No announcement yet.


  • Filter
  • Time
  • Show
Clear All
new posts

  • Switzerland-Bluetongue

    <TABLE summary=""><TBODY><TR><TD noWrap align=right>Published Date</TD><TD noWrap align=left>28-OCT-2007</TD></TR><TR><TD noWrap align=right>Subject</TD><TD noWrap align=left>PRO/AH/EDR> Bluetongue - Europe (49): BTV-8, Switzerland</TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

    BLUETONGUE - EUROPE (49): BTV-8, SWITZERLANDDate: Sun 28 Oct 2007Source: News release, Swiss confederation [trans. from German, abridged, edited]<>Bluetongue disease has been diagnosed in a beef farm in the canton of Bern in Switzerland on 28 Oct 2007. Six out of 19 bovines have tested positive for BT virus (BTV). One animal had to be put down because of severe clinical disease.A 20-km protection zone has been established around the affected holding.--Communicated by:Sabine ZentisCastleview Pedigree English LonghornsGut Laach52385 Nideggen<>[Basel is on the French and German borders; see map at<>.Most probably, the BTV involved is BTV-8, similar to the one spread throughout neighboring France and Germany. A laboratory confirmation is expected.Switzerland has become Europe's 8th country infected by BTV-8. The others are Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and UK. - Mod.AS]

  • #2
    Re: Switzerland-Bluetongue


    Date: Mon 29 Oct 2007
    Source: OIE WAHID (World Animal Health Information Database) Disease
    Information 2007; 20(44) [edited]

    Bluetongue, Switzerland

    Information received on (and dated) 29 Oct 2007 from Mr Hans Wyss, chief
    veterinary officer, Schwarzenburgstrasse 161, Swiss Federal Veterinary
    Office, Liebefeld Berne, Switzerland

    Report type: immediate notification
    Start date: 26 Oct 2007
    Date of confirmation of event: 28 Oct 2007
    Date submitted to OIE: 29 Oct 2007
    Reason for notification: 1st occurrence of a listed disease
    Manifestation of disease: clinical disease
    Causal agent: bluetongue virus, serotype 8
    Nature of diagnosis: suspicion, clinical, laboratory (basic), laboratory
    Report pertains to: entire country

    New outbreaks
    Summary of outbreaks
    Total outbreaks: 1 (BT_CH_1)
    Outbreak location: Bettingen, Basel-Stadt
    Date of start of outbreak: 26 Oct 2007
    Outbreak status: continuing (or date resolved not submitted)
    Epidemiological unit: farm

    Affected animals
    Species: cattle
    Susceptible: 19
    Cases: 6
    Deaths: 0
    Destroyed: 1
    Slaughtered: 0
    Affected population: 9 suckler cows, 6 cows serological and virological
    positive, one cow with clinical signs
    . Additionally, there are 10 dairy
    cows on the farm, tested negative. Animals from the neighbouring farm have
    also been tested with negative results.

    Outbreak statistics
    Species: cattle
    Apparent morbidity rate: 32 per cent
    Apparent mortality rate: 0 per cent
    Apparent case fatality rate: 0 per cent
    Proportion susceptible removed*: 5.26 per cent
    * Removed from the susceptible population either through death,
    destruction, or slaughter

    Source of infection: vectors
    Epidemiological comments: Switzerland has declared the whole country as
    restriction zone according to EU regulations since 9 Oct 2007. Now a 20 km
    (12 mile) infection zone has been established according to EU legislation.
    Vaccination is currently not allowed, but may be permitted according to the
    future situation.

    Diagnostic test results:
    Laboratory name and type: Institut fuer Viruskrankheiten und
    Immunprophylaxe IVI (National laboratory)
    Species: cattle
    Test: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
    Test date: 27 Oct 2007
    Result: positive
    Species: cattle
    Test: real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction)
    Test date: 28 Oct 2007
    Result: positive

    communicated by:

    [In ProMED-mail posting "Bluetongue - Europe (49): BTV-8, Switzerland
    20071028.3504," Basel was erroneously replaced by Bern. We regret the
    error. - Mod.AS

    Basel, which is located very close to the French and Germany borders with
    (see interactive map at
    <,8.2,5>) lies well within the bluetongue
    restriction zone, so it is not surprising to receive notice of an outbreak.

    For a map of the restriction zones across Europe, see

    The report mentions that vaccine use is presently prohibited. It is to be
    hoped that a good hard freeze will occur, eliminate the midge vector, and
    provide some respite at least until next year (2008).
    A thorough risk
    assessment process can then be undertaken to decide on whether vaccine can
    be part of an ongoing control strategy. With the spread of BTV-8 to
    Scandinavia and now Switzerland, an optimal control plan is imperative. -

    In this update:
    [1] Europe: BTV-8 vectors
    [2] Switzerland: Basel, not Bern (correction)

    [1] Europe: BTV-8 vectors
    Date: Tue 30 Oct 2007
    Source: FMD & CSF Coordination Action website: presentation given at the
    2nd International Disease Control Workshop, Brussels, 18 Oct 2007 [extract,

    The following presentation on the updated entomological aspects of the
    current BTV-8 epizootic in Europe, deserves the attention of subscribers. -

    R Meiswinkel, C Staubach, E Dijkstra, P Leijs. Overview of the bluetongue
    situation in Europe with emphasis on the _Culicoides_ vectors. presentation
    given at the 2nd International Disease Control Workshop, Brussels, 18 Oct 2007
    a. Marked changes in vector abundances
    1. In southern Holland in 2006 _C. dewulfi_ comprised 17 per cent of the
    midges captured (and _C. obsoletus_ 68 per cent); the reverse occurred this
    year [2007] with _C. dewulfi_ now dominant. If this applied elsewhere in
    northern Europe then it might partly explain the intensity of the outbreak
    this season.

    2. There is no explanation for the increased abundances of _C. dewulfi_ and
    may have been the case also in 2006 (but occurred before entomological
    monitoring was implemented).
    3. Nevertheless, the Obsoletus Complex has remained the most widespread
    vector in 2007. Therefore, like in 2006, 2 or more species of _Culicoides_
    appear to be driving the epidemic forward.
    4. Like last year [2006], _C. pulicaris_ has NOT once been dominant in
    5. _C. imicola_ has NOT been found amongst more than 500 000 _Culicoides_
    captured. In a sense this is dire news demonstrating that _Culicoides_
    endemic to Europe can disseminate BTV and on a vast scale.

    b. The revelation that vector species are also diurnally active raises 2
    1. Is BTV being transmitted during the day when animals are still at pasture?
    2. Given this possibility, is it sufficient to monitor for _Culicoides_
    using blacklight traps only?

    c. The attack of livestock by day and at night, both indoors and outdoors,
    complicates our fight against BT, and at this juncture vector control holds
    little promise in our quest to halt the spread of the disease.

    1. In 2007 BT continued to spread and included a jump across the English
    Channel. The BT restriction zone now covers an area of almost one million
    sq/km (386 102 sq/mi).
    2. There are no obvious geographical or topographic boundaries that might
    halt the dramatic advance of BTV-8. This makes it likely that it will
    continue to spread in 2008 (and beyond) until it reaches the (as yet
    unknown) limits of its range.
    3. This is daunting when it is considered that vector _Culicoides_ (and
    ruminant hosts) occur across the entire Holarctic Region.
    4. The Holarctic includes the Mediterranean Basin where _C. imicola_ lies
    in wait, and North America, where outbreaks of BT and epizootic
    haemorrhagic disease of deer virus (EHDV) (another _Culicoides_-borne
    pathogen) are occurring also.

    5. Warmer winters in future will add to the conundrum by promoting rather
    than suppressing virus survival and vector longevity.

    communicated by:
    ProMED-mail rapporteur Mary Marshall

    [Subscribers are encouraged to download the entire presentation [from the
    URL above], and are referred to Dr Meiswinkel's previous contribution in
    ProMED-mail posting 20061024.3042. - Mod.AS]


    • #3
      Re: Switzerland-Bluetongue

      Bad. But why is prohibited the use of the vaccine?
      Isn't this kind of policy proliferate the illness spreading?

      Vaccination is currently not allowed, but may be permitted (?!?)according to the future situation.