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Schmallenberg virus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe - 2011/2012

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  • #16
    Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

    Note: according to a well informed source the confirmed "goat farm" in the Netherlands is not a farm: it is a single goat, kept as a hobby.



    Date: Tue 3 Jan 2011

    Source: Agrarisch Dagblad (AGD) [in Dutch, trans., edited]
    http://www.agd.nl/Melk/Nieuws/578857...tm?t_anon=none

    [subscription required]


    1st SBV case in goats
    ---------------------
    A goat farm in Dalfsen, Overijssel, initially suspected, has been
    confirmed Schmallenberg-virus [SBV] positive by the new Netherlands
    Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (nVWA). It is the 1st goat
    farm where the virus has been demonstrated. A 2nd goat farm with
    malformed kids is still under investigation.

    The number of SBV-confirmed sheep farms has risen to 33. The provinces
    of Utrecht and Flevoland are the only ones so far not found affected.
    In these provinces, the number of suspected farms was also the lowest,
    3 and 1 respectively.

    The province of Gelderland has been the affected most, with 26
    reported suspicions of which 9 have been SBV confirmed.

    The total number of farms which reported malformed offspring has risen
    to 126, including 49 cattle, 75 sheep, and 2 goat farms.
    None of the
    23 cattle farms already tested has been found infected. On 10 sheep
    farms, the virus was not demonstrated while 33 sheep farms have been
    found infected. Investigations are still pending on samples from 32
    sheep and 26 cattle farms.

    View a map of the affected farms at
    http://www.vwa.nl/onderwerpen/dierzi...allenbergvirus.

    [The Dutch official requirement for notification of malformations in
    ruminants seems to be effective, producing an impressive reporting
    harvest (though no denominator is available). Looking at the map and
    observing the widespread distribution of (most probably, vectorborne)
    cases throughout the country, it is difficult to perceive a lower
    incidence in neighbouring German and Belgian territories.

    According to the published results of Belgium's investigations as of
    30 Dec 2011, out of 20 ruminant animal farms with congenital
    malformations, 9 were found positive. This included 8 cattle farms
    (all negative), 11 sheep farms (9 positive), and 1 negative goat
    farm.

    The negative results in cattle farms in the 3 affected countries
    (according to Dutch official information, one cattle case has been
    confirmed in Germany) is in need of explanation; hopefully, more light
    will be shed on SBV during next week's discussions of EU's "Standing
    Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health" (SCOFCAH), to take
    place in Brussels on 11 Jan 2012. - Mod.AS
    ]

    ProMEDmail
    “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
    Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

    ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

    Comment


    • #17
      Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

      Schmallenbergvirus found in sheep in Germany and Denmark ?

      On a German internetforum of sheep breeders some reports on malformed and dead born lambs in Germany and in Denmark. The reports relate it to the Schmallenbergvirus.

      No reports on this in the Danish or German press untill now. We 'll have to wait for further confirmation.


      hier in DK wurde der virus bei totgeborenen, deformierten læmmer nachgewiesen, wenn ein lamm lebte, und diesen virus in sich trug, starb es nach wenigen tagen

      hier wird gesagt, dass der virus durch muecken uebertragen wird

      das sind dænische offizielle aussagen und nicht von mir pers.

      Die Problematik weitet sich deutlich aus. Die Lammzeit am Niederrhein hat begonnen, und inzwischen bittet das Labor in Krefeld nicht mehr darum, jeden Abort zur Abklärung anzuliefern, sie haben genug...

      Erste Einschätzungen liegen bei 10-25% mißgebildete Totgeburten oder nicht lebensfähige Lämmer. Es werden auch Zwillinge geboren, bei denen ein Lamm fit und das andere geschädigt ist. Entscheidend scheint das Trächtigkeitsstadium zu sein, in dem die Infektion stattfand, kritisch sind die ersten 3 Monate.

      Es gibt auch, wie bei der Blauzunge, erste Praktikermeinungen, nach denen bereits im letzten Jahr vereinzelt solche Mißbildungen und Aborte aufgetreten sind, wir also möglicherweise bereits im 2. Jahr des Infektionsgeschehens stehen.
      “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
      Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

      ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

      Comment


      • #18
        Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

        Originally posted by Gert van der Hoek View Post
        Schmallenbergvirus found in sheep in Germany and Denmark ?

        On a German internetforum of sheep breeders some reports on malformed and dead born lambs in Germany and in Denmark. The reports relate it to the Schmallenbergvirus.

        No reports on this in the Danish or German press untill now. We 'll have to wait for further confirmation.
        Sabine Zentis from Germany, who is well informed, send me a message via e-mail:

        - Untill now no Schmallenbergvirus (SBV) cases confirmed in Denmark, the source on the forum made a translation mistake;

        - Germany, veterinarian authorities soon will confirm SBV in sheep.

        .
        “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
        Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

        ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

        Comment


        • #19
          Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

          LINK: OIE-report

          04/01/2012: Schmallenberg disease, Netherlands, (Immediate notification)

          Information received on 05/01/2012 from Dr Christianne Bruschke, Chief Veterinary Officer , Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality, The Hague, Netherlands

          Summary

          Report type Immediate notification

          Start date 19/12/2011

          Date of first confirmation of the event 19/12/2011

          Report date 04/01/2012

          Date submitted to OIE 05/01/2012

          Reason for notification Emerging disease

          Morbidity 1 scale05

          Mortality 1 scale05

          Zoonotic impact No

          Causal agent Schmallenberg virus

          - snip -

          Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 39

          The disease has been made notifiable.

          The data collected relates to the cases of malformations identified in newborn sheep and goats. This notification was done to report an emerging disease which has not caused yet any mortality in adult animals in any farms in the country, while it seems it is causing fœtal malformations following intrauterine infections. A serological test will be developed that will give further insight in the number of cases. The nature of this viral disease will be detailed in the follow-up reports.

          OIE
          “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
          Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

          ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

          Comment


          • #20
            Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

            10 januari 2012

            Schmallenbergvirus confirmed on 14 sheepfarms in Germany


            The Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut confirmed today the schmallenbergvirus
            on 14 sheepfarms in Germany. Earlier the virus was found on 6 cattle farms.

            Also the FLI decided to publish the sequence of the virus. This is important for other countries who (may) have problems with the Schmallenbergvirus.

            Untill now the virus is confiremed in sheep in Germany, Netherlands and Belgium. Also in cattle in Germany.

            With the sequence it will be easier to develop a serological test. If the serological test is available, it is expected the schmallenbergvirus will be confirmed on more cattle farms.


            [B][SIZE="3"]

            Date: Tue 10 Jan 2012

            Source: Web-site of the Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI) [in German, trans. Sabine Zentis, summarised, edited]

            http://www.fli.bund.de/fileadmin/dam...s-20120110.pdf


            So far, 12 positive samples of cattle from 6 different farms in North-Rhine-Westphalia have been confirmed positive for SBV. One case was a twin calf that died 10 days prior to the expected birth date. Virus was detected in the abdominal liquid using the RT-PCR "Schmallenberg test."

            In addition, the virus was confirmed in the brains of lambs born with malformations from 14 holdings, 7 located in North-Rhine-Westphalia and the other 7 in Lower Saxony. The malformations are the result of infection of the dam in an early stage of pregnancy during summer/autumn 2011.

            The method to detect the virus has meanwhile been distributed to institutions in Belgium, France, The UK, The Netherlands and Italy.


            FLI

            ProMedmail

            Abgabe von Virusisolat, Sequenzinformationen und Nachweismethode

            .
            “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
            Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

            ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

            Comment


            • #21
              Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

              EU-document:[/I]

              Statement on the Schmallenberg Virus Situation Issued by
              the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health (SCoFCAH)


              11 January 2012

              The information presented by Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium at the meeting of 11
              January 2012 shows that a newly detected virus has circulated in the second semester 2011
              amongst livestock ruminants causing non-specific clinical signs in cattle and congenital
              malformations, mainly in sheep and more seldom in cattle and goats.

              The Member States and the Commission acknowledge the efforts made by these three
              Member States to provide the best possible scientific information on the risks posed by this
              virus, in full transparency.

              The virus in question belongs to the Bunyaviridae family, genus Orthobunyavirus and has
              been tentatively named "Schmallenberg virus". This virus belongs to a vector-transmitted
              group of viruses making direct transmission from animal to animal unlikely. However, vertical
              transmission from dam to newborn via the intrauterine route does occur as with other similar
              viruses. This group of viruses very often are associated with mild clinical signs of disease or
              with subclinical infection in ruminants.

              So far, cases of disease have been detected in 20 farms in Germany (in cattle and sheep), in
              52 farms in the Netherlands (in sheep, and one case in goat), and in 14 farms in Belgium (in
              sheep, only). No clear geographical clusters of these cases has been shown, so far. This may
              suggest that the undetected subclinical cases of infection in ruminants may be many more,
              but the current lack of serological tests renders epidemiological investigations difficult.


              Although the congenital malformation in newborn animals have been detected recently and
              are still being detected in these days, they are most likely caused by transmission of virus by
              insect vectors that occurred in summer and early autumn, during pregnancy.

              There is no evidence that the Schmallenberg virus could cause illness in humans. The Member
              States and the Commission took note of the preliminary assessment carried out by the
              European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) on the zoonotic risks of the
              Schmallenberg virus which indicates that "it is unlikely that this virus can cause disease in
              humans, but it cannot be completely excluded at this stage1".

              The Member States and the Commission recognise that the information on the Schmallenberg
              virus is still fragmented and mostly extrapolated from data available on genetically similar
              viruses in the Orthobunyaviridae genus (Simbu serogroup, like the Akabane virus). The
              situation needs to be reassessed once new data will be available. Awareness should be
              improved amongst veterinary services and stakeholders in order to better understand and
              address the possible risks associated with this virus.

              Given that this virus is likely transmitted by means of insect vectors, further virus circulation
              in the current winter is unlikely to occur. This will allow Member States time to gather further
              data and to plan further actions in view of a possible reoccurrence of disease in spring and
              summer.

              The Member States and the Commission consider that it is therefore necessary to continue
              field investigations and surveys on this virus that would generate data on which the possible
              disease control measures should be based. They therefore agree to develop a guidance
              document on surveillance as a matter of urgency.

              The Member States also invited the Commission to identify possible ways to provide financial
              support to the above investigations.
              “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
              Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

              ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

              Comment


              • #22
                Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                Presentations on Schmallenberg-virus from the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium. They come from the European SCoFCAH meeting which was held yesterday.



                "Schmallenberg virus in the Netherlands"

                “Schmallenbergvirus” in Germany

                Schmallenbergvirus detected in Belgium

                .
                “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                Comment


                • #23
                  Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle and sheep in Europe

                  Source: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/20...-animal-virus/

                  New Animal Virus Takes Northern Europe by Surprise

                  * By ScienceNow Email Author
                  * January 13, 2012 |
                  * 4:28 pm

                  Wired Science News for Your Neurons
                  New Animal Virus Takes Northern Europe by Surprise

                  * By ScienceNow Email Author
                  * January 13, 2012 |
                  * 4:28 pm |
                  * Categories: Animals, Medicine
                  *

                  By Kai Kupferschmidt, ScienceNOW

                  Scientists in northern Europe are scrambling to learn more about a new virus that causes fetal malformations and stillbirths in cattle, sheep, and goats. For now, they don’t have a clue about the virus’s origins or why it’s suddenly causing an outbreak; in order to speed up the process, they want to share the virus and protocols for detecting it with anyone interested in studying the disease or developing diagnostic tools and vaccines.

                  The virus, provisionally named “Schmallenberg virus” after the German town from which the first positive samples came, was detected in November in dairy cows that had shown signs of infection with fever and a drastic reduction in milk production. Now it has also been detected in sheep and goats, and it has shown up at dozens of farms in neighboring Netherlands and in Belgium as well. According to the European Commission’s Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health, cases have been detected on 20 farms in Germany, 52 in the Netherlands, and 14 in Belgium. Many more suspected cases are being investigated. “A lot of lambs are stillborn or have serious malformations,” Wim van der Poel of the Dutch Central Veterinary Institute in Lelystad says. “This is a serious threat to animal health in Europe.”

                  “We are taking this very, very seriously,” adds Thomas Mettenleiter, head of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute (FLI), the German federal animal health lab located on the island of Riems. The virus appears to be transmitted by midges (Culicoides spp.),...

                  Comment


                  • #24
                    Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep. goats and pigs in Europe

                    Edit: today the swine were changed in sheep, as it should be.

                    Belgium reports 9 locations with Schmallenbergvirus in pigs

                    20 januari 2012

                    Via FAO website Belgium reported 9 locations with Schmallenberg virus in pigs. The virus is confirmed on small holdings: between 4 and 60; one has 216 pigs.

                    The report doesn't have much details. Among other things is says : 2 cases, 2 deaths.for example.

                    It looks like it is about piglets?

                    At the moment it is widely accepted the Schmallenbergvirus is an "Akabane-like"-virus. Untill now hardly any infections were found of Akabane-virus in pigs.
                    Exception is Taiwan. Infections were reported in pigs and piglets in Taiwan, however not health problems. May be the (free ranging) pigs could serve as a reservoir for the virus. The same could be true for horses or deer.

                    The piglets could have died from another cause.

                    Let's hope for the best.


                    An example of a report (click on the link to see the original):
                    Bron: FAO

                    Disease Event Detail print

                    General Info

                    Disease Event ID 166692

                    Reporting date 12/01/2012

                    Observation date 18/12/2011

                    Location

                    Region Europe

                    Admin 1 (Country) Vlaams Gewest (Belgium)

                    Locality Verrebroek

                    Lat/Long 51.25 / 4.18

                    Coords quality Unknown


                    Diagnosis

                    Status Confirmed

                    Disease Schmallenberg

                    Serotype

                    Source OIE



                    Map
                    0.00000, 0.00000

                    Species affected

                    An.Type Domestic

                    An.Class Mammal

                    Species Swine

                    At Risk 60

                    Cases 2

                    Deaths 2


                    Destroyed -

                    Slaughtered -


                    Laboratory Tests

                    Disease Tested Schmallenberg

                    Species unspecified mammal

                    Test RRT-PCR (real-time reverse transcriptase PCR)

                    Result Positive

                    Result Date 06/01/2012
                    Last edited by Gert van der Hoek; January 25th, 2012, 04:48 AM. Reason: swine >>> sheep
                    “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                    Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                    ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                    Comment


                    • #25
                      Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe

                      Unconfirmed report from Norfolk, UK:malformed lambs, possible Schmallenberg virus

                      Via Twitter these reports on malformed lambs born in Norfolk, UK.

                      Apparently Schmallenberg virus is suspected.


                      Diagonose will be confirmed next week.

                      farmerkit Kit Papworth

                      We have lost almost 20 lambs to #Schmallenberg virus this week. New problem for us. Working closely with vets.
                      farmerkit Kit Papworth

                      Lambs being born with fused joints, esp front legs. Horrid. Suspect that we will not be the only ones. Just that we lamb early.
                      farmerkit Kit Papworth

                      Should get confirmation next week.
                      Edit:

                      Quote from Defra Assesment:

                      Meteorological studies: The Met Office has produced a list of days when
                      incursion of potentially infected midges from the affected areas on the
                      continent to the UK was possible during the risk period end July- November
                      2011, using the NAME model developed for bluetongue investigation. There
                      were 4-8 days per month during this period when conditions were suitable for
                      transport of midges from the Belgian and Dutch coast, and the counties of
                      Sussex, Kent, Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk may have been at risk during this
                      period.
                      Defra

                      .
                      Last edited by Gert van der Hoek; January 21st, 2012, 04:50 PM. Reason: Defra quote
                      “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                      Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                      ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                      Comment


                      • #26
                        Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe

                        Correction FAO-Empres report on Schmallenberg disease in pigs in Belgium

                        jan 22 2012

                        Last friday the FAO-Empres system reported a number of Schmallenberg outbreaks in pigs in Belgium.

                        See: Belgium reports 9 locations with Schmallenbergvirus in pigs

                        In response to my questions CODA-CERVA told me they don't have knowledge of any Schmallenberg outbreak in pigs in Belgium.

                        After receiving that answer, I compared an example FAO report which I reported here with the OIE-reports from Belgium. I found a match (outbreak nr. 8): same dates, same location, same number of animals.

                        Apparently FAO made a mistake when they copied the OIE-report. Pigs instead of sheep.

                        During the weekend the FAO-Empres system is offline, so it cannot be verified.

                        I assume the FAO will correct the reports tomorrow.

                        No Schmallenberg in pigs, that is good news! Let's hope for the best.
                        “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                        Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                        ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                        Comment


                        • #27
                          Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe

                          DEFRA confirms Schmallenberg virus in four sheep

                          jan 23 2012

                          A Dutch newspaper says the UK confirmed Schmallenberg virus in four sheep.

                          More later.


                          Groot-Brittannië meldt vandaag ook de eerste besmettingen met het virus te hebben vastgesteld, bij vier schapen.
                          AGD
                          “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                          Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                          ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                          Comment


                          • #28
                            Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe

                            Schmallenberg virus detected in eastern England

                            23 January 2012 | By Alistair Driver

                            The Schmallenberg virus (SBV) has been confirmed in the UK.

                            The new livestock disease, which affects cattle, sheep and goats, has been formally identified on four sheep farms in Norfolk, Suffolk and East Sussex.

                            It was probably carried over to eastern England via midges from mainland Europe, where it was first identified in before Christmas.

                            AHVLA obtained samples from animals with clinical signs consistent with SBV infection last week. The samples were analysed at the Virology Laboratory, AHVLA Weybridge based on information provided by the Netherlands and the Friedrich Loeffler Institute.

                            An AHVLA spokesman said: “We have finished the initial analysis of samples we have received as a result of our enhanced surveillance for this new disease. We have identified the Schmallenberg Virus in some of these samples and as we continue surveillance we may find further cases.

                            “These samples came from the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk and East Sussex. These counties are in the area that we had identified as potentially being at risk from infected midges blown across the Channel from the affected areas and we suspect that this is the most likely cause of transmission.”

                            More detail soon.

                            Farmers Guardian

                            thanks to Warmwell
                            “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                            Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                            ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                            Comment


                            • #29
                              Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe

                              From AHVLA

                              Schmallenberg Virus: Updated 23 January 2012

                              On January 23 AHVLA reported the presence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) on four sheep farms in Norfolk, Suffolk and East Sussex. Last week we obtained samples from animals with clinical signs consistent with SBV infection via our Regional Laboratory network. The samples were analysed at the Virology Laboratory, AHVLA Weybridge based on information provided by the Netherlands and the Friedrich Loeffler Institute.

                              Specific RT-PCR products were detected by two independent means from two different genes of SBV. Along with the sequence information we have obtained, all combined with the clinical picture seen, we consider this now provides a sufficient level of laboratory confirmation to conclude that SBV has been detected in GB sheep.




                              News item on 12 January 2012

                              Since August 2011, both the Netherlands and Germany have reported outbreaks of a disease in cattle, with clinical signs including fever, reduced milk yield, inappetence, loss of body condition and, principally in Dutch herds, diarrhoea. Herds experienced outbreaks of disease lasting 2-3 weeks, with individual affected animals recovering over several days. More recently (November 2011 onwards) there have been reports of miscarriages and stillbirths associated with congenital (present at birth) abnormalities affecting mainly sheep but also cattle and goats. Tests carried out on cases in Germany and the Netherlands have identified a novel virus that has tentatively been named Schmallenberg virus (SBV). This virus appears to belong to a group of viruses that are spread by insect vectors, principally midges and mosquitoes, although a vector that may be responsible for transmission of SBV has not been identified yet.

                              According to an initial risk assessment carried out by public health authorities in the Netherlands and a follow-up risk assessment by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, although there are still some uncertainties, the risk to human health from SBV is likely to be very low. Nevertheless, farmers and veterinary surgeons are advised to take sensible hygiene precautions when working with livestock.

                              Further information, including an AHVLA briefing note on the current situation can be found on the international disease monitoring page on the Defra website. Please contact your local AHVLA Regional Laboratory or SAC Disease Surveillance Centre if you require further guidance or information.

                              AHVLA
                              “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                              Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                              ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

                              Comment


                              • #30
                                Re: Schmallenbergvirus : new Akabane-like virus in cattle, sheep and goats in Europe

                                Updates in Dutch :

                                http://www.flutrackers.com/forum/sho...d.php?t=176863


                                Presentations on Schmallenberg-virus from the Netherlands, Germany and Belgium.
                                They are from the European SCoFCAH meeting on jan 11 2012.

                                "Schmallenberg virus in the Netherlands"

                                “Schmallenbergvirus” in Germany

                                Schmallenbergvirus detected in Belgium

                                .

                                .
                                “Addressing chronic disease is an issue of human rights – that must be our call to arms"
                                Richard Horton, Editor-in-Chief The Lancet

                                ~~~~ Twitter:@GertvanderHoek ~~~ GertvanderHoek@gmail.com ~~~

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