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South Africa - Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 in birds

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  • #46
    Avian Influenza Update

    26 FEBRUARY 2018

    Posted by:
    African Penguin & Seabird Sanctuary

    The highly pathogenic H5N8 strain of avian influenza has caused the death of a small number of African penguins. Although this is cause for concern, there is very little we can do to prevent a possible outbreak. It is a frustrating situation because our natural reaction is to “DO SOMETHING”. Unfortunately,this is one of those situations where we will just have to hope that the natural resilience of the tenacious African penguin will weather the storm.

    The APSS has managed to treat one African penguin successfully but the prognosis for successful treatment after neurological symptoms have set in is not good.

    The Department of Environmental Affairs, Oceans & Coast branch, all management authorities of seabird colonies and seabird rehabilitation facilities are monitoring the situation. Necessary precautionary protocols to contain the spread of the disease have been implemented. Extended surveillance and collaboration across sectors are assisting with further epidemiological evaluations.
    ...

    https://xplorio.com/gansbaai/african...luenza-update/

    -----------------------------------------------------------------------


    African Penguin and Seabird Sanctuary - APSS
    Yesterday ·

    https://www.facebook.com/apssZA/phot...type=3&theater
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • #47
      ALAN WINDE: BIRD FLU HAS COST CT FARMERS AT LEAST R800M

      Kaylynn Palm | about 2 hours ago

      CAPE TOWN - The Provincial Economic Opportunities Department says the bird flu outbreak has cost Cape Town farmers around R800 million.
      ...
      Winde says last year 2.4 million of the province's layer hens were culled as a result of the infection, impacting on egg production and supply.
      ...
      “Since October last year still no further infections in formal or organised agriculture. The infections that we are still experiencing in the province have been isolated around wild birds and specifically, we have picked up of later, infections in the marine bird environment.”
      ...
      Meanwhile, infections among endangered penguins are being treated.
      ...
      http://ewn.co.za/2018/03/05/winde-bi...at-least-r800m
      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
      -Nelson Mandela

      Comment


      • #48
        Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds),
        South Africa
        Information received on 13/03/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
        Summary
        Report type Follow-up report No. 19
        Date of start of the event 30/06/2017
        Date of confirmation of the event 30/06/2017
        Report date 09/03/2018
        Date submitted to OIE 13/03/2018
        Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
        Causal agent Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
        Serotype H5N8
        Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
        This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
        Related reports Immediate notification (24/07/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 1 (15/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 2 (22/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 3 (31/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 4 (05/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 5 (08/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 6 (15/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 7 (22/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 8 (29/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 9 (06/10/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 10 (17/10/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 11 (30/10/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 12 (13/11/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 13 (29/11/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 14 (08/01/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 15 (22/01/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 16 (02/02/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 17 (21/02/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 18 (01/03/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 19 (09/03/2018)
        New outbreaks (9)
        Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_157) HPAI_H5N8_2017_157, Hessequa, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 24/01/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 2 2 0 0
        Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_156) HPAI_H5N8_2017_156, City of Cape Town, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 25/01/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
        Outbreak 3 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_158) HPAI_H5N8_2017_158, Swartland, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 29/01/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
        Outbreak 4 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_160) HPAI_H5N8_2017_160, Overstrand, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 29/01/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) 1 1 0 0
        Outbreak 5 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_165) HPAI_H5N8_2017_165, Nelson Mandela Bay, EASTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 10/02/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
        Outbreak 6 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_159) HPAI_H5N8_2017_159, Overstrand, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 16/02/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Spotted eagle-owl:Bubo africanus(Strigidae) 1 0 1 0
        Outbreak 7 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_161) HPAI_H5N8_2017_161, Saldanha Bay, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 21/02/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1 1 0 0
        Outbreak 8 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_162) HPAI_H5N8_2017_162, Overstrand, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 21/02/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Cape cormorant:Phalacrocorax capensis(Phalacrocoracidae) 1 1 0 0
        Outbreak 9 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_163) HPAI_H5N8_2017_163, Cape Agulhas, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 21/02/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Other
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Cape cormorant:Phalacrocorax capensis(Phalacrocoracidae) 1 1 0 0
        Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 9
        Total animals affected
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 5 3 2 0
        Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) 2 1 1 0
        Spotted eagle-owl:Bubo africanus(Strigidae) 1 0 1 0
        Cape cormorant:Phalacrocorax capensis(Phalacrocoracidae) 2 2 0 0
        Outbreak statistics
        Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) ** ** 60.00% **
        Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) ** ** 50.00% **
        Spotted eagle-owl:Bubo africanus(Strigidae) ** ** 0.00% **
        Cape cormorant:Phalacrocorax capensis(Phalacrocoracidae) ** ** 100.00% **
        *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
        **Not calculated because of missing information
        Epidemiology
        Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
        • Unknown or inconclusive
        Control measures
        Measures applied
        • Screening
        • Vaccination prohibited
        • No treatment of affected animals
        Measures to be applied
        • No other measures
        Future Reporting
        The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
        ...
        http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=26136


        ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
        South Africa
        Information received on 13/03/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
        Summary
        Report type Follow-up report No. 27
        Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
        Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
        Report date 09/03/2018
        Date submitted to OIE 13/03/2018
        Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
        Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
        Serotype H5N8
        Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
        This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
        Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 6 (11/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 7 (22/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 8 (25/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 9 (31/08/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 10 (05/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 11 (08/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 12 (15/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 13 (22/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 14 (29/09/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 15 (06/10/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 16 (17/10/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 17 (30/10/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 18 (13/11/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 19 (28/11/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 20 (08/12/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 21 (15/12/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 22 (09/01/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 23 (22/01/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 24 (02/02/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 25 (21/02/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 26 (01/03/2018)
        Follow-up report No. 27 (09/03/2018)
        New outbreaks (1)
        Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_164) HPAI_H5N8_2017_164, Witzenberg, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
        Date of start of the outbreak 16/01/2018
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Farm
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Birds 79 8 0 0 0
        Affected population Commercial ostriches
        Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
        Total animals affected
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Birds 79 8 0 0 0
        Outbreak statistics
        Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        Birds 10.13% 0.00% 0.00% 0.00%
        *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
        Epidemiology
        Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
        • Unknown or inconclusive
        Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
        Control measures
        Measures applied
        • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
        • Traceability
        • Quarantine
        • Vaccination prohibited
        • No treatment of affected animals
        Measures to be applied
        • Official destruction of animal products
        • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
        • Stamping out
        • Disinfection
        Future Reporting
        The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
        ...
        http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=26137
        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
        -Nelson Mandela

        Comment


        • #49
          Source: https://www.iol.co.za/capeargus/news...olony-13935686

          Avian Flu outbreak confirmed at Cape Town's Boulders penguin colony
          News / 20 March 2018, 3:08pm / Staff Reporter

          Cape Town - The Table Mountain National Park has confirmed there is an outbreak of avian flu (bird flu) at the Boulders penguin colony in Simons Town.

          "Table Mountain management would like to alert the public that several cases of bird flu in the penguin colony at Boulders have been confirmed by state veterinary services," TMNP spokesperson Merle Collins said.

          "It is reiterated that this virus is a very low risk to humans, but is a real threat to domestic poultry. This strain of avian influenza virus (H5N8 strain) has been detected in a range of wild seabirds e.g. swift, sandwich and common terns, African penguins and gannets.

          "The park is monitoring the situation closely and has now implemented the following precautions:
          * With the exception of visitors on Boulders Beach boardwalk, nobody may access the main breeding colony.
          * In instances where staff need to go off boardwalks to collect injured birds or hats, camera lens, caps etc dropped by visitors they will limit their access to essential work and then sterilise their boots afterwards - gum boots have been issued and are easier to clean than the normal boot.
          * Monitoring routes used for moult/nest counts have been reviewed to ensure that staff and Penguin monitors do not walk through the main breeding colony.

          Western Cape Veterinary Services, CapeNature, SANParks, the national Department of Environmental Affairs, City of Cape Town, SANCCOB and other seabird rehabilitation centres and private veterinarians are working in close cooperation to monitor the situation and perform further testing.

          Collins said the Western Cape was the most affected area...

          Comment


          • #50
            Home » Media » Media releases » Avian influenza outbreak on Seabirds

            Avian influenza outbreak on Seabirds

            23 March 2018

            The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA), together with all relevant management authorities, is managing seabird colonies and stringent biosecurity measures are being implemented at the various seabird rehabilitation centres, captive institutions and known breeding localities to address the spread of the H5N8 strain of the Avian Influenza that is affecting several seabird species, such as, Swift terns, African Penguins and Cape Gannets, across the country’s coastline. The Swift terns seems to be most affected than many other species.

            In an effort to manage the spread of avian influenza, a decision was taken to halt all the research activities involving the handling of seabirds. This highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza is the same strain reported in the poultry industry in 2017. This strain of bird flu has not been found to affect people, as was confirmed through testing of people in contact with infected chickens in South Africa in 2017. However, bird flu viruses can in rare cases cause infections in humans. Thus, strict biosecurity measures should be enforced and precautions should be taken when handling affected seabirds.

            Wild birds are carriers of the disease and are able to carry the disease through flyways. In seabirds, the disease is spread through direct contact between healthy and infected birds. Most seabird species live in colonies, and may contract the disease from each other, or through indirect contact with contaminated equipment or other materials. The current outbreak adds further pressure to already declining seabird populations. Processes are in place to ensure extended surveillance of infected seabirds.

            The Department will exercise even stricter precautions and stringent biosecurity measures during the preparation of the voyage to Marion Island (April 2018).

            Members of the public are urged to exercise caution when approaching seabirds, especially found along the beach as well as when visiting seabird colonies. Sick seabirds should be reported to the nearest local veterinarian, conservation authority or to a permitted seabird rehabilitation centres.

            For media enquiries contact:

            Zolile Nqayi
            Cell: 082 898 6483 /
            E-mail: znqayi@environment.gov.za.

            https://www.environment.gov.za/media...reakonseabirds
            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela

            Comment


            • #51


              https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_...rican_province)

              --------------------------------------------

              Bird flu outbreak near Brits

              An outbreak of highly contagious bird flu has been reported in De Kroon between Brits and Hartbeespoort this week.

              9 hours ago

              “The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in swans was confirmed at a plot in De Kroon on 19 March 2018, the Department of Rural, Environment and Agricultural Development said in a statement to private veterinary practices on Monday.

              “Quarantine has been imposed on the plot on which the outbreak occurred, with bio-security instructions and regular monitoring. Other prescribed outbreak controls are currently under way on the outbreak site as well as the surroundings.”
              ...
              https://kormorant.co.za/40187/bird-f...ak-near-brits/
              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela

              Comment


              • #52
                Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
                South Africa
                Information received on 27/03/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                Summary
                Report type Follow-up report No. 28
                Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
                Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
                Report date 26/03/2018
                Date submitted to OIE 27/03/2018
                Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
                Serotype H5N8
                Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 6 (11/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 7 (22/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 8 (25/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 9 (31/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 10 (05/09/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 11 (08/09/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 12 (15/09/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 13 (22/09/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 14 (29/09/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 15 (06/10/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 16 (17/10/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 17 (30/10/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 18 (13/11/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 19 (28/11/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 20 (08/12/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 21 (15/12/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 22 (09/01/2018)
                Follow-up report No. 23 (22/01/2018)
                Follow-up report No. 24 (02/02/2018)
                Follow-up report No. 25 (21/02/2018)
                Follow-up report No. 26 (01/03/2018)
                Follow-up report No. 27 (09/03/2018)
                Follow-up report No. 28 (26/03/2018)
                New outbreaks (1)
                Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_166) HPAI_H5N8_2017_166, Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province
                Date of start of the outbreak 15/02/2018
                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                Epidemiological unit Farm
                Affected animals
                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                Birds 384 23 1 0 0
                Affected population Commercial Ostriches
                Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
                Total animals affected
                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                Birds 384 23 1 0 0
                Outbreak statistics
                Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                Birds 5.99% 0.26% 4.35% 0.26%
                *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                Epidemiology
                Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                • Unknown or inconclusive
                Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
                Control measures
                Measures applied
                • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
                • Traceability
                • Quarantine
                • Vaccination prohibited
                • No treatment of affected animals
                Measures to be applied
                • Official destruction of animal products
                • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
                • Stamping out
                • Disinfection
                Future Reporting
                The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                ...
                http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=26278
                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela

                Comment


                • #53
                  Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds),
                  South Africa
                  Information received on 27/03/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                  Summary
                  Report type Follow-up report No. 20
                  Date of start of the event 30/06/2017
                  Date of confirmation of the event 30/06/2017
                  Report date 27/03/2018
                  Date submitted to OIE 27/03/2018
                  Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                  Causal agent Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
                  Serotype H5N8
                  Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                  This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                  Related reports Immediate notification (24/07/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 1 (15/08/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 2 (22/08/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 3 (31/08/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 4 (05/09/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 5 (08/09/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 6 (15/09/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 7 (22/09/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 8 (29/09/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 9 (06/10/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 10 (17/10/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 11 (30/10/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 12 (13/11/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 13 (29/11/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 14 (08/01/2018)
                  Follow-up report No. 15 (22/01/2018)
                  Follow-up report No. 16 (02/02/2018)
                  Follow-up report No. 17 (21/02/2018)
                  Follow-up report No. 18 (01/03/2018)
                  Follow-up report No. 19 (09/03/2018)
                  Follow-up report No. 20 (27/03/2018)
                  New outbreaks (3)
                  Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_167) HPAI_H5N8_2017_167, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                  Date of start of the outbreak 19/10/2017
                  Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                  Epidemiological unit Backyard
                  Affected animals
                  Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                  Birds 2347 86 86 80 0
                  Affected population Hobby geese and ducks
                  Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_168) HPAI_H5N8_2017_168, Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape Province
                  Date of start of the outbreak 21/02/2018
                  Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                  Epidemiological unit Other
                  Affected animals
                  Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                  Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 2 2 0 0
                  Outbreak 3 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_169) HPAI_H5N8_2017_169, Madibeng, North West Province
                  Date of start of the outbreak 11/03/2018
                  Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                  Epidemiological unit Backyard
                  Affected animals
                  Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                  Birds 82 8 8 0 0
                  Affected population Hobby Swans
                  Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 3
                  Total animals affected
                  Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                  Birds 2429 94 94 80 0
                  Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 2 2 0 0
                  Outbreak statistics
                  Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                  Birds 3.87% 3.87% 100.00% 7.16%
                  Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) ** ** 100.00% **
                  *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                  **Not calculated because of missing information
                  Epidemiology
                  Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                  • Unknown or inconclusive
                  Control measures
                  Measures applied
                  • Screening
                  • Vaccination prohibited
                  • No treatment of affected animals
                  Measures to be applied
                  • No other measures
                  Future Reporting
                  The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                  ...
                  http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=26230
                  "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                  -Nelson Mandela

                  Comment


                  • #54
                    POSSIBLE BIRD FLU IN MOSSEL BAY
                    Thursday, 29 March 2018, 08:45

                    .MOSSEL BAY NEWS - The recent outbreak of the H5N8 strain of avian influenza in seabirds is of seious concern to the nature-loving community and residents of the greater Mossel Bay area.

                    Many swift terns showing signs of this illness have already been recovered from beaches and taken to local vet Dr Frans de Graaff. The past weekend alone, more than 50 birds were recovered from local beaches and estuaries.

                    Samples were taken and sent away to determine the cause of death.

                    ...
                    https://www.mosselbayadvertiser.com/...y-201803280311
                    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                    -Nelson Mandela

                    Comment


                    • #55
                      16 more penguins die at Boulders Beach

                      Published by Lucinda Dordley on April 4, 2018

                      In March, three dead penguins at Boulders Beach were positively diagnosed with avian influenza, sparking fears of a bird flu outbreak. Since those deaths, another 16 penguins from the same colony have died.

                      The deaths, labeled as ‘abnormal deaths’, occurred between 15 February and 26 March 2018. This is out of a population of 1 700 penguins.

                      State veterinarian and epidemiologist of the Department of Education in the Western Cape, Doctor Laura Roberts, has said that three of the 16 penguins will undergo testing to confirm whether or not avian influenza is the cause of their deaths.

                      A swift tern at Boulders Beach has also tested positively for avian flu, but only one other swift tern carcass was recorded since 20 March.
                      ...
                      http://www.capetownetc.com/news/boul...an-flu-update/
                      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                      -Nelson Mandela

                      Comment


                      • #56
                        CHIEF DIRECTORATE: CORPORATE SERVICES
                        MEDIA STATEMENT

                        For immediate release

                        Friday, 13 April 2018

                        BIRD FLU OUTBREAK IN PARTS OF NORTH WEST PROVINCE - FARMERS
                        URGED TO EXERCISE CAUTION


                        Mahikeng – The Department of Rural, Environment and Agricultural
                        Development (READ) would like to confirm that parts of the Bokone Bophirima
                        province has been hit by an outbreak of High Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI)
                        commonly known as Bird Flu. Two of the outbreaks are in Madibeng (in Bojanala
                        Platinum District) and one in Maquassie Hills. One of the outbreaks involving
                        commercial flock involves quails that are hatched, grown and slaughtered on the
                        farm. The second outbreak in Madibeng involved wild ducks that were kept
                        domestically as pets for recreational reasons. The two outbreaks are within a
                        vicinity of less than 10km of each other. The third outbreak was detected in a
                        semi commercial farm in Maquassie Hills.

                        In all outbreak farms a dedicated team from the Department of READ has been
                        set aside to deal with the infected households to avoid spreading of the disease.
                        The teams will continue to take samples randomly from remaining birds in
                        instance where the birds were not totally culled. A different team of officials has
                        been deployed to collect information from surrounding farms within a three km
                        radius from the index farms. This was done to assess the extent of the spread to
                        neighbouring farms.

                        The farms and plots affected have been put under quarantine and the terms of
                        the quarantine explained to the owners. The owners have been advised on biosecurity
                        measures that were to be taken to prevent spreading of the virus to
                        neighbouring houses by humans and also by faeces of affected birds. They have
                        also been advised to secure bird enclosures with bird nets to prevent wild birds
                        from entering them. As the wild birds are often attracted to the domestic cages by
                        available left over food, farmers were also advised to remove feed when it is not
                        finished.

                        Avian Influenza is a viral disease of poultry that affects both domestic and wild
                        birds. Wild birds are more resistant to the disease and tend to harbour it without
                        showing any adverse clinical signs. However in situations of excessive stress, the
                        animals’ immune system becomes compromised and it may start showing clinical
                        signs or shreds the virus. Domesticated poultry is highly susceptible to the virus
                        and if they come into contact with it, results in heavy mortalities.

                        The primary source of infection in domesticated flock is contact with wild birds. It
                        spreads within a farm through carriers like utensils, workers and their clothes and
                        contaminated litter.

                        The poultry farmers in all the areas have been informed about the risk. Private
                        Veterinarians have also been requested to assist farmers with biosecurity
                        measures. The community at large is requested to report any increased mortality
                        of birds that is noticed to the nearest State Veterinary office.
                        ...
                        http://www.nwpg.gov.za/Agriculture/d...%20%202018.pdf

                        http://www.nwpg.gov.za/Agriculture/index.html
                        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                        -Nelson Mandela

                        Comment


                        • #57
                          Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds),
                          South Africa
                          Information received on 18/04/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                          Summary
                          Report type Follow-up report No. 21
                          Date of start of the event 30/06/2017
                          Date of confirmation of the event 30/06/2017
                          Report date 17/04/2018
                          Date submitted to OIE 18/04/2018
                          Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                          Causal agent Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
                          Serotype H5N8
                          Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                          This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                          Related reports Immediate notification (24/07/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 1 (15/08/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 2 (22/08/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 3 (31/08/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 4 (05/09/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 5 (08/09/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 6 (15/09/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 7 (22/09/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 8 (29/09/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 9 (06/10/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 10 (17/10/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 11 (30/10/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 12 (13/11/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 13 (29/11/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 14 (08/01/2018)
                          Follow-up report No. 15 (22/01/2018)
                          Follow-up report No. 16 (02/02/2018)
                          Follow-up report No. 17 (21/02/2018)
                          Follow-up report No. 18 (01/03/2018)
                          Follow-up report No. 19 (09/03/2018)
                          Follow-up report No. 20 (27/03/2018)
                          Follow-up report No. 21 (17/04/2018)
                          New outbreaks (5)
                          Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_176) HPAI_H5N8_2017_176, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                          Date of start of the outbreak 23/01/2018
                          Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                          Epidemiological unit Other
                          Affected animals
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          Rock Pigeon (Rock Dove):Columba livia(Columbidae) 50 7 7 0 0
                          Affected population Feral pigeons
                          Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_172) HPAI_H5N8_2017_172, Overstrand, Western Cape Province
                          Date of start of the outbreak 09/03/2018
                          Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                          Epidemiological unit Other
                          Affected animals
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          African black oystercatcher :Haematopus moquini(Haematopodidae) 1 1 0 0
                          Outbreak 3 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_174) HPAI_H5N8_2017_174, Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province
                          Date of start of the outbreak 10/03/2018
                          Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                          Epidemiological unit Other
                          Affected animals
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 4 4 0 0
                          Outbreak 4 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_175) HPAI_H5N8_2017_175, Modimolle, Limpopo
                          Date of start of the outbreak 12/03/2018
                          Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                          Epidemiological unit Backyard
                          Affected animals
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          Birds 85 11 11 0 0
                          Affected population Hobby ducks
                          Outbreak 5 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_173) HPAI_H5N8_2017_173, Matzikama, Western Cape Province
                          Date of start of the outbreak 22/03/2018
                          Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                          Epidemiological unit Other
                          Affected animals
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) 1 1 0 0
                          Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1 1 0 0
                          Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 5
                          Total animals affected
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          Rock Pigeon (Rock Dove):Columba livia(Columbidae) 50 7 7 0 0
                          African black oystercatcher :Haematopus moquini(Haematopodidae) 1 1 0 0
                          Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 5 5 0 0
                          Birds 85 11 11 0 0
                          Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) 1 1 0 0
                          Outbreak statistics
                          Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                          Rock Pigeon (Rock Dove):Columba livia(Columbidae) 14.00% 14.00% 100.00% 14.00%
                          African black oystercatcher :Haematopus moquini(Haematopodidae) ** ** 100.00% **
                          Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) ** ** 100.00% **
                          Birds 12.94% 12.94% 100.00% 12.94%
                          Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) ** ** 100.00% **
                          *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                          **Not calculated because of missing information
                          Epidemiology
                          Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                          • Unknown or inconclusive
                          Control measures
                          Measures applied
                          • Screening
                          • Vaccination prohibited
                          • No treatment of affected animals
                          Measures to be applied
                          • No other measures
                          Future Reporting
                          The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                          ...
                          http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=26451
                          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                          -Nelson Mandela

                          Comment


                          • #58
                            Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
                            South Africa
                            Information received on 18/04/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                            Summary
                            Report type Follow-up report No. 29
                            Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
                            Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
                            Report date 17/04/2018
                            Date submitted to OIE 18/04/2018
                            Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                            Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
                            Serotype H5N8
                            Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                            This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                            Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 6 (11/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 7 (22/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 8 (25/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 9 (31/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 10 (05/09/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 11 (08/09/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 12 (15/09/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 13 (22/09/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 14 (29/09/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 15 (06/10/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 16 (17/10/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 17 (30/10/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 18 (13/11/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 19 (28/11/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 20 (08/12/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 21 (15/12/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 22 (09/01/2018)
                            Follow-up report No. 23 (22/01/2018)
                            Follow-up report No. 24 (02/02/2018)
                            Follow-up report No. 25 (21/02/2018)
                            Follow-up report No. 26 (01/03/2018)
                            Follow-up report No. 27 (09/03/2018)
                            Follow-up report No. 28 (26/03/2018)
                            Follow-up report No. 29 (17/04/2018)
                            New outbreaks (2)
                            Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_171) HPAI_H5N8_2017_171, Maquassi Hills, North West Province
                            Date of start of the outbreak 12/03/2018
                            Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                            Epidemiological unit Farm
                            Affected animals
                            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                            Birds 4500 50 50 0 0
                            Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_170) HPAI_H5N8_2017_170, Madibeng, North West Province
                            Date of start of the outbreak 06/04/2018
                            Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                            Epidemiological unit Farm
                            Affected animals
                            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                            Birds 36512 534 534 0 0
                            Affected population Domestic ducks and quails
                            Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 2
                            Total animals affected
                            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                            Birds 41012 584 584 0 0
                            Outbreak statistics
                            Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                            Birds 1.42% 1.42% 100.00% 1.42%
                            *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                            Epidemiology
                            Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                            • Unknown or inconclusive
                            Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
                            Control measures
                            Measures applied
                            • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
                            • Traceability
                            • Quarantine
                            • Vaccination prohibited
                            • No treatment of affected animals
                            Measures to be applied
                            • Official destruction of animal products
                            • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
                            • Stamping out
                            • Disinfection
                            Future Reporting
                            The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                            ...
                            http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=26450
                            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                            -Nelson Mandela

                            Comment


                            • #59
                              5 out of 5 penguins test positive for avian flu at Boulder’s Beach

                              Published by Lucinda Dordley on May 11, 2018

                              Five out of five penguins from Boulder’s Beach penguin colony have tested positive for avian flu. An update received from state veterinarian and epidemiologist, Dr Laura Roberts, confirmed that five penguins tested from the colony, tested positive for the virus.

                              A total of 19 penguins have died since the avian influenza outbreak became known to the public in February this year.

                              “All possible precautions are being taken to limit the spread of the virus by people and their activities,” Roberts said. “As these are wild birds, containing the natural spread of the virus is not possible.”

                              Roberts added that a swift tern from Simon’s Town also tested positive for avian influenza.

                              The strain of avian influenza active at Boulder’s Beach is the H5N8 strain...

                              http://www.capetownetc.com/news/avia...oulders-beach/
                              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                              -Nelson Mandela

                              Comment


                              • #60
                                Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds),
                                South Africa
                                Information received on 15/05/2018 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                                Summary
                                Report type Follow-up report No. 22
                                Date of start of the event 30/06/2017
                                Date of confirmation of the event 30/06/2017
                                Report date 14/05/2018
                                Date submitted to OIE 15/05/2018
                                Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                                Causal agent Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
                                Serotype H5N8
                                Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                                This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                                Related reports Immediate notification (24/07/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 1 (15/08/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 2 (22/08/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 3 (31/08/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 4 (05/09/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 5 (08/09/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 6 (15/09/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 7 (22/09/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 8 (29/09/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 9 (06/10/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 10 (17/10/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 11 (30/10/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 12 (13/11/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 13 (29/11/2017)
                                Follow-up report No. 14 (08/01/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 15 (22/01/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 16 (02/02/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 17 (21/02/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 18 (01/03/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 19 (09/03/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 20 (27/03/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 21 (17/04/2018)
                                Follow-up report No. 22 (14/05/2018)
                                New outbreaks (11)
                                Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_184) HPAI_H5N8_2017_184, Saldanha Bay, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 07/03/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 4177 4177 0 0
                                Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_182) HPAI_H5N8_2017_182, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 12/03/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
                                Outbreak 3 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_179) HPAI_H5N8_2017_179, Kouga, Eastern Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 12/03/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
                                Outbreak 4 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_181) HPAI_H5N8_2017_181, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 18/03/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Cape cormorant:Phalacrocorax capensis(Phalacrocoracidae) 2 2 0 0
                                Outbreak 5 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_180) HPAI_H5N8_2017_180, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 20/03/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1778 1728 50 0
                                Outbreak 6 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_183) HPAI_H5N8_2017_183, Bergrivier, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 25/03/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
                                Outbreak 7 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_187) HPAI_H5N8_2017_187, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 28/03/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Hartlaub's gull:Chroicocephalus hartlaubii(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
                                Outbreak 8 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_178) HPAI_H5N8_2017_178, Saldanha Bay, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 05/04/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
                                Outbreak 9 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_186) HPAI_H5N8_2017_186, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 08/04/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Hartlaub's gull:Chroicocephalus hartlaubii(Laridae) 2 0 2 0
                                Outbreak 10 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_176) HPAI_H5N8_2017_176, City of Mbombela, Mpumalanga
                                Date of start of the outbreak 09/04/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Backyard
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Birds 40 1 1 0 0
                                Affected population Domestic hobby swan
                                Outbreak 11 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_185) HPAI_H5N8_2017_185, City of Cape Town, Western Cape Province
                                Date of start of the outbreak 12/04/2018
                                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                                Epidemiological unit Other
                                Affected animals
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Hartlaub's gull:Chroicocephalus hartlaubii(Laridae) 1 1 0 0
                                Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 11
                                Total animals affected
                                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                                Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) 5958 5905 53 0
                                Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) 1 0 1 0
                                Cape cormorant:Phalacrocorax capensis(Phalacrocoracidae) 2 2 0 0
                                Hartlaub's gull:Chroicocephalus hartlaubii(Laridae) 4 1 3 0
                                Birds 40 1 1 0 0
                                Outbreak statistics
                                Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                                Swift tern:Thalasseus bergii(Laridae) ** ** 99.11% **
                                Common Tern:Sterna hirundo(Laridae) ** ** 0.00% **
                                Cape cormorant:Phalacrocorax capensis(Phalacrocoracidae) ** ** 100.00% **
                                Hartlaub's gull:Chroicocephalus hartlaubii(Laridae) ** ** 25.00% **
                                Birds 2.50% 2.50% 100.00% 2.50%
                                *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                                **Not calculated because of missing information
                                Epidemiology
                                Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                                • Unknown or inconclusive
                                Control measures
                                Measures applied
                                • Screening
                                • Vaccination prohibited
                                • No treatment of affected animals
                                Measures to be applied
                                • No other measures
                                Future Reporting
                                ...
                                http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=26615
                                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                                -Nelson Mandela

                                Comment

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