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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Philippines (12/10/2008) [OIE-WAHID; EBOLA RESTON VIRUS IN LIVESTOCK, 1st Report]

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  • Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Philippines (12/10/2008) [OIE-WAHID; EBOLA RESTON VIRUS IN LIVESTOCK, 1st Report]

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Philippines (12/10/2008) [OIE-WAHID]

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Philippines

    [Full PDF document at LINK]

    Information received on 10/12/2008 from Mr Davinio P. Catbagan, Chief Veterinary Officer, Department of Agriculture, Office of the Director of the Bureau of Animal Industry, QUEZON CITY, Philippines

    ? Summary

    Report type Immediate notification
    Start date 10/07/2008
    Date of first confirmation of the event 30/10/2008
    Report date 10/12/2008
    Date submitted to OIE 10/12/2008
    Reason for notification Unexpected increase in morbidity or mortality of a listed disease
    Causal agent Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus
    This event pertains to the whole country

    ? Epidemiology
    Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection Unknown or inconclusive
    Introduction of new live animals

    ? Epidemiological comments
    In the district of Sto Nino (Pandi municipality, Bulacan province), the mortality was mostly observed in piglets. In the district of Pinagpanaan (Talavera municipality, Nueva Ecija province), all animals were downers with clinical signs suggestive of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS)/Classical swine fever/Porcine circovirus type 2.
    The Philippines has experienced a sudden increase in mortalities in pigs in the latter part of the second quarter of 2007 until the first quarter of 2008. The clinical signs exhibited by the diseased animals indicated atypical infection, which can be attributed to more than one pathogen.
    Samples from the outbreaks were sent to the USDA Plum Island laboratory.
    Results show that samples were positive for porcine circovirus type 2 and atypical PRRS virus, which is 98% homologous to the atypical PRRS virus isolated in China and Vietnam. With high morbidity and mortality observed similar to China and Vietnam, it was concluded that these outbreaks were most likely caused by atypical PRRS virus.
    The USDA Plum Island laboratory also reported to have isolated Reston Ebola virus from swine samples.
    Although considered of negligible public health importance, as indicated in the literatures and by the previous incident in the Philippines in a monkey farm in early 1990s with no human cases in spite of close contact with the monkeys, as a precautionary measure the BAI-DA (Bureau of Animal Industry ? Department of Agriculture) and the DOH (Department of Health) immediately organised a team to investigate the affected areas.
    Samples were collected from people and animals in the affected areas. Serum samples from animal caretakers and other people exposed to the animals were collected and tested at the DOH-RITM (Department of Health - Research Institute for Tropical Medicine), and all indicated negative results to Ebola-Reston antibodies.
    Results from animals are still pending the arrival of kits for swine testing from CDC Atlanta (Centers for disease control and prevention), which have committed to send in the Philippines. All animals in the affected areas have been put under strict quarantine. The BAI-DA and DOH team will continue to conduct epidemiological investigation.

    ? Increased Distribution
    Disease Impact: Increased - Province - Species - Change
    * Morbidity - BULACAN - Swine - 5%=>20%
    * Morbidity - NUEVA ECIJA - Swine - 5%=>100%
    * Mortality - BULACAN - Swine 5%=>20%

    ? Control measures
    Measures applied Movement control inside the country
    Vaccination in response to the outbreak (s): Administrative division - Species - Total Vaccinated - Details
    * BULACAN - Swine - 5000 - Ongoing

    Disinfection of infected premises/establishment(s)
    No treatment of affected animals

    Measures to be applied No other measures

    ? Diagnostic test results
    Laboratory name and type Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory, Plum Island, New York (National laboratory)
    Tests and results: Species - Test - Test date - Result
    * Swine - virus isolation - 30/10/2008 - Positive

    ? Future Reporting
    The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.