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Schmallenberg virus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe - 2011/2012

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  • Schmallenberg virus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe - 2011/2012

    New orthobunyavirus detected in cattle in Germany

    SCOFCAH Brussels 6 December 2011

    Link to presentation
    “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
    Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

    ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

  • #2
    Re: New orthobunyavirus detected in cattle in Germany - Spreading to the Netherlands


    Link to report (in English) of Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut :

    New Orthobunyavirus detected in cattle in Germany - PDF

    New virus confirmed in cows and sheep in the Netherlands

    Deformed lambs were found in the Netherlands. Cows showed diarhea, fever and a decline in milkproduction.

    Today the virus was confirmed in the Netherlands.

    More news, in Dutch: http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/sho...d.php?t=176863

    Orthobunyaviruses of cattle are widely distributed in Oceania, Australia and Africa and, as a rule, initially cause very mild clinical symptoms.

    If pregnant animals are infected, however, temporarily delayed, sometimes considerable congenital damages, premature births and reproductive disorders may occur. Akabane-like viruses are mainly transmitted by biting midges. These viruses, which are of relevance for cattle, do not represent a threat to humans.

    They are not zoonotic. The relationship of the “Schmallenberg virus” with Shamonda, Aino and Akabane virus does not suggest a risk for humans.


    Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut
    “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
    Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

    ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

    Comment


    • #3
      Re: New orthobunyavirus detected in cattle in Germany - Spreading to the Netherlands

      Very informative article.

      The Schmallenbergvirus - found in Germany and the Netherlands - is an Akabane-like virus.


      Important note: Human infections with Akabane virus have not been reported.


      Akabane Disease

      Importance
      Akabane disease is a viral disease of ruminants that is mainly characterized by
      fetal damage. Inapparent infections in adults can lead months later to abortions,
      stillbirths and congenital defects in newborns.

      Most affected neonates die or must be euthanized. Before vaccines were developed,
      Akabane disease caused significant economic losses in some countries.
      Between 1972 and 1975, this virus resulted in the birth of more than 42,000 abnormal
      calves in Japan.

      A few strains of Akabane virus can also cause outbreaks of encephalomyelitis in
      calves and adult cattle. The latter syndrome has been considered rare, but in 2006,
      an outbreak affected nearly 200 cattle in Japan. There is no treatment for Akabane disease.

      read more: http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factshe...fs/akabane.pdf
      “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
      Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

      ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

      Comment


      • #4
        Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

        New European Schmallenbergvirus seems to resemble the Cache Valley Virus in the US

        The "Cache Valley Virus" is endemic in de United States.

        The sheep disease is causing stillbirths and deformed lambs. The symptoms caused by the "new" Schmallenbergvirus in the Netherlands and Germany seem to match the descriptions of the disease in the US.

        A striking detail: a possible human infection of a deerhunter. Apparently untill now it was a single case, an execption, because Akabane-like viruses don't infect humans. (Link to article: Life-Threatening Cache Valley Virus Infection )

        Much seems to be unknown about the Cache Valley Virus.

        In the US a vaccin is available.


        Cache Valley Virus

        Cache valley virus is a bunyavirus that causes fetal death, still-birth and congenital malformations such as arthrogryposis and anencephaly in sheep. This is an arbovirus that is transmitted by mosquitoes.

        Cache Valley virus as a human pathogen?

        Cache Valley virus has been suggested to be a cause of neural tube defects in humans, although a study in 1997 could not serologically link infection with anencephaly and other defects.

        Cache Valley virus was isolated from a deer hunter in North Carolina who suffered life-threatening, multi-organ failure, and recent serologic evidence suggests that deer may be a reservoir in nature.

        However, the true zoonotic impact of Cache Valley virus remains to be determined, and people are most likely infected via mosquito bites rather than by direct contact with infected animals.

        References:

        Edwards, J.F. and K. Hendricks. 1997. Lack of serologic evidence for an association between Cache Valley virus infection and anencephaly and other neural tube defects in Texas. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:195-197.

        McLean, R.G. et al. 1996. The role of deer as a possible reservoir host of potosi virus, a newly recognized arbovirus in the United States. J. Wildlife Dis. 32:444-452. (Also discusses CVV serology in deer)

        Sexton, D.J. et al. 1997. Life-threatening Cache Valley virus infection. N. Eng. J. Med. 336:547-549.


        VetMed


        Another report on Cache Valley Virus, with informative comment from the ProMEDmail moderator:


        CACHE VALLEY VIRUS, OVINE - USA: (NORTH DAKOTA)
        ***********************************************
        A ProMED-mail post
        http://www.isid.org
        ProMED-mail is a program of the
        International Society for Infectious Diseases
        http://www.isid.org

        Date: 14 Jan 2011

        Source: KFGO.com [edited]
        http://www.kfgo.com/agnews_Detail.php?ID=8624

        The Cache Valley virus may have been responsible for recent abortions in sheep in central North Dakota.

        "Preliminary laboratory investigation implicates the Cache Valley virus," says Neil Dyer, director of North Dakota State University's (NDSU) Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory.

        Determining whether Cache Valley was the cause of the abortions is difficult because the virus is not viable by the time its effects are noticed, he adds. Diagnosis often requires the demonstration of viral antibodies in serum or body fluids.

        "It has the most detrimental effect on ewes during the 1st trimester of pregnancy," says Reid Redden, NDSU Extension Service sheep specialist. "Wet and warm conditions during the late summer and fall of 2010 were just right to propagate this disease."

        Embryonic loss and fetal reabsorption occur in ewes that were infected with the virus within 30 days after breeding. Ewes infected with the Cache Valley virus from 30 to 45 days after breeding often will develop various congenital abnormalities affecting the nervous system, resulting in abortions, dystocia, weak lambs, stillbirths and lambs with severe structural deformities.

        Lambs born alive are often too weak to survive and die within minutes of birth. Lambs born to ewes that were infected with the virus after 45 days of pregnancy may have no adverse effects.

        "There is no effective treatment for lambs or ewes after the viral outbreak has occurred, nor is there a readily available vaccine," Redden says. "However, ewes that have been exposed to the virus appear to have lifetime immunity."

        The most effective method of protecting ewes from the Cache Valley virus is to minimize their exposure to mosquito-infested areas during and shortly after the breeding season.

        Numerous other infectious diseases also could result in abortions, as well as stillbirths and weak lambs, so producers who suspect the Cache Valley virus is in their flock should consult with their local veterinarian and/or the NDSU Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory to confirm the diagnosis, Redden says.

        -- communicated by: ProMED-mail promed@promedmail.org

        [Cache Valley virus (CVV) is similar to Akabane virus. CVV is a mosquitoborne member of the Bunyviradae family. The disease is currently considered endemic in the United States.

        Clinical signs in sheep include aborted fetuses, arthrogryposis (limb malformation), brachygnathia (lower jaw malformation), hydrocephaly (water on the brain), microcephaly (small brain), and spinal cord hypoplasia (under development) if the lamb is born alive. Those born alive usually do not survive long. The virus appears to have a predilection for the neurological tissue. The earlier in gestation the virus was acquire, the more severe the predilection. Infections between days 28-32 of gestation usually result in mummification and embryonic loss.

        Congenital malformation and detection of the antibodies in the fetal fluids greatly aid diagnosis. While an absence of antibodies in the dam is significant, absence of antibody detection in the lamb does not preclude diagnosis of the disease.

        In some areas vaccine is available and it should be used 30-60 days prior to breeding in an effort to prevent the disease. However, reducing the insect population, use of insect repellants and moving the flock away from low lying, water prone areas are also very helpful in preventing the disease. And some of these measures may be difficult to implement.

        Cache Valley virus (CVV), a mosquitoborne member of the Bunyamwera serogroup, family Bunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus, is geographically widespread in North America, where it circulates between mosquitoes and mammals (1). It has previously been associated with only a single case of human disease, a fatal case of acute encephalitis in the southeastern United States (2).

        1. Calisher CH, Francy DB, Smith GC, Muth DJ, Lazuick JS, Karabatsos N, et al. Distribution of Bunyamwera serogroup viruses in North America, 1956*1984. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1986;35:429-43.

        2. Sexton DJ, Rollin PE, Breitschwerdt EB, Corey GR, Myers SA, Dumais MR, et al. Life-threatening Cache Valley virus infection. N Engl J Med. 1997;336:547*9.

        Portions of this comment were extracted from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol12no05/05-1625.htm - Mod.TG

        ProMedmail
        “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
        Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

        ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

        Comment


        • #5
          Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

          Contrary to other reports, a vaccin doesn't seem to be available for Cache Valley Virus.

          Sheepproducers in North Dakota, US can use insecticide-treated ear tags .

          Pressrelease from Min of Agriculture ND:


          Goehring OKs ear tags to protect sheep from mosquitoes

          Submitted December 13, 2011

          BISMARCK – North Dakota sheep producers can now use insecticide-treated ear tags to protect their animals from exposure to a serious, mosquito-borne disease.

          “We had a rash of Cache Valley virus outbreaks across North Dakota in 2010,” said Agriculture Commissioner Doug Goehring. “I have therefore issued a special local needs (SLN) registration to Y-TEX Corp., allowing sheep producers to use PYthon™ Insecticide Cattle Ear Tags to better control mosquitoes that carry the virus.”

          Cache Valley virus can cause abortions, stillbirths, congenital abnormalities and weak lambs. Elsewhere in the country, sheep producers have recorded lamb losses from the virus as high as 80 percent. No effective treatments or vaccines are available.

          The PYthon tags are only registered for use on cattle to repel flies, lice and ticks. The SLN registration allows use of the tags on sheep to repel biting mosquitoes.

          “No federally registered products are available that adequately manage mosquitoes and prevent transmission of the virus,” Goehring said. “I am confident the situation meets the criteria of being a special local need.”
          The SLN labeling allows one tag per head of sheep. Use is prohibited on sheep less than three months of age. The product labeling provides detailed instructions on securing the tags to ears, as well as a requirement to remove tags before slaughter.

          Section 24(c) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act gives states the authority to register additional uses for federally registered pesticide products, or new products to meet special local needs. EPA reviews these registrations. Labeling for all active SLN registrations in North Dakota is available for viewing and downloading on the North Dakota online pesticide registration database, www.kellysolutions.com/nd/.

          Goehring said he relied on research and information from North Dakota State University sheep specialist Reid Redden in issuing the SLN registration.

          http://www.nd.gov/ndda/news/goehring...eep-mosquitoes
          “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
          Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

          ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

          Comment


          • #6
            Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

            Cache Valley Virus has been diagnosed not only in sheep, but also in cattle in the U.S., causing stillbirths, congenital anomalies(namely arthrogryposis-hydroencephaly or A-H) and a significant decrease in fertility rate.


            Read more: FIRST CASE OF CACHE VALLEY FEVER FOUND IN KANSAS


            .
            “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
            Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

            ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

            Comment


            • #7
              Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

              Risk Profile Humaan Schmallenbergvirus

              Prepared by Chantal Reusken and Marion Koopmans
              National institute of public health and the environment, Bilthoven, The Netherlands.


              Conclusion/recommendations.

              1) Based on the considerations mentioned above, zoonotic transmission of Schmallenbergvirus can not be excluded but is considered unlikely.

              2). The clinical syndrome associated with Schmallenberg virus in cattle peaked during the months August and September. Currently the circulation/transmission of Schmallenberg virus in cattle seems to have faded out. The recent increase in delivery of malformed lambs – if proven to be related to the infection- is likely resulting from intra-uterine exposure during prior months.

              3). If one would assume that Schmallenberg virus has zoonotic potential, there is no acute risk for human population at present (December 2011) when considering the vectorial transmission route (most likely midges). However, exposure risk during abortion or delivery of affected ruminants due to Schmallenberg virus is unknown.
              4). There have been no reports of unusual illness in humans in the months when the cattle syndrome peaked.

              5) The outbreak in cattle in Germany and the Netherlands could reoccur in the vector season in 2012 (based on epidemiology other orthobunyaviruses and bluetongue virus: survival in midges during winter). In this case these outbreaks should be monitored closely from a public health perspective: an increased awareness for putative zoonotic events is indicated, for instance by implementation of a surveillance system.

              6) We advice to initiate a monitoring system for diseases among professionals (farmers, veterinarians) that have been in close contact with abortion products or who conducted deliveries of affected calves/lambs. They will be advised to contact the local municipal health services. The national center for control of infectious diseases (LCI) will coordinate this system.

              7) Currently, diagnostic methods for this virus are limited to RT-PCR, and have not been validated. Improved diagnostic methods will be developed in the near future. The CIb is in contact with the FLI and CVI to prepare for laboratory response, in case such is needed.

              Full report: RIVM
              “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
              Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

              ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

              Comment


              • #8
                Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                Update: 28 sheepfarms have found deformed lambs; 15 more holdings are under suspicion.

                Livestock farmers worried about new virus

                Tuesday 20 December 2011

                Dutch livestock farmers are 'extremely worried' about a new virus which has been identified in adult cattle and in deformed lambs, Trouw reported on Tuesday evening.

                The virus has been named the Schmallenberg virus after the German location where it was first identified on November 18, the paper says. It is related to a group of viruses known as Orthobunya, which are usually found in Asia, Africa and Australia and do not transfer directly to humans.

                Trouw says since the beginning of December, 20 farms nationwide have reported the birth of lambs with brain or limb malformations, all of which were born dead or died soon after. The lambs all appear to be carrying the same virus as was reported in adult cattle on nine farms in the east of the country earlier this year.

                'Our big fear is that unborn cattle have been infected,' virologist Wim van der Poel from Wageningen University told the paper.

                The disease may have been spread by gnats, which benefited from the warm autumn, Trouw said.

                http://www.dutchnews.nl/news/archive...rried_abou.php
                “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                Comment


                • #9
                  Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                  From ProMED:

                  SCHMALLENBERG VIRUS - NETHERLANDS (03): UPDATE
                  **********************************************
                  Date: Wed 21 Dec 2011

                  From: Jet Mars, Petra Kock, Wim van der Poel and Piet Vellema

                  m.mars@gddeventer.com [edited]


                  Since December 2011, the Animal Health Service (GD) has received
                  reports of the birth of deformed lambs born with defects such as
                  torticollis (crooked neck), and arthrogryposis (deformed joints). Some
                  deformed lambs were born dead. Until 16 Dec 2011, this was reported
                  from 16 farms.

                  Since last week, these symptoms have been reported from another 14
                  farms, bringing the total to 30 farms. The affected farms are spread
                  throughout the entire country.

                  Affected lambs have been submitted for postmortem examinations at GD.
                  In some lambs, brain abnormalities were observed, such as
                  hydranencephaly or hypoplasia. On 16 Dec 2011, samples from 8 lambs
                  (from 2 farms) were tested by the CVI; in 2 lambs from the same farm,
                  the Schmallenberg virus was detected in brain tissue by RT-PCR (FLI,
                  Germany). On 19 Dec 2011, another 27 lambs from 9 farms had been
                  tested, and Schmallenberg virus was found in another 14 lambs (from 4
                  farms).

                  It was concluded that the Schmallenberg virus is the cause of the
                  disease. Earlier, other pathogens, which may cause similar clinical
                  signs, were excluded.

                  Two calves with arthrogryposis (from 2 farms) were also tested for
                  Schmallenberg virus by RT-PCR, but in these 2 calves, the virus was
                  not detected. However, it should be noted that Schmallenberg virus
                  cannot be excluded as the cause of malformations in these calves,
                  since it has been reported in literature that in orthobunyavirus
                  infections in cattle (like Akabane virus), the virus is often not
                  detected in newborn calves with deformities unless they are aborted
                  well before term.

                  --
                  Petra Kock
                  Animal Health Service

                  Wim van der Poel
                  Central Veterinary Institute of the Wageningen University and Research
                  Centre

                  Piet Vellema, Animal Health Service

                  Jet Mars
                  Diagnostic Development, Research and Epidemiology
                  Animal Health Service (GD),
                  POB 9, 7400 AA Deventer
                  The Netherlands
                  m.mars@gddeventer.com


                  Fragment of comment from ProMED moderator:

                  The
                  addition of "new" cases is, in fact, not to be regarded as a "spread"
                  of a disease; it reflects infections which, in fact, took place 3-4
                  months ago, when the foeti were infected in-utero during their 2nd or
                  3rd month of development.

                  If bovine foeti have been infected as well during the named season
                  (August-September 2011), the appearance of CNS-damaged calves
                  (hydranencephaly, etc.) is to be expected, mainly in February-March
                  2012, while arthrogryposis might appear earlier.
                  “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                  Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                  ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                    ECDC

                    Risk assessment: New Orthobunyavirus isolated from infected cattle and small livestock ─ potential implications for human health

                    22 Dec 2011

                    Main conclusions and recommendations:

                    In early November 2011, a new orthobunyavirus, provisionally named the Schmallenberg virus, was detected by metagenomic analysis and virus isolation from infected cattle in Germany. Similar findings have been reported from the Netherlands, where lambs have also been infected with the same virus in utero, resulting in congenital malformations.

                    Based on current evidence, it is not possible to confirm or exclude a causal relationship between detection of the new orthobunyavirus and the observed clinical symptoms in cattle and small livestock. Epidemiological, immunological and microbiological investigations are ongoing in Germany and the Netherlands.
                    According to health authorities in Germany and the Netherlands, further cases in cattle and small livestock can be expected.

                    Diagnostic capacity is currently limited to a real-time RT-PCR, which has to be further validated. Improved diagnostic methods, including serology, will facilitate identification of newly-affected holdings and geographic areas.
                    Previously, genetically similar orthobunyaviruses have not caused disease in humans. It is therefore unlikely that this virus will cause disease in humans, but it cannot be excluded at this stage.

                    Close collaboration between animal and human health services is necessary to ensure rapid detection of any change in the epidemiology of animals and humans. In particular, the health of farmers and veterinarians in close contact with potentially infected animals should be carefully monitored.
                    “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                    Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                    ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                      First case of Schmallenbergvirus confirmed in Belgium

                      BELGIE: Persbericht van het CODA en het FAVV.

                      23 DECEMBER 2011

                      Eerste vaststelling van het schmallenbergvirus in ons land

                      Het Belgische referentielaboratorium voor dierziekten CODA (Centrum voor Onderzoek in Diergeneeskunde en Agrochemie) heeft op donderdag 22 december 2011 voor het eerst het schmallenbergvirus aangetoond in ons land.

                      Het virus werd ontdekt bij pasgeboren lammeren, afkomstig van een bedrijf uit de provincie Antwerpen. Deze lammeren vertoonden misvormingen aan de ledematen en aan de hersenen. De dieren waren voor een autopsie aangeboden bij het opsporingscentrum van DGZ Vlaanderen.

                      Verschillende andere lammeren van het veebedrijf vertoonden gelijkaardige, zichtbare letsels bij de geboorte en sommige dieren werden dood geboren.

                      Behalve dit bedrijf worden op dit ogenblik nog een aantal andere verdachte bedrijven opgevolgd, waar eveneens doodgeboren en misvormde pasgeboren lammeren werden opgemerkt. Het CODA zal eerstdaags ook van deze bedrijven stalen onderzoeken.
                      “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                      Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                      ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                        Date: Fri 23 Dec 2011

                        From: Thierry van den Berg thvan@var.fgov.be [edited]


                        Schmallenberg virus - Belgium: 1st case
                        ---------------------------------------
                        Since the beginning of the month [December 2011], an increasing number
                        of abortions and births of deformed lambs have been observed in
                        Belgium. The affected farms are mainly located in the north of the
                        country.


                        Affected lambs have been submitted for postmortem examinations at the
                        Animal Health Center of DGZ Vlaanderen [Animal Healthcare Flanders].
                        In some lambs, brain abnormalities were observed, such as
                        hydranencephaly or hypoplasia. On 22 Dec 2011, samples from 5 lambs
                        from one farm were tested by the Belgian reference laboratory for
                        animal diseases (CODA-CERVA); in 3 lambs the Schmallenberg virus was
                        detected in the thymus by RT-PCR (according to the protocol kindly
                        provided by FLI [Friedrich Loeffler Institute], Germany).

                        The affected lambs came from a farm of about 180 ewes located in
                        Hoogstraten, in the Province of Antwerp, close to the Dutch border.
                        The 1st epidemiological investigations indicated that 60 ewes gave
                        birth, among which 20 gave birth to lambs with defects such as
                        torticollis (crooked neck) and arthrogryposis (deformed joints). Most
                        deformed lambs were born dead, but some were born alive as indicated
                        by the presence of milk in their stomach; nevertheless, those were not
                        viable and did not survive for long.

                        Additional samples coming from several suspect farms will be analyzed
                        during the next days.


                        --
                        Dr Brigitte Cay
                        Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre
                        Belgium
                        http://www.coda-cerva.be/

                        Dr Guido Bertels, Dr Hans Vanloo
                        DGZ Vlaanderen, Belgium
                        http://www.dgz.be/

                        Dr Thierry van den Berg
                        Operational Director Viral Diseases
                        Veterinary and Agrochemical Research Centre (VAR)
                        Groeselenberg 99
                        B-1180 Brussels, Belgium
                        thvan@var.fgov.be

                        [The firsthand, authoritative information above on the 1st discovery
                        of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) in newborn, congenitally-affected ovines,
                        is gratefully acknowledged. These affected lambs are the belated
                        clinicopathological expression of an infection which had taken place,
                        most probably, about 3-4 months ago, namely in August/September 2011.

                        The chronology of the events in Germany, Netherlands, and Belgium is
                        remarkable.
                        The same 3 countries were the first to be infected (and
                        report; see ProMED-mail 20060821.2353), in August 2006, by the BTV-8
                        virus, heralding its introduction to Europe.
                        The fact that both BTV-8
                        and SBV started their activity in August may reflect the presence of a
                        similar vector in all 3 counties. But why on earth (literally) did it
                        start, in both events, not only during the very same season, but also
                        within an almost identical geographical realm?! Food for thought --
                        and for intensified epidemiological studies.
                        - Mod.AS]

                        ProMEDmail
                        “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                        Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                        ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Re: New Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                          Source: http://www.dutchnews.nl/news/archive..._four_farm.php

                          Sheep virus found on four farms, 77 under investigation

                          Thursday 29 December 2011

                          A new virus which causes sheep to have deformed lambs has been formally identified on four farms in the Netherlands while a further 77 are under investigation, the food and consumer product safety body VWA said on Wednesday...

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                            From DEFRA - UK

                            Schmallenberg Virus in Northern Europe: a new orthobunyavirus in cattle

                            Situation Assessment

                            Date: 20th December 2011

                            - snip -

                            There are still uncertainties around this new virus, such as the vector responsible for
                            transmission, the geographic distribution, transmissibility of infected animals and the
                            origin. The virus has not been isolated, and as there is no serology test available at
                            present, serological surveillance is not possible.

                            Since the UK was made aware of the situation we have been carrying out scanning
                            surveillance in cattle. No similar reports of clinical signs in the UK have been made.

                            The more recent reports of the abortions and congenital deformities are of concern
                            and heightened awareness in animal keepers is recommended over the coming
                            months. This is because there is a low risk that inapparently infected cattle and
                            sheep may have been imported during 2011 from the affected area. Such animals
                            may have been exposed during early pregnancy with an increased risk of
                            developmental abnormality. Typical deformities in lambs have included crooked
                            necks, hydrocephalus and stiff joints. Most were born dead while infected live lambs
                            did not survive.

                            It may be too early to see the extent of problems in cattle and even in
                            sheep, case rates are not known. Therefore animal keepers would need to be aware
                            of lambs or calves born between now and Summer 2012 and report any abortions
                            and deformities, which may be submitted for testing, particularly if from imported
                            cattle or sheep. As infection may have occurred some time ago, it would be difficult
                            to take disease control measures.


                            Link to assessment - PDF
                            “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                            Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                            ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                              Source: http://www.rnw.nl/africa/bulletin/sh...27-dutch-farms

                              Sheep Virus Spreads to 27 Dutch Farms
                              Published on 30 December 2011 - 9:51pm

                              The Schmallenberg virus which causes lambs to be born deformed has now been found at 27 Dutch farms, Agriculture Deputy Minister Hans Bleker has told parliament.

                              At 55 farms probes are still under way and no evidence of the virus has been found at 26 other farms, the deputy minister writes in a letter to parliament...

                              Comment

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