and 3 that led to explosions at the Daiichi facilities in recent days.

      The IAEA continues to monitor and seek information on the status of plant workers, reactor conditions, and spent nuclear fuel at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.

      Japan Earthquake Update (15 March 2011, 15:30 UTC)
      An earthquake of 6.1 magnitude was reported today at 13:31 UTC in Eastern Honshu, Japan. The Hamaoka nuclear power plant is sited an estimated 100 kilometres from the epicentre.

      IEC confirmed with Japan that the plant continues to operate safely.

      Units 1 and 2 are decommissioned, Unit 3 is under inspection and not operational, and Units 4 and 5 remain in safe operational status after the earthquake.

      Japan Earthquake Update (15 March 2011, 14:10 UTC)
      The IAEA Incident and Emergency Centre (IEC) continues to monitor the status of the nuclear power plants in Japan that were affected by the devastating earthquake and consequent tsunami.

      All units at the Fukushima Daini, Onagawa, and Tokai nuclear power plants are in a safe and stable condition (i.e. cold shutdown).

      The IAEA remains concerned over the status of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, where sea water injections to cool the reactors in Units 1, 2 and 3 are continuing. Attempts to return power to the entire Daiichi site are also continuing.

      After explosions at both Units 1 and 3, the primary containment vessels of both Units are reported to be intact. However, the explosion that occurred at 21:14 UTC on 14 March at the Fukushima Daiichi Unit 2 may have affected the integrity of its primary containment vessel. All three explosions were due to an accumulation of hydrogen gas.

      A fire at Unit 4 occurred on 14 March 23:54 UTC and lasted two hours. The IAEA is seeking clarification on the nature and consequences of the fire.

      The IAEA continues to seek details about the status of all workers, reactors and spent fuel at the Fukushima Daiichi plant.

      An evacuation of the population from the 20-kilometre zone around Fukushima Daiichi is in effect. The Japanese have advised that people within a 30-km radius shall take shelter indoors. Iodine tablets have been distributed to evacuation centres but no decision has yet been taken on their administration.

      A 30-kilometre no-fly zone has been established around the Daiichi plant. Normal civil aviation beyond this zone remains uninterrupted. The Japan Coast Guard established evacuation warnings within 10 kilometres of Fukushima Daiichi and 3 kilometres of Fukushima Daini.

      The IAEA and several other UN organizations held a meeting at 11:00 UTC today to discuss recent developments and coordinate activities related to consequences of the earthquake and tsunami. The meeting was called under the framework of the Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations, and this group expects to work closely together in the days ahead.

      ...

      http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
      Twitter: @RonanKelly13
      The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

        Japan Earthquake Update (16 March 2011, 03:55 UTC)
        Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that a fire in the reactor building of Unit 4 of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was visually observed at 20:45 UTC of 15 March. As of 21:15 UTC of the same day, the fire could no longer be observed.

        Fire of 14 March

        As previously reported, at 23:54 UTC of 14 March a fire had occurred at Unit 4. The fire lasted around two hours and was confirmed to be extinguished at 02:00 UTC of 15 March.

        Water Level in Unit 5

        Japanese authorities have also informed the IAEA that at 12:00 UTC of 15 March the water level in Unit 5 had decreased to 201 cm above the top of the fuel. This was a 40 cm decrease since 07:00 UTC of 15 March. Officials at the plant were planning to use an operational diesel generator in Unit 6 to supply water to Unit 5.

        The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves

        http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
        Twitter: @RonanKelly13
        The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

          Japanese Earthquake Update (16 March 22:00 UTC)
          Temperature of Spent Fuel Pools at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

          Spent fuel that has been removed from a nuclear reactor generates intense heat and is typically stored in a water-filled spent fuel pool to cool it and provide protection from its radioactivity. Water in a spent fuel pool is continuously cooled to remove heat produced by spent fuel assemblies. According to IAEA experts, a typical spent fuel pool temperature is kept below 25 ˚C under normal operating conditions. The temperature of a spent fuel pool is maintained by constant cooling, which requires a constant power source.

          Given the intense heat and radiation that spent fuel assemblies can generate, spent fuel pools must be constantly checked for water level and temperature. If fuel is no longer covered by water or temperatures reach a boiling point, fuel can become exposed and create a risk of radioactive release. The concern about the spent fuel pools at Fukushima Daiichi is that sources of power to cool the pools may have been compromised.

          The IAEA can confirm the following information regarding the temperatures of the spent nuclear fuel pools at Units 4, 5 and 6 at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant:

          Unit 4
          14 March, 10:08 UTC: 84 ˚C
          15 March, 10:00 UTC: 84 ˚C
          16 March, 05:00 UTC: no data
          Unit 5
          14 March, 10:08 UTC: 59.7 ˚C
          15 March, 10:00 UTC: 60.4 ˚C
          16 March, 05:00 UTC: 62.7 ˚C
          Unit 6
          14 March, 10:08 UTC: 58.0 ˚C
          15 March, 10:00 UTC: 58.5 ˚C
          16 March, 05:00 UTC: 60.0 ˚C

          The IAEA is continuing to seek further information about the water levels, temperature and condition of all spent fuel pool facilities at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

          IAEA Director General to Travel to Japan (16 March 18:50 UTC)
          Director General Yukiya Amano announced the following today in Vienna:

          "I plan to fly to Japan as soon as possible, hopefully tomorrow, to see the situation for myself and learn from our Japanese counterparts how best the IAEA can help. I will request that the Board of Governors meet upon my return to discuss the situation. My intention is that the first IAEA experts should leave for Japan as soon as possible."

          On 15 March, Japan requested the IAEA for assistance in the areas of environmental monitoring and the effects of radiation on human health, asking for IAEA teams of experts to be sent to Japan to assist local experts.

          Given the fast-changing situation in Japan, the Director General was unable to announce the itinerary for his trip. He expects to be in Japan for a short amount of time and then return to Vienna.

          → View Video on YouTube

          Japanese Earthquake Update (16 March 14:55 UTC)
          Japanese authorities have reported concerns about the condition of the spent nuclear fuel pool at Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 and Unit 4. Japanese Defense Minister Toshimi Kitazawa announced Wednesday that Special Defence Forces helicopters planned to drop water onto Unit 3, and officials are also preparing to spray water into Unit 4 from ground positions, and possibly later into Unit 3. Some debris on the ground from the 14 March explosion at Unit 3 may need to be removed before the spraying can begin.

          http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
          Twitter: @RonanKelly13
          The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

            Japanese Earthquake Update (17 March 01:15 UTC)
            Injuries or Contamination at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

            Based on a press release from the Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary dated 16 March 2011, the IAEA can confirm the following information about human injuries or contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

            Please note that this list provides a snapshot of the latest information made available to the IAEA by Japanese authorities. Given the fluid situation at the plant, this information is subject to change.

            Injuries

            2 TEPCO employees have minor injuries
            2 subcontractor employees are injured, one person suffered broken legs and one person whose condition is unknown was transported to the hospital
            2 people are missing
            2 people were 'suddenly taken ill'
            2 TEPCO employees were transported to hospital during the time of donning respiratory protection in the control centre
            4 people (2 TEPCO employees, 2 subcontractor employees) sustained minor injuries due to the explosion at unit 1 on 11 March and were transported to the hospital
            11 people (4 TEPCO employees, 3 subcontractor employees and 4 Japanese civil defense workers) were injured due to the explosion at unit 3 on 14 March
            Radiological Contamination

            17 people (9 TEPCO employees, 8 subcontractor employees) suffered from deposition of radioactive material to their faces, but were not taken to the hospital because of low levels of exposure
            One worker suffered from significant exposure during 'vent work,' and was transported to an offsite center
            2 policemen who were exposed to radiation were decontaminated
            Firemen who were exposed to radiation are under investigation
            The IAEA continues to seek information from Japanese authorities about all aspects of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant.


            http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
            Twitter: @RonanKelly13
            The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

              Japanese Earthquake Update (17 March 17:55 UTC)

              Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that engineers were able to lay an external grid power line cable to unit 2. The operation was completed at 08:30 UTC.

              They plan to reconnect power to unit 2 once the spraying of water on the unit 3 reactor building is completed.

              The spraying of water on the unit 3 reactor building was temporarily stopped at 11:09 UTC (20:09 local time) of 17 March.

              The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.

              IAEA Briefing on the Fukushima Nuclear Emergency (17 March 14:00 UTC)
              At the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, Graham Andrew, Special Adviser to the IAEA Director General on Scientific and Technical Affairs, briefed both Member States and the media on the current status of nuclear safety in Japan.

              Current Situation

              The situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants remains very serious, but there has been no significant worsening since yesterday.

              The current situation at Units 1, 2 and 3, whose cores have suffered damage, appears to be relatively stable. Sea water is being injected into all three units using fire extinguishing hoses. Containment pressures are fluctuating.

              Military helicopters carried out four water drops over Unit 3.

              Unit 4 remains a major safety concern. No information is available on the level of water in the spent fuel pool. No water temperature indication from the Unit 4 spent fuel pool has been received since March 14, when the temperature was 84 degrees C. No roof is in place.

              The water levels in the reactor pressure vessels of Units 5 and 6 have been declining.

              Radiation Monitoring

              We are now receiving dose rate information from 47 Japanese cities regularly. This is a positive development. In Tokyo, there has been no significant change in radiation levels since yesterday. They remain well below levels which are dangerous to human health.

              As far as on-site radiation levels at the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants are concerned, we have received no new information since the last report.

              In some locations at around 30km from the Fukushima plant, the dose rates rose significantly in the last 24 hours (in one location from 80 to 170 microsievert per hour and in another from 26 to 95 microsievert per hour). But this was not the case at all locations at this distance from the plants.

              Dose rates to the north-west of the nuclear power plants, were observed in the range 3 to 170 microsievert per hour, with the higher levels observed around 30 km from the plant.

              Dose rates in other directions are in the 1 to 5 microsievert per hour range.

              Agency Activities

              The Director General, who is now on his way to Japan, had another conversation with United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon. The UN Secretary-General pledged all possible support for the Agency�s efforts.

              The Director General also met the Executive Secretary of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization, Tibor Toth, to discuss the possibility of the Agency gaining access to data collected by CTBTO radionuclide monitoring stations.

              A written request has been made to CTBTO. We believe the additional data and information could assist the Agency in our assessment of the evolving situation in Japan.

              A specialist from the World Meteorological Organization joined our team in the Incident and Emergency Centre earlier this week, providing expert advice on the possible trajectories of winds from the area of the power plants. Video excerpt →, Presentation →

              Japan Earthquake Update (17 March 2011 11:05 UTC)
              Based on a press release from the Japanese Chief Cabinet Secretary dated 17 March 2011 04:00 UTC, the IAEA can confirm that the Japanese military carried out four helicopter water droppings over the building of reactor unit 3 of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

              According to the press release, the droppings took place between 00:48 UTC and 01:00 UTC.


              http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
              Twitter: @RonanKelly13
              The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                Japanese Earthquake Update (18 March 10:15 UTC)
                Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that new INES ratings have been issued for some of the events relating to the nuclear emergency at the Fukushima Daiichi and Daini nuclear power plants.

                Japanese authorities have assessed that the core damage at the Fukushima Daiichi 2 and 3 reactor units caused by loss of all cooling function has been rated as 5 on the INES scale.

                Japanese authorities have assessed that the loss of cooling and water supplying functions in the spent fuel pool of the unit 4 reactor has been rated as 3.

                Japanese authorities have assessed that the loss of cooling functions in the reactor units 1, 2 and 4 of the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant has also been rated as 3. All reactor units at Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant are now in a cold shut down condition.

                Further information on the ratings and the INES scale.



                Japan Earthquake Update (18 March 2011, 06:10 UTC)
                Temperature of Spent Fuel Pools at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant - UPDATED

                Spent fuel removed from a nuclear reactor is highly radioactive and generates intense heat. Nuclear plant operators typically store this material in pools of water that cool the fuel and shield the radioactivity. Water in a spent fuel pool is continuously cooled to remove heat produced by spent fuel assemblies. According to IAEA experts, a typical spent fuel pool temperature is kept below 25 °C under normal operating conditions. The temperature of a spent fuel pool is maintained by constant cooling, which requires a constant power source.

                Given the intense heat and radiation that spent fuel assemblies can generate, spent fuel pools must be constantly checked for water level and temperature. If fuel is no longer covered by water or temperatures reach a boiling point, fuel can become exposed and create a risk of radioactive release. The concern about the spent fuel pools at Fukushima Daiichi is that sources of power to cool the pools have been compromised.

                Concern about spent fuel storage conditions has led Japanese officials to drop and spray water from helicopters and trucks onto Unit 3 at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (See earlier update).

                Japan's Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency has reported increasing temperatures in the spent fuel ponds at Units 5 and 6 since 14 March. An emergency diesel generator at Unit 6 is now powering water injection into the ponds at those Units, according to NISA.

                The IAEA can confirm the following new information regarding the temperatures of the spent nuclear fuel pools at Units 4, 5 and 6 at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant:

                Unit 4
                13 March, 19:08 UTC: 84 °C
                Unit 5
                17 March, 03:00 UTC: 64.2 °C
                17 March, 18:00 UTC: 65.5 °C
                Unit 6
                17 March, 03:00 UTC: 62.5 °C
                17 March, 18:00 UTC: 62.0 °C

                The IAEA is continuing to seek further information about the water levels, temperature and condition of all spent fuel pool facilities at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant.

                Japan Earthquake Update (17 March 2011, 16:55 UTC) - CLARIFIED
                Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that engineers (STRIKETHROUGHwere ableSTRIKETHROUGH) have begun to lay an external grid power line cable to Unit 2. (STRIKETHROUGH The operation was completed at 08:30 UTC.STRIKETHROUGH) The operation was continuing as of 20:30 UTC, Tokyo Electric Power Company officials told the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency.

                They plan to reconnect power to Unit 2 once the spraying of water on the Unit 3 reactor building is completed.

                The spraying of water on the Unit 3 reactor building was temporarily stopped at 11:09 UTC (20:09 local time) of 17 March.

                The IAEA continues to liaise with the Japanese authorities and is monitoring the situation as it evolves.

                http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
                Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                  Japan Earthquake Update (18 March 2011, 12:25 UTC)
                  Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that, prior to the earthquake of 11 March, the entire fuel core of reactor Unit 4 of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant had been unloaded from the reactor and placed in the spent fuel pond located in the reactor's building.

                  Clarification

                  Contrary to several news reports, the IAEA to date has NOT received any notification from the Japanese authorities of people sickened by radiation contamination.

                  In the report of 17 March 01:15 UTC, the cases described were of people who were reported to have had radioactive contamination detected on them when they were monitored.

                  http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
                  Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                  The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                    IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Emergency (18 March 2011, 14:00 UTC)
                    On 18 March 2011, Graham Andrew, Special Adviser to the IAEA Director General on Scientific and Technical Affairs, briefed both Member States and the media on the current status of nuclear safety in Japan. His opening remarks, which he delivered at 14:00 UTC at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, are provided below:

                    1. Current Situation

                    As I reported yesterday, the situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants remains very serious, but there has been no significant worsening since our last briefing.

                    The situation at the reactors at Units 1, 2 and 3 appears to remain fairly stable.

                    Seawater was injected yesterday into Unit 2 and white smoke was again observed through the blown-out panels.

                    At Unit 3, which was the subject of helicopter water drops yesterday, water cannons have been spraying water on the spent fuel pond and seawater was injected into the reactor pressure vessel.

                    An important safety concern remains the spent fuel pools at Units 3 and 4. Information is lacking on water levels and temperatures at the spent fuel pools.

                    Efforts are being made to restore electrical power to the whole site. Another positive development is that diesel generators are providing power for cooling for both Units 5 and 6.

                    No problems have been reported at the common spent fuel pool. The spent fuel in the pool is fully covered by water.

                    The Japanese authorities today issued new ratings for the incidents on the IAEA International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale - INES.

                    They assess core damage at the Fukushima Daiichi 1, 2 and 3 reactor Units, caused by the loss of all cooling function, as 5 on the INES scale.

                    The situation at Unit 4, where cooling and water supply in the spent fuel pool have been lost, is rated 3 by the Japanese authorities.

                    At the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant, the loss of cooling functions in Units 1, 2 and 4 has also been rated as 3. All reactor Units at Fukushima Daini are now in a cold shut down condition.

                    2. Radiation Monitoring

                    As mentioned yesterday, regular dose rate information is now being received from 47 Japanese cities.

                    Dose rates in Tokyo and other cities remain far from levels which would require action - in other words they are not dangerous to human health.

                    First measurements in Tokyo by the Agency's newly arrived radiation monitoring team today showed no indication of Iodine-131 or Caesium-137. A second sampling will be carried out overnight.

                    3. Agency Activities

                    As you know, the Director General is in Tokyo, where he met the Prime Minister and other senior government ministers as well as the Vice-President of Tepco. The Director General stressed the importance of providing faster and more detailed information about the situation at the nuclear power plants, including to the international community. He also emphasized the importance of Japan working closely with the international community to resolve the crisis.

                    There was agreement between the Agency and our Japanese counterparts that the Agency mission would focus on radiation measurements and the identification of Japanese needs for a future environmental monitoring programme.

                    The Agency has started radiation measurements in Tokyo, as I mentioned, and we will move towards the Fukushima region as soon as possible. The Japanese counterparts confirmed their willingness to further strengthen their cooperation with the Agency and make available measurements made by TEPCO and the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

                    The Director General plans to brief the Agency's Board of Governors on his return from Japan.

                    Following our request yesterday, the CTBTO informed us today that data from its radionuclide monitoring stations will be made available to the Agency with immediate effect. On behalf of the Director General, I express my thanks to CTBTO Executive Secretary, Mr. Tibor Toth.

                    The International Civil Aviation Organization, in consultation with the Agency and a number of other international organizations, said today that international flight and maritime operations can continue normally into and out of Japan's major airports and sea ports and there is no medical basis for imposing additional measures to protect passengers. This will be kept under review.

                    Agency staff continue to work around the clock. We intend to hold another Technical Briefing and press conference at the same time tomorrow, Saturday.

                    → View Video on YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IEsdPKeJrO8

                    Presentations:
                    → Summary of Reactor Unit Status http://www.slideshare.net/iaea/summa...-graham-andrew , by Graham Andrew
                    → Technical Briefing of Nuclear Safety Aspects of Situation in Japan http://www.slideshare.net/iaea/techn...japan-march-18 , by James Lyons
                    → Technical Briefing on Radiological Situation in Japan http://www.slideshare.net/iaea/techn...8th-march-2011 , by Renate Czarwinksi

                    http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
                    Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                    The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                      Japan Earthquake Update (19 March 2011, 4:30 UTC)
                      Summary of conditions at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant

                      Located on the Eastern coast of Japan, the six nuclear power reactors at Daiichi are boiling water reactors (BWRs). A massive earthquake on 11 March severed off-site power to the plant and triggered the automatic shutdown of the three operating reactors - Units 1, 2, and 3. The control rods in those units were successfully inserted into the reactor cores, ending the fission chain reaction. The remaining reactors - Units 4, 5, and 6 -- had previously been shut down for routine maintenance purposes. Backup diesel generators, designed to start up after losing off-site power, began providing electricity to pumps circulating coolant to the six reactors.

                      Soon after the earthquake, a large tsunami washed over the reactor site, knocking out the backup generators. While some batteries remained operable, the entire site lost the ability to maintain proper reactor cooling and water circulation functions.

                      Here is the current status of the six reactors, based on documents and confirmed by Japanese officials (new information in bold):

                      Unit 1

                      Coolant within Unit 1 is covering about half of the fuel rods in the reactor, leading to fuel damage. High pressure within the reactor's containment led operators to vent gas from the containment. Later, an explosion destroyed the outer shell of the reactor building above the containment on 12 March.

                      There are no indications of problems with either the reactor pressure vessel or the primary containment vessel.

                      Efforts to pump seawater into the reactor core are continuing.

                      On 18 March, Japan assigned an INES rating of 5 to this unit. Further information on the ratings and the INES scale.

                      Unit 2

                      Coolant within Unit 2 is covering about half of the fuel rods in the reactor, leading to fuel damage. Following an explosion on 15 March, Japanese officials expressed concerns that the reactor's containment may not be fully intact. NISA officials reported on 18 March that white smoke continues to emerge from the building.

                      Efforts to pump seawater into the reactor core are continuing.

                      On 18 March, Japan assigned an INES rating of 5 to this unit.

                      Unit 3

                      Coolant within Unit 3 is covering about half of the fuel rods in the reactor, leading to fuel damage. High pressure within the reactor's containment led operators to vent gas from the containment. Later, an explosion destroyed the outer shell of the reactor building above the containment on 14 March.

                      Following the explosion, Japanese officials expressed concerns that the reactor's containment may not be fully intact. NISA officials reported on 18 March that white smoke continues to emerge from the building.

                      Efforts to pump seawater into the reactor core are continuing.

                      Of additional concern at Unit 3 is the condition of the spent fuel pool in the building. There are indications that there is an inadequate cooling water level in the pool, and Japanese authorities have addressed the problem by dropping water from helicopters into the building and spraying water from trucks. On 18 March, Japanese Self Defence Forces used seven fire trucks to continue spraying efforts. There is no data on the temperature of the water in the pool.

                      On 18 March, Japan assigned an INES rating of 5 to this unit.

                      Unit 4

                      All fuel had been removed from the reactor core for routine maintenance before the earthquake and placed into the spent fuel pool. A portion of the building's outer shell was damaged by the explosion at Unit 3 on 14 March, and there have been two reported fires - possibly including one in the spent fuel pool on 15 March -- that extinguished spontaneously, although smoke remained visible on 18 March.

                      Authorities remain concerned about the condition of the spent fuel pool.

                      On 18 March, Japan assigned an INES rating of 4 to this site.

                      Unit 5 and 6

                      Shut down before the earthquake, there are no immediate concerns about these reactors' cores or containment. Instrumentation from both spent fuel pools, however, has shown gradually increasing temperatures. Officials have configured two diesel generators at Unit 6 to power water circulation in the spent fuel pools and cores of Units 5 and 6.

                      Workers have opened holes in the roofs of both buildings to prevent the possible accumulation of hydrogen, which is suspected of causing explosions at other units.

                      Restoration of Grid

                      Progress has been achieved in restoring external power to the nuclear power plant, although it remains uncertain when full power will be available.

                      Evacuation

                      Japanese authorities have informed the IAEA that the evacuation of the population from the 20-kilometre zone around Fukushima Daiichi has been successfully completed. Japanese authorities have also advised people living within 30 kilometres of the plant to remain inside.

                      Iodine

                      On 16 March, Japan's Nuclear Safety Commission recommended local authorities to instruct evacuees leaving the 20-kilometre area to ingest stable (not radioactive) iodine. The pills and syrup (for children) had been prepositioned at evacuation centers. The order recommended taking a single dose, with an amount dependent on age:

                      Baby 12.5 mg
                      1 mo.-3 yrs. 25mg
                      3-13 yrs. 38mg
                      13-40 yrs. 76mg
                      40+ yrs. Not necessary

                      Radiation Measurements

                      Radiation levels near Fukushima Daiichi and beyond have elevated since the reactor damage began. However, dose rates in Tokyo and other areas outside the 30-kilometre zone remain far from levels which would require any protective action. In other words they are not dangerous to human health.

                      At the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, radiation levels spiked three times since the earthquake, but have stabilized since 16 March at levels which are, although significantly higher than the normal levels, within the range that allows workers to continue onsite recovery measures.

                      http://www.iaea.org/newscenter/news/...iupdate01.html
                      Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                      The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                        "'...Radiation levels near Fukushima Daiichi and beyond have elevated since the reactor damage began. However, dose rates in Tokyo and other areas outside the 30-kilometre zone remain far from levels which would require any protective action. In other words they are not dangerous to human health.

                        At the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, radiation levels spiked three times since the earthquake, but have stabilized since 16 March at levels which are, although significantly higher than the normal levels, within the range that allows workers to continue onsite recovery measures."

                        Thanks LaMenchos & RoRo for posting these reports.

                        FluTrackers does not endorse any statements from the IAEA regarding the effects of radiation on human health.

                        We present these reports for informational purposes only and not for the truth of the information.
                        "May the long time sun
                        Shine upon you,
                        All love surround you,
                        And the pure light within you
                        Guide your way on."

                        "Where your talents and the needs of the world cross, lies your calling."
                        Aristotle

                        “In a gentle way, you can shake the world.”
                        Mohandas Gandhi

                        Be the light that is within.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                          IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Emergency (19 March 2011, 14:00 UTC)

                          On Saturday, 19 March 2011, Graham Andrew, Special Adviser to the IAEA Director General on Scientific and Technical Affairs, briefed both Member States and the media on the current status of nuclear safety in Japan. His opening remarks, which he delivered at 14:00 UTC at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, are provided below:

                          1. Current Situation

                          The situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants is similar to that which I described yesterday.

                          Efforts to restore electrical power to the site continue. It is hoped that power will be restored to Unit 2 today, which will then act as a hub for restoring power to Unit 1. However, we do not know if the water pumps have been damaged and if they will work when power is restored.

                          Seawater is still being injected into the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1 and 2 and additional fire trucks have arrived, reinforcing the operation to spray water into the Unit 3 reactor building.

                          We still lack reliable validated data on water levels and temperatures at the spent fuel pools at Units 3 and 4.

                          Temperatures at the spent fuel pools in Units 5 and 6 have risen in the past few days but this does not give rise to immediate concern. Water continues to be circulated within the reactor pressure vessels and the spent fuel ponds at both units.

                          A second diesel generator is providing power for cooling at Units 5 and 6. We have been informed that holes have been made in the roof of the reactor building at Units 5 and 6 to avoid the risk of a hydrogen explosion.

                          2. Radiation Monitoring

                          Radiation levels in major Japanese cities have not changed significantly since yesterday.

                          The IAEA radiation monitoring team took measurements at seven different locations in Tokyo and in the Kanagawa and Chiba Prefectures. Dose rates were well below those which are dangerous to human health.

                          The monitoring team are now on their way to Aizu Wakamatsu City, which is 97 km west of the Fukushima nuclear power plant. They have just provided initial measurements from three additional locations.

                          Measurements made by Japan in a number of locations have shown the presence of radionuclides - ie isotopes such as Iodine-131 and Caesium-137 - on the ground.

                          This has implications for food and agriculture in affected areas. The IAEA and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are consulting with the Japanese authorities on measures being taken in these areas related to food and agriculture.

                          The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has announced that radiation levels that exceeded legal limits had been detected in milk produced in the Fukushima area and in certain vegetables in Ibaraki. They have requested the Bureau of Sanitation at the Fukishima Prefectural Office, after conducting an investigation of the relevant information, to take necessary measures, such as identifying the provider of these samples and places where the same lots were distributed and banning sales based on the Food Hygiene Law. (Note: The text originally read out at the briefing was: "The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare informed the Agency that radiation levels exceeding legal limits had been detected in milk produced in the Fukushima area and in certain vegetables in Ibaraki. The Ministry ordered protective measures including a ban on sales of these products." An oral correction was made during the media briefing.)

                          We now have continuous online access to data from CTBTO radionuclide monitoring stations, which is being evaluated by Agency dosimetry specialists.

                          As far as the Fukushima Daini nuclear power plant is concerned, there is no record of any incidents or radiation releases at the site. Present elevated radiation levels at the Daini site are attributed by Japan to events at the Daiichi nuclear power plant.

                          3. Agency Activities

                          The Director General has left Tokyo for Vienna after meetings with senior government leaders and officials from the plant operator TEPCO.

                          As you know, he plans to brief the Board of Governors on Monday on the outcome of his trip.

                          → Watch video



                          Japanese Earthquake Update (19 March 2011 12:00 UTC) - Corrected
                          Contamination in Food Products around Fukushima

                          (Please note correction posted 19 March at 15:30 UTC in bold in text below. Apologies for the inconvenience.)

                          The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has confirmed the presence of radioactive iodine contamination in food products measured in the Fukushima Prefecture, the area around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. According to the latest data, the food products were measured from 16-18 March and indicated the presence of radioactive iodine. To date, no other radioactive isotopes have been shown to increase in the analysis of food products around Fukushima.

                          Though radioactive iodine has a short half-life of about 8 days and decays naturally within a matter of weeks, there is a short-term risk to human health if radioactive iodine in food is absorbed into the human body. If ingested, it can accumulate in and cause damage to the thyroid. Children and young people are particularly at risk of thyroid damage due to the ingestion of radioactive iodine.

                          Japanese authorities have implemented two critical measures to counter the contamination of food products by radioactive iodine. First, on 16 March, Japan's Nuclear Safety Commission recommended local authorities to instruct evacuees leaving the 20-kilometre area to ingest stable (not radioactive) iodine. As an established method of prevention, the ingestion of stable iodine can help to prevent the accumulation of radioactive iodine in the thyroid. Stable iodine pills and syrup (for children) have been made available at evacuation centres. Second, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has requested an investigation into the possible stop of sales of food products from the Fukushima Prefecture.

                          The IAEA has passed this information to the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and will continue to report on this development.

                          According to materials on its website, the FAO is prepared to respond upon request from the Government of Japan in the following areas:

                          - assessing radioactive contamination of the agricultural environment, especially foods
                          - providing technical advice and determining appropriate medium- and long-term measures for agriculture -- including soil, land, forests, crops, fisheries, animal health and welfare and food safety
                          - facilitating international trade of foods, including agricultural produce
                          The IAEA continues to gather information on this development and will report further as events warrant.


                          http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
                          Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                          The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                            VIENNA - The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has started sharing its monitoring data and analysis reports with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The CTBTO is responding to respective requests communicated on 17 March to use its data in assessing the situation following the recent nuclear accident in Fukushima and the possible dispersion of radioactive substances in Japan and the wider region.

                            Member States enjoy equal access to verification information

                            Tibor Tóth, the Executive Secretary of the CTBTO, informed Member States about the continued access to daily updates on monitoring data and analysis reports, including data from radionuclide stations and information on the possible spread of a radioactive release.
                            All CTBTO Member States are granted equal access to all verification-related information. Currently, 120 Member States make use of this opportunity. Scientists and experts in over 1,200 academic and scientific institutions all over the world receive CTBTO data and analysis information. As interest in CTBTO monitoring data has increased over the past few days, more scientific institutions are being granted access to this pool of information, upon request.

                            Global network to detect nuclear explosions

                            The CTBTO is building a global verification system to detect nuclear explosions in an effort to verify a comprehensive ban on nuclear testing. When complete, its 337-facility network of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound stations will watch underground, the oceans and the atmosphere, and its radionuclide stations will sniff the air for tell-tale signs of a nuclear explosion.

                            Nearly 270 monitoring stations, of which 63 are radionuclide sensors, are already operational and send data to the International Data Centre in Vienna, Austria, for processing and analysis. While the system is designed to detect nuclear blasts, it also picks up a vast amount of data that could potentially be used for civil and scientific purposes.
                            For further information on the CTBT, please see www.ctbto.org – your resource on ending nuclear testing,
                            or contact:
                            Annika Thunborg, Spokesperson and Chief, Public Information
                            T +43 1 26030-6375
                            E annika.thunborgping@ctbtopong.org
                            M +43 699 1459 6375
                            I www.ctbto.org
                            http://www.ctbto.org/press-centre/pr...-iaea-and-who/
                            Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                            The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Re: IAEA - International Atomic Energy Agency Updates

                              IAEA Briefing on Fukushima Nuclear Emergency (20 March 2011, 15.30 UTC)
                              On Sunday, 20 March 2011, Graham Andrew, Special Adviser to the IAEA Director General on Scientific and Technical Affairs, briefed both Member States and the media on the current status of nuclear safety in Japan. His opening remarks, which he delivered at 15:30 UTC at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna, are provided below:

                              1. Current Situation

                              There have been some positive developments in the last 24 hours, but the overall situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant remains very serious.

                              Efforts to restore electrical power to the site continue. Off-site electrical power has been connected to the local substation for Unit 2 today. Work is continuing under difficult conditions to connect power from the substation to the reactor building. Seawater is still being injected into the reactor pressure vessels of Units 1, 2 and 3. Water injection is not needed for Unit 4 as the reactor is in outage.

                              White smoke or vapour from Unit 3 is still being observed, but it is less intense than on previous days. Spraying of the reactor building with water is in progress. Following an initial rise in pressure in the Unit 3 reactor pressure vessel, plans were made to vent the vessel should it become necessary. However, from information recently provided by NISA they have decided not to vent as the vessel pressure has started to reduce.

                              The situation in the reactor spent fuel pools is relatively stable, but is still of concern. Spraying of water into the pool of Unit 4 started yesterday. The Agency still lacks data on water levels and temperatures at the spent fuel pools at Units 1, 2, 3 and 4.

                              A positive development is that cooling has been restored to the reactor pressure vessels in Units 5 and 6. Temperatures in the spent fuel pools at these two units, which had been rising in the last few days, have now fallen significantly to around 40 degrees centigrade from a maximum of about 69 degrees yesterday. Two diesel generators, one for each Unit, are providing electricity.

                              2. Radiation Monitoring

                              Radiation levels in major Japanese cities have not changed significantly since yesterday and remain below those which are dangerous to human health.

                              The IAEA radiation monitoring team took additional measurements yesterday between Tokyo and locations up to 150 km from the Fukushima site. Dose rates were typically a few microsieverts per hour compared to a typical background level of around 0.1 microsieverts per hour.

                              From the measurements taken within the exclusion zone, no significant alpha radiation has been detected so far.

                              This morning, we received additional data from the Agency's monitoring team which indicated contamination on the ground at a location 50 to 70 km from the Fukushima site. The team will make confirmatory measurements tomorrow at the same locations to help validate the initial results. Grass and other samples have also been taken by the team from various locations in the Fukushima Prefecture for analysis. In the coming days, the IAEA monitoring team plans to take measurements at the same locations monitored by the Japanese authorities. This will assist in the validation of measurements. The IAEA is sending additional monitoring experts to Japan to supplement its capabilities in the field.

                              Some results on the monitoring of foodstuffs have been made available by Japan to the IAEA and FAO. We can confirm measurements indicating that, in some areas, Iodine-131 in milk and in freshly grown leafy vegetables, such as spinach and spring onions, is significantly above the levels set by Japan for restricting consumption of these food products.

                              3. Agency Activities

                              The Director General has returned to Vienna and will brief the Board of Governors on Monday on the outcome of his visit to Tokyo.

                              Japan Earthquake Update (20 March 2011, 16:20 UTC)
                              Japanese authorities have notified the IAEA of progress at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. Workers today have successfully placed reactor Unit 5 (at 05:30 UTC) and 6 (at 10:27 UTC) into cold shutdown.

                              This means that the reactors are in a safe mode, with cooling systems stable and under control, and with low temperature and pressure within the reactor.

                              Officials are continuing efforts to restore plant systems at Daiichi Units 1-3.

                              Unit 4 had been shut down for maintenance, with all its fuel removed from the reactor core, before the 11 March earthquake.

                              Eight other reactors at the Fukushima Daini, Onagawa, and Tokai nuclear power plants were shut down automatically after the earthquake and all are now in cold shutdown.

                              Japanese Earthquake Update (20 March 2011 14:00 UTC)
                              Spent Fuel Pools at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant -- UPDATED

                              Spent fuel removed from a nuclear reactor is highly radioactive and generates intense heat. This fuel needs to be actively cooled for one to three years in pools that cool the fuel, shield the radioactivity, and keep the fuel in the proper position to avoid fission reactions. If the cooling is lost, the water can boil and fuel rods can be exposed to the air, possibly leading to severe damage and a large release of radiation.

                              The concern about the spent fuel pools at Fukushima Daiichi is that sources of power to cool the pools have been compromised. (See diagram below for location of the pool in each reactor building.)

                              Elevated radiation measurements at the site may be partially of the result of uncovered or overheated spent fuel.

                              Click image for larger version

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                              Here is a summary of spent fuel conditions at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, based on documents and confirmed by Japanese officials (new information in bold):

                              Unit 1

                              Unit 1 experienced an explosion on 12 March that destroyed the outer shell of the building's upper floors. No precise information has been available on the status of the spent fuel pool.

                              Unit 2

                              No precise information has been available on the status of the spent fuel pool. Authorities began adding 40 tonnes of seawater to the spent fuel pool on 20 March.
                              Unit 3

                              Unit 3 experienced an explosion on 14 March that destroyed the outer shell of the building's upper floors. The blast may have damaged the primary containment vessel and the spent fuel pool. Concerned by possible loss of water in the pool, authorities began spraying water into the building in an effort to replenish water levels. First, helicopters dropped seawater on 17 March, and every day since then, including today, emergency workers have sprayed water from fire trucks and other vehicles.
                              Unit 4

                              This reactor was shut down 30 November 2010 for routine maintenance, and all the fuel assemblies were transferred from the reactor to the spent fuel pool, before the 11 March earthquake. The heat load in this pool is therefore larger than the others.

                              On 14 March, the building's upper floors were severely damaged, possibly causing a reduction of cooling capability in the spent fuel pool. Emergency workers began spraying water into the building today.
                              Unit 5 and 6

                              Instrumentation at these reactors began to indicate rising temperatures at their spent fuel pools starting on 14 March. Three days later, Japanese technicians successfully started an emergency diesel generator at Unit 6, which they used to provide power to basic cooling and fresh-water replenishment systems. Workers created holes in the rooftops of both buildings to prevent any hydrogen accumulation, which is suspected of causing earlier explosions at Units 1 and 3.


                              A second generator came online on 18 March, and the next day, the higher-capability Residual Heat Removal system recovered full function. Temperatures in the spent fuel pools of Units 5 and 6 have gradually returned to significantly lower temperatures. (See graph at left.)

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                              Common Use Spent Fuel Pool

                              In addition to pools in each of the plant's reactor buildings, there is another facility -- the Common Use Spent Fuel Pool -- where spent fuel is stored after cooling at least 18 months in the reactor buildings. This fuel is much cooler than the assemblies stored in the reactor buildings. Japanese authorities have confirmed that fuel assemblies there are fully covered by water, and the temperature was 57 ˚C as of 20 March, 00:00 UTC.
                              http://iaea.org/newscenter/news/tsunamiupdate01.html
                              Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                              The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

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