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South Africa - Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 in birds

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  • South Africa - Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N8 in birds

    Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
    South Africa
    Information received on 22/06/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
    Summary
    Report type Immediate notification
    Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
    Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
    Report date 22/06/2017
    Date submitted to OIE 22/06/2017
    Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
    Causal agent Avian Influenza Virus
    Serotype H5N8
    Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
    This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
    New outbreaks (1)
    Outbreak 1 (AI_H5N8_2017) AI_H5N8_2017, Dipaleseng, MPUMALANGA
    Date of start of the outbreak 19/06/2017
    Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
    Epidemiological unit Farm
    Affected animals
    Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
    Birds 24000 5000 5000 0 0
    Affected population Commercial broiler breeder farm. Process has started to cull remainder of birds.
    Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
    Total animals affected
    Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
    Birds 24000 5000 5000 0 0
    Outbreak statistics
    Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
    Birds 20.83% 20.83% 100.00% 20.83%
    *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
    Epidemiology
    Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
    • Unknown or inconclusive
    Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
    Control measures
    Measures applied
    • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
    • Traceability
    • Quarantine
    • Vaccination prohibited
    • No treatment of affected animals
    Measures to be applied
    • Official destruction of animal products
    • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
    • Stamping out
    • Disinfection
    Diagnostic test results
    Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
    Agricultural Research Council - Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (ARC-OVI) (OIE Reference Laboratory) Birds polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 22/06/2017 Positive
    Future Reporting
    The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
    ...
    http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24127
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

  • #2
    South Africa reports outbreak of H5N8 bird flu, industry body says

    South Africa reported an outbreak of highly pathogenic H5N8 bird flu at a farm in the Free State province, agricultural industry body group AgriSA said on Friday.

    Poultry producer Astral confirmed that the H5N8 bird flu strain was found on its Villiers farm on the outskirts of the Free State province, it said in a statement.

    The company said the farm had been quarantined and the site affected would be depleted of all birds.
    ...
    https://www.reuters.com/article/us-h...-idUSKBN19E0NE
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • #3
      MEDIA STATEMENT 22 JUNE 2017

      AVIAN INFLUENZA CONFIRMED IN MPUMALANGA

      Following the outbreak of Avian Influenza that was announced in Zimbabwe on 2 June
      2017, The South African Veterinary Authority was today notified on of high mortalities
      on a breeder flock in Villiers close to the Mpumalanga Provincial border.

      Samples were collected on the farm and have yielded a positive result for a Highly
      Pathogenic Avian Influenza, H5N8. The Department has agreed with the company to
      euthanize the birds in affected houses in collaboration with the NSPCA.

      The affected property has 12 self-contained sites with a total of approximately 285 000
      birds, and so far only one self - contained site, with approximately 24 000 birds has
      been affected. As part of the emergency response, the farm has been placed under
      quarantine and Veterinary services will continue to monitor the farm.

      The Mpumalanga Veterinary Authorities are on the farm, assisting with quarantine
      implementation, culling and disinfection of the farm. The affected farm is on the banks of
      the Vaal River and it is suspected that wild birds may be involved. The influenza is
      carried by live birds which make it difficult to control and contain to a particular area. We
      have intensified our early detection and requested owners to enhance their biosecurity
      in order to prevent contact with wild birds.

      Vaccination against Avian Influenza is prohibited by law. There are several reasons for
      not allowing vaccination of chickens, and the most pertinent are that vaccinated birds
      mask the disease and therefore create an endemic situation; surveillance for absence of
      disease is also impossible in vaccinated birds as they all test positive.

      The department has sent out notices to all poultry owners, outlining the biosecurity
      measures they have to take, and detailing how the surveillance will be conducted. This
      can be found on the DAFF and SAPA websites.

      To report any high death numbers of wild birds please contact your local State Vet,
      Animal Health Technician or Extension Officers
      Media enquiries:
      Bomikazi Molapo 0788013711
      Bomikazim@daff.gov.za

      ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON AVIAN INFLUENZA

      1. What is bird flu?
      a. Just like flu, it is a winter disease
      b. It affects all types of birds, and some show signs more than others
      c. It moves from chicken to chicken easily and very quickly

      2. How do you stop it?
      a. Owners of chickens should prevent contact with wild birds by avoiding
      i. feeding chickens outside
      ii. Leaving open water sources
      iii. Leaving chickens roaming outside and picking up wild bird faeces
      b. When chickens are sick, do not move them from the premises
      c. Be careful of vehicles and people coming on to your premises from affected areas
      d. When your chickens are sick, do not move eggs, chickens, bedding, manure and any
      other tools around and to other owners.
      e. When your chickens are sick, put them in a locked up place and ensure they do not
      make contact with other chickens and wild birds; also make sure you are thoroughly
      clean before going to another premises with chickens.

      3. Does it affect people?
      a. Generally not; however, people that work closely with large numbers of chickens may
      contract the disease.
      b. This type of bird flu is not known to have caused any death or serious sickness in
      people.

      4. How do you see it?
      a. The chickens will look sick and then they die in numbers higher than normal

      5. What do you need to do?
      a. Contact your local agriculture official to assist. The Department will pay for samples
      to rule out Avian Influenza if sent to the ARC-OVR through the State Vet office.

      http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/media/A...MPUMALANGA.pdf


      http://www.daff.gov.za/daffweb3/Home/aid/877
      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
      -Nelson Mandela

      Comment


      • #4
        Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
        South Africa
        Information received on 26/06/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
        Summary
        Report type Follow-up report No. 1
        Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
        Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
        Report date 26/06/2017
        Date submitted to OIE 26/06/2017
        Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
        Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
        Serotype H5N8
        Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
        This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
        Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
        Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
        New outbreaks (1)
        Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_002) HPAI_H5N8_2017_002, Dipaleseng, MPUMALANGA
        Date of start of the outbreak 20/06/2017
        Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
        Epidemiological unit Farm
        Affected animals
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Birds 243000 25000 25000 0 0
        Affected population Commercial layer farm
        Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
        Total animals affected
        Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
        Birds 243000 25000 25000 0 0
        Outbreak statistics
        Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
        Birds 10.29% 10.29% 100.00% 10.29%
        *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
        Epidemiology
        Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
        • Unknown or inconclusive
        Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
        Control measures
        Measures applied
        • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
        • Traceability
        • Quarantine
        • Vaccination prohibited
        • No treatment of affected animals
        Measures to be applied
        • Official destruction of animal products
        • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
        • Stamping out
        • Disinfection
        Future Reporting
        The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
        ...
        http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24148
        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
        -Nelson Mandela

        Comment


        • #5
          MEDIA BRIEFING BY MINISTER SENZENI ZOKWANA
          AVIAN INFLUENZA OUTBREAK IN SOUTH AFRICA

          29 JUNE 2017

          Good morning

          The Department alerted poultry owners about the eminent threat of Avian Influenza
          when Zimbabwe reported their first case at the end of May. The disease, which at
          that time had been reported in 14 countries, 2 of which were in Africa, had been
          confirmed in Zimbabwe making it the third country in Africa to be affected.

          Avian Influenza is an influenza virus, and is classified as either highly pathogenic or
          low pathogenic by the World Organisation for Animal Health. The type that has been
          reported is the highly pathogenic one and is extremely contagious.

          The Department, in its alert notification, called for all chicken keepers to observe
          basic biosecurity measures in order to prevent contact with wild birds. This can be
          achieved in commercial farms by improving biosecurity and in free range farms by
          simply removing feed and water from where it attracts wild birds.

          Despite the warnings, the disease still managed to get into our flocks. Two cases,
          one in a broiler breeder farm in Villiers and another in an egg laying farm in
          Standerton, were reported since 22nd of June. Both these farms are in the
          Mpumalanga province. There seems to have been confusion with the location of one
          farm which is near Villiers, as its closest town. I confirm that this farm is on the
          Mpumalanga side of the provincial boundary. No cases have been reported so far in
          the Free State, or in any other province.

          Our team of veterinarians has swiftly responded to this threat. We have placed the
          affected farms under quarantine and the affected birds have been euthanised and
          the eggs destroyed. Approximately two hundred and sixty thousand (260 000) birds
          have been culled.

          Section 19 of the Animal Diseases Act, gives the Director Animal Health the legal
          mandate to compensate for any animals or birds killed by the state pursuant to any
          disease control measure. The Director of Animal Health will consider each case on
          its own merit.

          There have been several calls to permit vaccination against the disease; I have been
          advised by my team of experts that this will not be in the best interest of both the
          country and the producers. Vaccination of birds will create an endemic situation,
          affect surveillance efforts and affect our export certification because all our trade
          partners only want products from a country that is free of avian influenza where
          vaccination is not practised.

          In order to contain the disease, our team called for the ban on the sale of live
          chickens to manage the further spread. This triggered a nation-wide concern since a
          number of livelihoods had been affected. However this measure was imposed in the
          interest of the country and the poultry producers at large, and I can assure you that it
          was not taken lightly.

          My team has since met with the Poultry Producers and have devised a solution that
          will provide the desired disease management outcomes and improve traceability,
          while ensuring that micro businesses continue with their operations. The buyers or
          sellers of more than 5 live chickens for any purpose other than direct slaughter at a
          registered abattoir will be subjected to the following conditions:

          1. The sellers of live chickens, including commercial farmers, as well as the
          traders who buy and resell these chickens must register with the Poultry
          Disease Management Agency (PDMA). The Director Animal Health, of the
          DAFF has authorised the PDMA to register and keep records of all parties
          selling and buying live chickens. The PDMA is an independent organization
          and all information about the trade of live chickens will be kept strictly
          confidential.

          2. Only registered sellers and buyers are allowed to trade and it is the
          responsibility of both the seller and the buyer to ensure that their counterpart
          is registered.

          3. Farmers may only sell live chickens certified as healthy by a veterinarian or
          Animal Health Technician.

          4. Traders may only sell healthy chickens and must keep records as prescribed.

          5. Sellers and buyers registering with the PDMA would have to sign an
          undertaking to adhere to the required control measures.

          These conditions apply to sellers of live broiler chickens, live spent layer hens, live
          spent breeder birds, point of lay pullets and any chickens that may fall into these
          categories. The conditions also apply to any buyers and traders who buy more than
          5 live chickens that fall into the above categories.

          All stakeholders are implored to comply with the registration and other requirements
          that are designed to allow the trade of live chickens to continue without
          compromising animal health. Depending on the level of compliance that is achieved
          with these conditions, the Director Animal Health will review future requirements for
          blanket bans.

          Registration forms for sellers and buyers are available on the DAFF
          (www.daff.gov.za) and PDMA (www.poultrydiseases.co.za) websites and further
          information can also be obtained from the PDMA (at 012 529 8298).

          We request utmost cooperation of all affected parties in order to prevent further
          spread of the current outbreak and enhance the disease management efforts.

          The Department wishes to reiterate that the type of virus we are dealing with, does
          not affect people, as has been confirmed by the World Health Organisation and the
          World Organisation for Animal Health.

          The meat that is on the shelves is safe to eat as it has gone through a process of
          meat inspection and certified fit for human consumption.

          A number of trade partners, have suspended trade of raw meat, eggs and live birds
          from South Africa. This is mainly because the South African veterinarians have to
          certify that the country is free of Avian Influenza, and since the 22nd June, they could
          not provide this certification. However, processed meat is considered safe for trade,
          and some countries still accept this.

          South Africa introduced the concept of compartments in line with the World
          Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines; raw meat, eggs and live birds
          originating from these compartments have been accepted by most trade partners.
          Our team is already in negotiations with these trade partners to accept our products
          from these registered compartments.

          Chicken owners, farmers and the public should remain vigilant and all cases of high
          mortalities in chickens and other birds should be reported to the nearest State
          Veterinarian.

          I wish to thank the Poultry Producers for their cooperation and consistent
          engagement with the Department. I also wish to thank my team for the swift
          response and their dedication.

          Ke a leboha.

          http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/media/M...20Briefing.pdf

          http://www.daff.gov.za/
          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
          -Nelson Mandela

          Comment


          • #6
            Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
            South Africa
            Information received on 10/07/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
            Summary
            Report type Follow-up report No. 2
            Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
            Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
            Report date 10/07/2017
            Date submitted to OIE 10/07/2017
            Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
            Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
            Serotype H5N8
            Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
            This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
            Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
            Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
            Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
            New outbreaks (2)
            Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_003) HPAI_H5N8_2017_003, Ekurhuleni, GAUTENG
            Date of start of the outbreak 06/07/2017
            Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
            Epidemiological unit Farm
            Affected animals
            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
            Birds 370000 39 39 0 0
            Affected population Commercial layers
            Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_04) HPAI_H5N8_2017_04, Govan Mbeki, MPUMALANGA
            Date of start of the outbreak 09/07/2017
            Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
            Epidemiological unit Farm
            Affected animals
            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
            Birds 7000 1000 1000 0
            Affected population The outbreak occurred in chickens (commercial layer farm).
            Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 2
            Total animals affected
            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
            Birds 377000 1039 1039 0 0
            Outbreak statistics
            Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
            Birds 0.28% 0.28% 100.00% **
            *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
            **Not calculated because of missing information
            Epidemiology
            Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
            • Unknown or inconclusive
            Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
            Control measures
            Measures applied
            • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
            • Traceability
            • Quarantine
            • Vaccination prohibited
            • No treatment of affected animals
            Measures to be applied
            • Official destruction of animal products
            • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
            • Stamping out
            • Disinfection
            Diagnostic test results
            Laboratory name and type Species Test Test date Result
            Agricultural Research Center, Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute (OIE Reference Laboratory) Birds real-time PCR 09/07/2017 Positive
            Future Reporting
            The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
            ...
            http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24244
            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela

            Comment


            • #7
              MEDIA STATEMENT 11 JULY 2017

              UPDATE ON AVIAN INFLUENZA H5N8 OUTBREAK IN SOUTH AFRICA

              The HPAI H5N8 virus was confirmed in two further locations in South Africa, bringing the total of
              affected properties to four. The new locations involved commercial layer chickens on farms in
              Gauteng and Mpumalanga.

              The two farms were immediately placed under quarantine by the state Veterinarian. The quarantine
              includes, as a minimum, a prohibition of the movement of chickens and chicken products onto and off
              the farm. The necessary measures have been taken to contain and eliminate the disease as
              efficiently as possible on both farms.

              Forward tracing was done and cull chicken depots were identified, which had received live cull
              chickens from one of the affected farms in the last 21 days. The records of these cull depots are
              being followed up to trace as many of these chickens as possible. The new Poultry Disease
              management Agency (PDMA) system of registration of persons buying and selling live chickens made
              it possible to trace these culls.

              The PDMA registration process of sellers and traders of live chickens has progressed well and a
              number of initial challenges were ironed out. All role players in the poultry industry involved in the
              buying and selling of live chickens are strongly encouraged to comply with the registration and other
              requirements that are designed to allow the trade of live chickens to continue without compromising
              animal health.

              The depopulation of the two poultry sites affected in June is complete. The carcasses, waste
              material, affected eggs and manure have been contained and will be dealt with to ensure prevention
              of spread of the disease, as well as to prevent contamination of the environment.

              Export of chickens and chicken products from registered HPAI free compartments is continuing to
              countries that accept guarantees from such compartments. There is good cooperation from registered
              compartments to increase the testing frequency to monthly testing.

              Exports of raw meat, eggs and live birds from South Africa to some trade partners have been
              disrupted, as one of requirements for the certification is country freedom from Highly Pathogenic
              Avian Influenza, which cannot be provided since 22 June 2017. The export of products, which had
              been processed to ensure destruction of the virus, is also continuing, unless the trade partner has
              raised an objection.

              The H5N8 virus does not affect humans, Department of Health through the National Institute of
              Communicable Diseases tested workers from the affected farms and no human cases have been
              detected.

              The HPAI H5N8 viruses that have been isolated from these outbreaks are similar to the viruses
              isolated from Zimbabwe in June 2017 and from Egypt in 2016, which makes the likelihood of the
              involvement of wild birds high. Chicken owners and farmers are encouraged to prevent contact of
              their chickens with wild birds as much as possible.

              Increased surveillance in wild birds, commercial chickens and backyard chickens is continuing.
              Chicken owners, farmers and the public should remain vigilant and all cases of high mortalities in
              chickens and other birds should be reported to the nearest State Veterinarian.

              The public is advised to avoid any gathering of chickens for shows, auctions and similar activities.
              However, should such activities continue, the organizers are advised to liaise with the State
              Veterinary Authorities and the auction houses must also be registered with the PDMA.

              Media enquiries
              Ms Bomikazi Molapo
              0788013711
              BomikaziM@daff.go.za

              http://www.nda.agric.za/docs/media/U...H%20AFRICA.pdf

              http://www.daff.gov.za/
              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela

              Comment


              • #8
                Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
                South Africa
                Information received on 31/07/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                Summary
                Report type Follow-up report No. 3
                Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
                Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
                Report date 31/07/2017
                Date submitted to OIE 31/07/2017
                Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
                Serotype H5N8
                Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
                New outbreaks (2)
                Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_009) HPAI_H5N8_2017_009, Dipaleseng, MPUMALANGA
                Date of start of the outbreak 21/07/2017
                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                Epidemiological unit Farm
                Affected animals
                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                Birds 135 50 50 85 0
                Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_010) HPAI_H5N8_2017_010, Dipaleseng, MPUMALANGA
                Date of start of the outbreak 24/07/2017
                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                Epidemiological unit Farm
                Affected animals
                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                Birds 600 87 87 413 0
                Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 2
                Total animals affected
                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                Birds 735 137 137 498 0
                Outbreak statistics
                Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                Birds 18.64% 18.64% 100.00% 86.39%
                *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                Epidemiology
                Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                • Unknown or inconclusive
                Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
                Control measures
                Measures applied
                • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
                • Traceability
                • Quarantine
                • Vaccination prohibited
                • No treatment of affected animals
                Measures to be applied
                • Official destruction of animal products
                • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
                • Stamping out
                • Disinfection
                Future Reporting
                The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                ...
                http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24449


                ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
                South Africa
                Information received on 03/08/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                Summary
                Report type Follow-up report No. 4
                Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
                Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
                Report date 03/08/2017
                Date submitted to OIE 03/08/2017
                Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
                Serotype H5N8
                Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
                Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
                New outbreaks (1)
                Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_011) HPAI_H5N8_2017_011, Lekwa, MPUMALANGA
                Date of start of the outbreak 01/08/2017
                Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                Epidemiological unit Farm
                Affected animals
                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                Birds 398723 301 301 0 0
                Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
                Total animals affected
                Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                Birds 398723 301 301 0 0
                Outbreak statistics
                Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                Birds 0.08% 0.08% 100.00% 0.08%
                *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                Epidemiology
                Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                • Unknown or inconclusive
                Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
                Control measures
                Measures applied
                • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
                • Traceability
                • Quarantine
                • Vaccination prohibited
                • No treatment of affected animals
                Measures to be applied
                • Official destruction of animal products
                • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
                • Stamping out
                • Disinfection
                Future Reporting
                The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                ...

                http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24474
                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela

                Comment


                • #9
                  Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
                  South Africa
                  Information received on 07/08/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                  Summary
                  Report type Follow-up report No. 5
                  Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
                  Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
                  Report date 07/08/2017
                  Date submitted to OIE 07/08/2017
                  Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                  Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
                  Serotype H5N8
                  Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                  This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                  Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
                  Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
                  New outbreaks (2)
                  Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_013) HPAI_H5N8_2017_013, Ekurhuleni, GAUTENG
                  Date of start of the outbreak 04/08/2017
                  Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                  Epidemiological unit Farm
                  Affected animals
                  Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                  Birds 30000 1774 1774 0 0
                  Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_012) HPAI_H5N8_2017_012, Mogale City, GAUTENG
                  Date of start of the outbreak 04/08/2017
                  Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                  Epidemiological unit Farm
                  Affected animals
                  Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                  Birds 77000 236 236 4800 0
                  Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 2
                  Total animals affected
                  Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                  Birds 107000 2010 2010 4800 0
                  Outbreak statistics
                  Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                  Birds 1.88% 1.88% 100.00% 6.36%
                  *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                  Epidemiology
                  Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                  • Unknown or inconclusive
                  Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
                  Control measures
                  Measures applied
                  • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
                  • Traceability
                  • Quarantine
                  • Vaccination prohibited
                  • No treatment of affected animals
                  Measures to be applied
                  • Official destruction of animal products
                  • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
                  • Stamping out
                  • Disinfection
                  Future Reporting
                  The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                  ...
                  http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24509
                  "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                  -Nelson Mandela

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
                    South Africa
                    Information received on 11/08/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                    Summary
                    Report type Follow-up report No. 6
                    Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
                    Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
                    Report date 11/08/2017
                    Date submitted to OIE 11/08/2017
                    Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                    Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
                    Serotype H5N8
                    Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                    This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                    Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
                    Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
                    Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
                    Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
                    Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
                    Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
                    Follow-up report No. 6 (11/08/2017)
                    New outbreaks (3)
                    Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_016) HPAI_H5N8_2017_016, Steve Tshwete, MPUMALANGA
                    Date of start of the outbreak 07/08/2017
                    Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                    Epidemiological unit Farm
                    Affected animals
                    Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                    Birds 326764 975 975 325789 0
                    Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_014) HPAI_H5N8_2017_014, Hessequa, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
                    Date of start of the outbreak 09/08/2017
                    Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                    Epidemiological unit Farm
                    Affected animals
                    Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                    Birds 1176 33 0 0 0
                    Affected population Commercial ostriches
                    Outbreak 3 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_015) HPAI_H5N8_2017_015, Hessequa, WESTERN CAPE PROVINCE
                    Date of start of the outbreak 09/08/2017
                    Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                    Epidemiological unit Farm
                    Affected animals
                    Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                    Birds 1071 22 0 0 0
                    Affected population Commercial ostriches
                    Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 3
                    Total animals affected
                    Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                    Birds 329011 1030 975 325789 0
                    Outbreak statistics
                    Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                    Birds 0.31% 0.30% 94.66% 99.32%
                    *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                    Epidemiology
                    Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                    • Unknown or inconclusive
                    Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
                    Control measures
                    Measures applied
                    • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
                    • Traceability
                    • Quarantine
                    • Vaccination prohibited
                    • No treatment of affected animals
                    Measures to be applied
                    • Official destruction of animal products
                    • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
                    • Stamping out
                    • Disinfection
                    Future Reporting
                    The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                    ...
                    http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24547
                    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                    -Nelson Mandela

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Possible Incidence of Bird Flu in the Western Cape

                      14 August 2017

                      Listen


                      The Western Cape Department of Agriculture is investigating possible incidences of Highly Pathogenic Avian influenza (HPAI), type H5N8, in two ostrich farms in the Heidelberg area.

                      Avian influenza is a controlled disease in terms of the Animal Diseases Act, 35 of 1984.

                      Investigations on the farms are in progress and both farms have been placed under quarantine. Quarantine measures entail no movement of birds to and from the affected properties will be allowed. People and vehicles will have to adhere to strict hygiene measures.

                      Thirteen outbreaks have occurred in South Africa since June this year, in Mpumalanga and Gauteng. The outbreaks involved seven commercial chicken farms, two groups of backyard chickens, three sets of wild birds and one group of domestic geese.

                      Avian influenza is a viral respiratory disease of birds believed to be transmitted by wild migratory birds. In Southern Africa, the H5N8 strain of the disease also affected the poultry industry in Zimbabwe, where thousands of commercial birds have died or had to be culled.

                      This strain of the virus has so far shown no sign of being infectious to people. Constant monitoring of exposed people in South Africa has supported this.

                      Ostrich and chicken meat on sale in retail outlets is safe for human consumption.

                      Avian Influenza is primarily spread by direct contact between healthy and infected birds, or through indirect contact with contaminated equipment or other materials. The virus is present in the faeces of infected birds and in discharges from their noses, mouth and eyes. The virus can spread into domestic flocks kept outdoors through faecal contamination from wild birds, whereas infection among indoor flocks is spread via airborne discharges and faeces.

                      There is currently no preventive vaccine or treatment for HPAI H5N8. Current practice in most regions of the world requires the culling of infected birds. There is no benefit to be gained in attempting to control the virus in wild birds through culling or habitat destruction.
                      General recommendations:
                      • It is very important to report sick or dead birds - both wild birds and poultry - to local authorities (veterinary services, public health officials, community leaders etc.) Details of local state veterinarians can be found at:http://www.elsenburg.com/services-and-programmes/veterinary-services-0#s...
                      • Farmers and poultry producers should step up their biosecurity measures in order to prevent potential virus introduction from wild birds or their faeces;
                      • It is important to keep poultry and other animals away from wild birds and their body fluids, through screens, fencing or nets;
                      • Commercial poultry operations and backyard poultry owners should avoid the introduction of the virus through contaminated clothes, footwear, vehicles or equipment used in waterfowl hunting.
                      Because of the HPAI H5N8 outbreaks, the buyers or sellers of more than five live chickens for any purpose other than direct slaughter at a registered abattoir will be subjected to the following conditions (quoting Media Briefing by Minister Senzeni Zokwana, Avian Influenza Outbreak In South Africa, 29 June 2017, Department Agriculture Forestry & Fisheries):
                      • The sellers of live chickens, including commercial farmers, as well as the traders who buy and resell these chickens must register with the Poultry Disease Management Agency (PDMA). The national Director Animal Health has authorised the PDMA to register and keep records of all parties selling and buying live chickens. The PDMA is an independent organisation and all information about the trade of live chickens will be kept strictly confidential.
                      • Only registered sellers and buyers are allowed to trade and it is the responsibility of both the seller and the buyer to ensure that their counterpart is registered.
                      • Farmers may only sell live chickens certified as healthy by a veterinarian or Animal Health Technician.
                      • Traders may only sell healthy chickens and must keep records as prescribed.
                      • Sellers and buyers registering with the PDMA would have to sign an undertaking to adhere to the required control measures.
                      For more information, kindly contact Petro van Rhyn, Head of Communication for the Western Cape Department of Agriculture, on 071 231 7576.
                      ENDS

                      https://www.westerncape.gov.za/news/...u-western-cape





                      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                      -Nelson Mandela

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Avian Influenza Confirmed in Western Cape

                        15 August 2017

                        Listen

                        The Western Cape Department of Agriculture has confirmed the presence of Highly Pathogenic Avian influenza (HPAI), type H5N8, in two ostrich farms in the Heidelberg area.

                        Avian influenza is a controlled disease in terms of the Animal Diseases Act, 35 of 1984.

                        Vets from the Western Cape Department of Agriculture detected HPAI during routine testing.

                        Last week, throat swabs tested positive for HPAI. Both farms were placed under quarantine immediately, and no birds are allowed to enter or leave the affected properties. There are around 1000 ostriches on both farms.

                        To ensure the accuracy of the first test, and because the ostriches are not showing any clinical signs of the illness, vets continued their testing campaign. There have been no reported bird deaths in the area.

                        At this stage, it appears that the incidence has been confined to the two properties. Farms within 3km of the affected farms will be placed under quarantine and testing in the surrounding areas will continue.

                        No decision to cull has been taken and discussions are ongoing.

                        It is suspected that wild birds are the source of the infection.

                        Thirteen outbreaks have occurred in South Africa since June this year, in Mpumalanga and Gauteng. The outbreaks involved seven commercial chicken farms, two groups of backyard chickens, three sets of wild birds and one group of domestic geese.

                        Avian influenza is a viral respiratory disease of birds believed to be transmitted by wild migratory birds. In Southern Africa, the H5N8 strain of the disease also affected the poultry industry in Zimbabwe, where thousands of commercial birds have died or had to be culled.

                        This strain of the virus has so far shown no sign of being infectious to people. Constant monitoring of exposed people in South Africa has supported this.

                        Ostrich and chicken meat on sale in retail outlets is safe for human consumption.

                        Avian Influenza is primarily spread by direct contact between healthy and infected birds, or through indirect contact with contaminated equipment or other materials. The virus is present in the faeces of infected birds and in discharges from their noses, mouth and eyes. The virus can spread into domestic flocks kept outdoors through faecal contamination from wild birds, whereas infection among indoor flocks is spread via airborne discharges and faeces.

                        There is currently no preventive vaccine or treatment for HPAI H5N8. Current practice in most regions of the world requires the culling of infected birds.

                        General recommendations:

                        It is very important to report sick or dead birds - both wild birds and poultry - to local authorities (veterinary services, public health officials, community leaders etc.) Details of local state veterinarians can be found at:http://www.elsenburg.com/services-an...y-services-0#s...

                        Farmers and poultry producers should step up their biosecurity measures in order to prevent potential virus introduction from wild birds or their faeces;

                        It is important to keep poultry and other animals away from wild birds and their body fluids, through screens, fencing or nets;

                        Commercial poultry operations and backyard poultry owners should avoid the introduction of the virus through contaminated clothes, footwear, vehicles or equipment used in waterfowl hunting.

                        Because of the HPAI H5N8 outbreaks, the buyers or sellers of more than five live chickens for any purpose other than direct slaughter at a registered abattoir will be subjected to the following conditions (quoting Media Briefing by Minister Senzeni Zokwana, Avian Influenza Outbreak In South Africa, 29 June 2017, Department Agriculture Forestry & Fisheries):

                        The sellers of live chickens, including commercial farmers, as well as the traders who buy and resell these chickens must register with the Poultry Disease Management Agency (PDMA). The national Director Animal Health has authorised the PDMA to register and keep records of all parties selling and buying live chickens. The PDMA is an independent organisation and all information about the trade of live chickens will be kept strictly confidential.

                        Only registered sellers and buyers are allowed to trade and it is the responsibility of both the seller and the buyer to ensure that their counterpart is registered.

                        Farmers may only sell live chickens certified as healthy by a veterinarian or Animal Health Technician.

                        Traders may only sell healthy chickens and must keep records as prescribed.

                        Sellers and buyers registering with the PDMA would have to sign an undertaking to adhere to the required control measures.

                        For more information, kindly contact Petro van Rhyn, Head of Communication for the Western Cape Department of Agriculture, on 071 231 7576.

                        https://www.westerncape.gov.za/news/...d-western-cape
                        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                        -Nelson Mandela

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds),
                          South Africa
                          Information received on 16/08/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                          Summary
                          Report type Follow-up report No. 1
                          Date of start of the event 30/06/2017
                          Date of confirmation of the event 30/06/2017
                          Report date 15/08/2017
                          Date submitted to OIE 16/08/2017
                          Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                          Causal agent Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
                          Serotype H5N8
                          Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                          This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                          Related reports Immediate notification (24/07/2017)
                          Follow-up report No. 1 (15/08/2017)
                          New outbreaks (1)
                          Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_017) HPAI_H5N8_2017_017, Govan Mbeki, MPUMALANGA
                          Date of start of the outbreak 21/07/2017
                          Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                          Epidemiological unit Farm
                          Affected animals
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          House Sparrow:Passer domesticus(Passeridae) 3 1 0 0
                          Southern Masked-Weaver:Ploceus velatus(Ploceidae) 2 0 0 0
                          Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 1
                          Total animals affected
                          Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                          House Sparrow:Passer domesticus(Passeridae) 3 1 0 0
                          Southern Masked-Weaver:Ploceus velatus(Ploceidae) 2 0 0 0
                          Outbreak statistics
                          Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                          House Sparrow:Passer domesticus(Passeridae) ** ** 33.33% **
                          Southern Masked-Weaver:Ploceus velatus(Ploceidae) ** ** 0.00% **
                          *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                          **Not calculated because of missing information
                          Epidemiology
                          Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                          • Unknown or inconclusive
                          Control measures
                          Measures applied
                          • Screening
                          • Vaccination prohibited
                          • No treatment of affected animals
                          Measures to be applied
                          • No other measures
                          Future Reporting
                          The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                          ...
                          http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24560
                          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                          -Nelson Mandela

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Highly pathogenic avian influenza,
                            South Africa
                            Information received on 22/08/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                            Summary
                            Report type Follow-up report No. 7
                            Date of start of the event 19/06/2017
                            Date of confirmation of the event 22/06/2017
                            Report date 22/08/2017
                            Date submitted to OIE 22/08/2017
                            Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                            Causal agent Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus
                            Serotype H5N8
                            Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                            This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                            Related reports Immediate notification (22/06/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 1 (26/06/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 2 (10/07/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 3 (31/07/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 4 (03/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 5 (07/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 6 (11/08/2017)
                            Follow-up report No. 7 (22/08/2017)
                            New outbreaks (2)
                            Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_018) HPAI_H5N8_2017_018, Dr Pixley ke Seme, MPUMALANGA
                            Date of start of the outbreak 11/08/2017
                            Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                            Epidemiological unit Backyard
                            Affected animals
                            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                            Birds 266 81 81 135 0
                            Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_019) HPAI_H5N8_2017_019, Abaqulusi, KWAZULU-NATAL
                            Date of start of the outbreak 17/08/2017
                            Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                            Epidemiological unit Farm
                            Affected animals
                            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                            Birds 248000 12 12 50000 0
                            Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 2
                            Total animals affected
                            Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                            Birds 248266 93 93 50135 0
                            Outbreak statistics
                            Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                            Birds 0.04% 0.04% 100.00% 20.23%
                            *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                            Epidemiology
                            Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                            • Unknown or inconclusive
                            Epidemiological comments Coordinates modified to protect confidentiality as required by South African Legislation.
                            Control measures
                            Measures applied
                            • Surveillance within containment and/or protection zone
                            • Traceability
                            • Quarantine
                            • Vaccination prohibited
                            • No treatment of affected animals
                            Measures to be applied
                            • Official destruction of animal products
                            • Official disposal of carcasses, by-products and waste
                            • Stamping out
                            • Disinfection
                            Future Reporting
                            The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                            ...
                            http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24573
                            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                            -Nelson Mandela

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Highly pathogenic influenza A viruses (infection with) (non-poultry including wild birds),
                              South Africa
                              Information received on 22/08/2017 from Dr Bothle Michael Modisane, Chief Director , Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Animal Production and Health, PRETORIA, South Africa
                              Summary
                              Report type Follow-up report No. 2
                              Date of start of the event 30/06/2017
                              Date of confirmation of the event 30/06/2017
                              Report date 22/08/2017
                              Date submitted to OIE 22/08/2017
                              Reason for notification New strain of a listed disease in the country
                              Causal agent Highly pathogenic influenza A virus
                              Serotype H5N8
                              Nature of diagnosis Clinical, Laboratory (advanced)
                              This event pertains to a defined zone within the country
                              Related reports Immediate notification (24/07/2017)
                              Follow-up report No. 1 (15/08/2017)
                              Follow-up report No. 2 (22/08/2017)
                              New outbreaks (3)
                              Outbreak 1 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_022) HPAI_H5N8_2017_022, Rustenburg, NORTH WEST PROVINCE
                              Date of start of the outbreak 12/08/2017
                              Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                              Epidemiological unit Backyard
                              Affected animals
                              Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                              Birds 62 5 5 0 0
                              Affected population Hobby ducks and swans
                              Outbreak 2 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_021) HPAI_H5N8_2017_021, Ekurhuleni, GAUTENG
                              Date of start of the outbreak 14/08/2017
                              Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                              Epidemiological unit Backyard
                              Affected animals
                              Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                              Birds 34 19 19 0 0
                              Affected population White Geese
                              Outbreak 3 (HPAI_H5N8_2017_020) HPAI_H5N8_2017_020, City of Tshwane, GAUTENG
                              Date of start of the outbreak 15/08/2017
                              Outbreak status Continuing (or date resolved not provided)
                              Epidemiological unit Not applicable
                              Affected animals
                              Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                              Sacred Ibis:Threskiornis aethiopicus(Threskiornithidae) 1 1 0 0
                              Summary of outbreaks Total outbreaks: 3
                              Total animals affected
                              Species Susceptible Cases Deaths Killed and disposed of Slaughtered
                              Birds 96 24 24 0 0
                              Sacred Ibis:Threskiornis aethiopicus(Threskiornithidae) 1 1 0 0
                              Outbreak statistics
                              Species Apparent morbidity rate Apparent mortality rate Apparent case fatality rate Proportion susceptible animals lost*
                              Birds 25.00% 25.00% 100.00% 25.00%
                              Sacred Ibis:Threskiornis aethiopicus(Threskiornithidae) ** ** 100.00% **
                              *Removed from the susceptible population through death, destruction and/or slaughter
                              **Not calculated because of missing information
                              Epidemiology
                              Source of the outbreak(s) or origin of infection
                              • Unknown or inconclusive
                              Control measures
                              Measures applied
                              • Screening
                              • Vaccination prohibited
                              • No treatment of affected animals
                              Measures to be applied
                              • No other measures
                              Future Reporting
                              The event is continuing. Weekly follow-up reports will be submitted.
                              ...
                              http://www.oie.int/wahis_2/public/wa...reportid=24617
                              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                              -Nelson Mandela

                              Comment

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