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Guinea records probable case of Ebola-like Marburg virus - Confirmed - Outbreak declared over

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  • #16
    Translation Google

    Marburg virus: WHO insists on surveillance of contact cases in Guinea

    By Le Figaro with AFP
    Posted yesterday at 22:15, updated3 hours ago

    "Investigations are underway", assures Guinea after the appearance of the first case of the Marburg virus

    Only one case of the Marburg virus has been detected so far in Guinea, but the WHO insisted on Friday in Geneva on the importance of monitoring the some 150 contact cases who are in the "critical" incubation period. The Guinean health authorities indicated at a press conference in Conakry that one of these cases was missing, but were confident that they would find him and have minimized the health risks of this defection. .

    West Africa recorded in early August in Guinea its very first case of the Marburg virus, a hardly less deadly cousin of the Ebola virus, against which there is no vaccine or treatment and which manifests itself in an acute fever. accompanied by internal and external bleeding resulting in death in 50% of cases on average. The virus, transmitted by bats, was discovered in samples taken from a man who died on August 2 in the prefecture of Guéckédou (South), in a village located in a forest region close to the borders of Sierra Leone and Liberia. His symptoms appeared on July 25, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

    "So far, there have been no other cases from Marburg since the index case which was confirmed on August 9," said a spokesperson for the health agency in Geneva, Fadela Chaib. So far some 150 contact cases have been identified and placed in isolation. The incubation period (the time between infection and the onset of symptoms) ranges from two to 21 days. “We have entered the critical period when anyone exposed to the virus is most likely to develop symptoms. Surveillance is therefore particularly important at this time and the teams are monitoring contacts twice a day, ” explained Fadela Chaib. "Screening of suspected cases is also underway" while“Efforts continue to locate people who may have been in contact with the deceased patient,” she said.

    Cross-border surveillance has been strengthened. The director of the Guinean health agency, Sakoba Keita, told Conakry that the man who died of the virus seemed to live in a relatively isolated way and that no case had yet been declared in his close entourage. "We are very confident that the 21 days - we have 10 days left, it's the 23rd - may arrive (without us having) a case", he said. Guinea was one of the countries most affected by the Ebola epidemic which killed thousands of people in West Africa between the end of 2013 and 2016. In 2021, it experienced a resurgence of this disease which has killed 12 people and was declared complete in June. Each time, the disease left forest Guinea where the Marburg virus was detected. Case fatality rates have ranged from 24% to 88% in previous outbreaks of Marburg virus, depending on virus strain and case management.

    https://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/v...uinee-20210813

    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Marburg fever / Minister of health calms “the game”

    By Guinea7.com -August 13, 2021

    During a press conference this Friday in Conakry, the Minister of Health, Remy Lamah called on the population not to panic in the face of the case of the Marburg fever virus, discovered in Guinea.

    Regarding the only case discovered, Minister Rémy Lamah said: “This gentleman had developed a kind of dementia for three years. So practically He didn't live with the family. He was out of society. He preyed on beasts. He sometimes attacked his wife who had left him. Fortunately since this case was identified, there has not been a new case. According to the latest information we have received, the vaccine used against Ebola can also be used for the Marburg virus. So the WHO, in collaboration with the national health security agency, is in the process of making arrangements to vaccinate the contacts of this deceased who unfortunately died of this virus. ”

    “So there is no panic. All measures are taken ”he concludes.

    https://www.guinee7.com/fievre-de-ma...-calme-le-jeu/
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • #17
      WEEKLY BULLETIN ON OUTBREAKS
      AND OTHER EMERGENCIES


      Week 33: 9 - 15 August 2021
      Data as reported by: 17:00; 15 August 2021
      ...

      Marburg virus disease Guinea

      1 Deaths
      1 Cases
      100% CFR


      EVENT DESCRIPTION

      The first confirmed case of Marburg virus disease in Guinea and in
      West Africa was declared 9 August 2021. The case was a 46 years
      old male farmer, resident of Temessadou M´Boké village, who died
      within the community on 3 August. The deceased patient was safely
      buried on 4 August 2021. His onset of symptoms began on 25 July.
      The farmer visited a small healthcare center in Koundou, in the
      Guéckédou prefecture, on 1 August presenting with symptoms of
      fever, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain, and gingival haemorrhage.
      Test results from the Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers laboratory in
      Guéckédou on 3 August confirmed MVD by real-time reverse
      transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and was negative
      for Ebola virus disease. The sample was also sent to the national
      reference laboratory for Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (LFHG) in Conakry
      on 4 August and the Institut Pasteur in Dakar for re-confirmation.
      Further analysis by the Institut Pasteur in Senegal confirmed the
      case positive for Marburg.

      As of 15 August 2021, one case has been reported, with one death
      (case fatality ratio 100%).

      Three samples have been tested in the laboratories of Gueckedou
      and Conakry, where results returned all negative for MVD. A total
      of 173 contacts have been listed, of whom 172 (99%) have been
      followed-up and one high risk contact (wife to the confirmed case)
      has not been found yet.
      There were no suspected cases notified
      among the contacts under followed up. Active case finding is also
      ongoing in Temessadou M’Boket, Koundou. A total of seven alerts
      including one death have been notified to the health authorities, of
      which three including one deaths have been validated with three
      samples collected for laboratory testing.

      PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

      The Ministry of Health (MoH) together with WHO, USCDC,
      Alima, Red Cross, UNICEF, FAO and other partners, have
      initiated measures to control the outbreak and prevent further
      spread.

      The incident management system at the MoH has been
      activated with intersectoral coordination through the One
      Health platform planned. An emergency response plan for the
      outbreak is also in place.

      The MoH has activated the national and district emergency
      management committees to coordinate the response and
      engage with community.

      Fifteen health workers at the Koundou health center were
      briefed on specific precautions for Marburg; case definition
      and management of infectious waste in 6 health facilities of
      AGBEF Clinic, Phie Bilima, Camp Infirmary and Diarra Clinic
      and 2 health offices in the Koundou RC.

      A total of 140 travellers, including 76 women, and 64 men were
      screened at the various entry points in Gueckedou, and no
      suspected case was detected.

      Hand washing devices and cleaning products have been
      provided to 8 health facilities, including Koundou Health

      Center and the 7 health posts in Koundou. Rehabilitation of the
      Koundou Health Center borehole with the installation of a solar
      pumping system is underway.

      Continued investigation, contact tracing and active case
      finding in the localities of Temessadou M’Boket, Koundou and
      strengthening of surveillance in all districts given the declaration
      of Ebola case in Cote d’ivoire.

      Sierra Leone and Liberia health authorities have activated the
      contingency plan and have started public health measures at
      the point of entry with Guinea.

      A total of 24 religious leaders including 18 women from the
      Protestant Church of Temessadou M’boket, were sensitized on
      the preventive measures against MVD and solicitation of their
      involvement and commitment in the response to MVD, and the
      preparations for the community dialogue scheduled for August
      16-21 2021.

      A total of 50 youth association leaders in Guéckédou, including 15
      women, were briefed on the mode of transmission, symptoms,
      and preventive measures against MVD. Two religious leaders
      were also briefed on the preventive measures against MVD
      and solicitation of their involvement and commitment in the
      response.

      SITUATION INTERPRETATION

      The confirmation of a Marburg virus disease outbreak in Guinea is of
      serious concern.
      Health teams in Guinea are acting rapidly to trace
      the path of the virus and curb further infections. However, challenges
      remain around a missing high risk contact and inadequate infection
      prevention and control measures. In addition, the area is already
      dealing with multiple outbreaks, for example COVID-19, yellow
      fever, measles and vaccine-derived polio.
      While the country has
      overtime gained some experience and capacity to respond to viral
      haemorrhagic fever outbreaks, this event still calls for concerted
      efforts of all stakeholders.

      PROPOSED ACTIONS

      Authorities and partners in Guinea need to continue with the response
      activities and also; strengthen community engagement to foster
      the implementation of public health interventions; conduct assessment of
      screening, triage, isolation and care capacity within health
      facilities within the hotspot and at the CT-EPI of Koundo; and support
      preparedness and investigation efforts in neighbouring countries
      including cross border surveillance.

      https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/...0915082021.pdf
      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
      -Nelson Mandela

      Comment


      • #18
        ProMED is reporting a second confirmed case, but their source is over a week old and no one else has reported a second confirmed case.

        Published Date: 2021-08-18 21:10:57
        Subject: PRO/AH/EDR> Marburg virus disease - Guinea (03): (GU)
        Archive Number: 20210818.8605453

        MARBURG VIRUS DISEASE - GUINEA (03): (GUECKEDOU)
        ************************************************
        A ProMED-mail post
        http://www.promedmail.org
        ProMED-mail is a program of the
        International Society for Infectious Diseases
        http://www.isid.org

        Date: Wed 11 Aug 2021
        Source: Front Page Africa [edited]
        https://frontpageafricaonline.com/fr...boring-guinea/


        The World Health Organization (WHO)-Liberia Country Office has notified the National Public Health Institute of Liberia (NPHIL) of 2 confirmed cases of Marburg hemorrhagic fever in Gueckedou, the Republic of Guinea. The patients are a 46-year-old male and a female (age unknown) who were both residents of Temessadou, a sub-prefecture of Gueckedou. The Guinean Health Authorities were alerted by community members of Koundou Lengo Bengou, which is 54 km [33.5 mi] away from Gueckedou. This is the 1st time Marburg, a highly infectious disease that causes haemorrhagic fever, has been identified in the country, and in West Africa.

        Gueckedou, where Marburg has been confirmed, is also the same region where cases of the 2021 Ebola outbreak in Guinea as well as the 2014-2016 West Africa outbreak were initially detected.

        Marburg, which is in the same family as the virus that causes Ebola, was detected less than 2 months after Guinea declared an end to an Ebola outbreak that erupted earlier this year [2021].

        Efforts are underway to find the people who may have been in contact with the patient. As the disease is appearing for the 1st time in the country, health authorities are launching public education and community mobilization to raise awareness and galvanize support to help curb widespread infection.

        Liberia joins the [WHO] to applaud the alertness and the quick investigative action by Guinea's health workers. The potential for the Marburg virus to spread far and wide means we need to interrupt its transmission.

        Gueckedou prefecture borders Liberia from Foya District, Iofa County, and there are active socio-economic activities across the 3 countries (Sierra Leone, Liberia, and Guinea).

        With the aforementioned notification, Liberia has heightened cross-border surveillance to quickly detect any cases, with all neighbouring counties on highest alert. The Ebola control systems are in place in Liberia, and the health sector is finalizing the Marburg Preparedness and Response plan.

        Marburg is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through direct contact with the bodily fluids of infected people, surfaces and materials.

        Illness begins abruptly, with high fever, severe headache and malaise. Many patients develop severe haemorrhagic signs within 7 days. Case fatality rates have varied from 24% to 88% in past outbreaks depending on virus strain and case management.

        Although there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments approved to treat the virus, supportive care - rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids - and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. A range of potential treatments, including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies, are being evaluated.

        In Africa, previous outbreaks and sporadic cases have been reported in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, South Africa, and Uganda.

        Some key facts of Marburg haemorrhagic fever (MVD):
        - Marburg virus disease (MVD), formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
        - _Rousettus aegyptiacus_, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family, are considered to be natural hosts of Marburg virus.
        - The Marburg virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through human-to-human transmission.
        - The Marburg virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans.
        - The average MVD case fatality rate is around 50%.
        - Case fatality rates have varied from 24% to 88% in past outbreaks depending on virus strain and case management.
        - Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks.
        - Early supportive care with symptomatic treatment improves survival.
        - The incubation period (interval from infection to onset of symptoms) varies from 2 to 21 days.

        --
        Communicated by:
        ProMED from HealthMap Alerts
        <promed@promedmail.org>

        [The male case is doubtless the same one that was posted on 11 Aug 2021 (see Marburg virus disease - Guinea (02): (GU) conf, WHO 20210811.8585938). The female case is a new, 2nd person infected with the virus. Although these are the 1st confirmed human infections with this virus in West Africa, this virus was found previously in neighboring Sierra Leone in 5 Egyptian rousette, or fruit bats (_Rousettus aegyptiacus_) (see Marburg virus disease - Sierra Leone: bat 20200125.6916732 and citation below).

        The above reports provide no information about the source of the virus that infected these 2 individuals.

        The virus has been present in the general area and, unfortunately, ended up in a man and a woman in Guinea. Health authorities in both Guinea and Sierra Leone would be prudent to increase surveillance and ensure that laboratory support was adequate to make a timely diagnosis. The advice from WHO, above, should be heeded for preventive measures in healthcare facilities and to avoid wildlife practices that risk transmission to humans. - Mod.TY

        The citation of the article referenced above follows:
        Amman BR, Bird H, Bakarr IA, et al. Nat Commun. 2020; 11:510; https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14327-8.

        HealthMap/ProMED map of Gueckedou, Nzerekore, Guinea: http://healthmap.org/promed/p/44575]

        Comment


        • #19
          Translation Google

          Marburg virus in Guinea: 172 contact cases followed

          By Le Figaro with AFP
          Posted yesterday at 19:04, updated yesterday at 19:20

          The Guinean health authorities have identified and are monitoring 172 contact cases of a man who died of the Marburg virus on a daily basis, Minister of Health Rémy Lamah said on Thursday (August 19th).

          West Africa recorded in early August in Guinea its very first case of the Marburg virus, a hardly less deadly cousin of the Ebola virus, against which there is no vaccine or treatment and which manifests itself in an acute fever. accompanied by internal and external bleeding resulting in death in 50% of cases on average.

          "Struggling" health services

          The virus, transmitted by bats, was discovered in samples taken from a man who died on August 2 in the prefecture of Guéckédou (south), in a village located in a forest region near the borders of Sierra Leone and Liberia. His symptoms appeared on July 25, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

          “ The teams follow 172 contacts per day looking for possible symptoms. So far, no further cases of Marburg have been reported. We are fully committed to strengthening infection prevention and control measures, detecting cases and raising public awareness , ”assured the Minister of Health, Rémy Lamah, during a virtual press conference organized by WHO. The organization insisted last week on the importance of monitoring contact cases that are in the " critical " incubation period, the time between infection and the onset of symptoms, which ranges from two to 21 days.

          “ The last two weeks have been a real challenge for Guinea. We are dealing with an outbreak of Marburg virus disease and contact tracing for an Ebola case which is believed to originate from Guinea and is being treated in Côte d'Ivoire. We are dealing with all of this in the context of a resurgence of Covid-19. The number of cases has increased since early June and this wave is the worst we have seen. These multiple epidemics put our health services to the test, ”acknowledged the Minister.

          Guinea was one of the countries most affected by the Ebola epidemic which killed thousands of people in West Africa between the end of 2013 and 2016. In 2021, it experienced a resurgence of this disease which has killed 12 people and was declared complete in June. Each time, the disease left Forest Guinea where the Marburg virus was also detected.

          https://www.lefigaro.fr/flash-actu/v...uivis-20210820
          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
          -Nelson Mandela

          Comment


          • #20
            Translation Google

            Guinea: according to the Minister of Health, "no other case of Marburg has been reported"

            Published on : 08/20/2021 - 14:32

            Text by:
            RFI

            In parallel with the response to the Covid-19 epidemic and the risk of a new Ebola epidemic, Guinea is also fighting a possible epidemic of Marburg fever. The Guinean Minister of Health wished to reassure on the rapid response provided by his services, as soon as a first case was detected.

            A case of this highly contagious disease, with a case fatality rate ranging from 24 to 88%, was indeed confirmed there on August 10 , it was the first time in West Africa. Like Ebola, the Marburg virus is a hemorrhagic fever. It causes severe bleeding, fever, vomiting, and diarrhea. It is a zoonosis, which is transmitted to humans through certain bats, fruit bats. During a press conference organized by the World Health Organization yesterday, the Guinean Minister of Health, Dr. Rémy Lamah, took stock of the state of contact tracing.
            ...
            " Our health workers noticed suspicious symptoms, and quickly performed a test for Marburg, it is thanks to them and the training they received that the epidemic was identified so quickly, and that we were able to start the response immediately. "

            According to him, the speed of the detection made it possible to act quickly on the management of the contact cases. " We immediately tried to circumscribe the various contacts, and where the surprise came, it is that the funeral toilet has been made by a certain member of the family, but so far none of its members have developed any signs in favor of the Marburg. 175 people have been identified, they are monitored on a regular basis by examining possible symptoms. We do not neglect anything in relation to the follow-up of these contacts. So far, no further cases of Marburg have been reported. "

            https://www.rfi.fr/fr/afrique/202108...9-signal%C3%A9
            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela

            Comment


            • #21
              Translation Google

              Marburg fever: no contact case of the deceased contracted the disease (DRS)

              By Mohamed Bangoura 22 minutes ago in Health

              This may be a beacon of hope for the inhabitants of Tèmassadou M'boké, a locality located in the prefecture of Guéckédou, after the confirmation of the Marburg fever.

              To date, the 193 contacts identified have fortunately not been infected with this virus after two weeks of follow-up in treatment centers.

              The information was given by the communications officer of the Regional Health Directorate of Guéckédou, during a telephone interview with mosaiqueguinee.com this Wednesday, August 25, 2021.

              ”Of the 193 contacts identified after Julien Millimouno's death, in surrounding and neighboring villages that were under control, none of them were declared to have Marburg fever and their follow-up will end tomorrow Thursday. To be more vigilant and avoid further contamination, we have decided to extend the decreed state of health emergency for a period of two weeks. So far the wife of the deceased has not been found and at our level, we are continuing the search “ , reassured Moussa Touré.'

              https://mosaiqueguinee.com/fievre-ma...a-maladie-drs/
              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela

              Comment


              • #22
                Guinea declares end of Marburg virus disease outbreak

                15 September 2021

                Brazzaville/Conakry – Guinea today declared the end of the Marburg virus disease outbreak having recorded no new cases over the past 42 days—two incubation periods, or the time between infection and the onset of symptoms. The virus was confirmed on 9 August, marking the first time the disease emerged in the country and in West Africa.

                Only one case—the index patient who was diagnosed with the virus posthumously—was recorded and more than 170 high-risk contacts monitored for 21 days. The disease, a highly infectious virus that causes haemorrhagic fever, was detected in southern Guinea, the same region where the initial cases of the February—June Ebola 2021 outbreak as well as the 2014—2016 West Africa Ebola outbreak were detected.

                Guinea’s health authorities, with support from World Health Organization (WHO), promptly mounted emergency response, deploying expert teams to carry out further investigations, step up disease surveillance, assess the risks and bolster community mobilization, testing, clinical care as well as infection prevention and control measures.

                “Without immediate and decisive action, highly infectious diseases like Marburg can easily get out of hand. Today we can point to the growing expertise in outbreak response in Guinea and the region that has saved lives, contained and averted a spill-over of the Marburg virus,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa.

                While the outbreak has been declared over, flare-ups can occur. WHO continues to support Guinea in its efforts to remain vigilant, maintain surveillance and build capacity to respond quickly to a possible resurgence of the virus.

                Guinea’s health authorities, WHO experts and scientists are deepening investigations into the source of the Marburg outbreak, including analysis on bats as well as undertaking serological surveys to not only help understand how the virus emerged, but also help prevent potential future outbreaks.

                Marburg, which is in the same family as Ebola, is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through direct contact with the bodily fluids of infected people, surfaces and materials.

                Although there are no vaccines or antiviral treatments approved to treat the virus, supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms, improves survival. A range of potential treatments, including blood products, immune therapies and drug therapies, are being evaluated.

                In Africa, previous outbreaks and sporadic cases have been reported in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, South Africa and Uganda.

                (END)



                Media contacts:



                Collins Boakye-Agyemang

                Communications Officer

                WHO Regional Office for Africa

                boakyeagyemangc@who.int

                Tel: + 242 06 520 65 65

                https://www.afro.who.int/news/guinea...sease-outbreak
                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela

                Comment


                • #23
                  Source: https://www.who.int/emergencies/dise...sease---guinea



                  Marburg virus disease - Guinea

                  17 September 2021


                  On 16 September 2021, the Ministry of Health of Guinea declared the end of the Marburg virus disease outbreak in Guéckédou prefecture, Nzérékoré Region. In accordance with WHO recommendations, the declaration was made 42 days after the safe and dignified burial of the only confirmed patient reported in this outbreak. This was the first-ever Marburg virus disease case reported in Guinea.
                  From 3 August 2021 to the end of outbreak declaration, only one confirmed case was reported. The patient, a man, had onset of symptoms on 25 July. On 1 August he went to a small health facility near his village, with symptoms of fever, headache, fatigue, abdominal pain and gingival hemorrhage. A rapid diagnostic test for malaria returned a negative result, and the patient received ambulatory supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment. Upon returning home, his condition worsened, and he died on 2 August. An alert was subsequently raised by the sub-prefecture public health care facility to the prefectorial department of health in Guéckédou. The investigation team was immediately deployed to the village to conduct an in-depth investigation and collected a post-mortem oral swab sample, which was shipped on the same day to the viral hemorrhagic fever laboratory in Guéckédou city. On 3 August, the sample tested positive for Marburg virus disease by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and negative for Ebola virus disease. The deceased patient was buried safely and with dignity on 4 August, with the support of the national Red Cross.
                  On 5 August, the National Reference Laboratory in Conakry provided confirmation by real-time PCR of the positive Marburg result, and on 9 August, the Institut Pasteur Dakar in Senegal provided an additional confirmation that the result was positive for Marburg virus disease and negative for Ebola virus disease.


                  Public health response

                  The Ministry of Health activated the national and district emergency management committees to coordinate the response and engage with the community. Additionally, the Ministry of Health together with WHO, the United States Centers for Disease Control, the Alliance for International Medical Action, the Red Cross, UNICEF, the International Organization for Migration, and other partners, initiated measures to control the outbreak and prevent further spread including the implementation of contact tracing and active case search in health facilities and at the community level.
                  During the outbreak, a total of one confirmed case who died, (CFR=100%) and 173 contacts were identified, including 14 high risk contacts based on exposure. Among them, 172 were followed for a period of 21 days, of which none developed symptoms. One high-risk contact was lost to follow up. At the different points of entry in Guéckédou prefecture where passengers were screened, no alerts were generated.
                  Ongoing activities include:
                  • Capturing and sampling of bats in the localities of Temessadou M´Boké, Baladou Pébal and Koundou to better understand the involvement of bats in the ecology of Marburg viruses;
                  • Development of a sero-surveillance protocol in the sub-prefecture of Koundou;
                  • Development and implementation of plans to strengthen Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) programmes at the national and facility level including establishing and mentoring of IPC focal persons, IPC/hygiene committees, ongoing training of health workers and adequate procurement and distribution of supplies such as personal protective equipment (PPE);
                  • Implementation of water, sanitation and hygiene measures with partners including in health facilities and communities;
                  • Supporting training on community-based surveillance in Guéckédou prefecture; and
                  • Risk communication and community mobilization activities in Guéckédou prefecture as a component of a health emergency preparedness and response action plan.


                  WHO risk assessment

                  Marburg virus disease (MVD) is an epidemic-prone disease associated with high case fatality ratios (CFR 24-90%). In the early course of the disease, clinical diagnosis of MVD is difficult to distinguish from many other tropical febrile illnesses, because of the similarities in the clinical symptoms. Other viral hemorrhagic fevers need to be excluded, particularly Ebola virus disease (EVD), as well as malaria, typhoid fever, leptospirosis, rickettsial infection and plague. MVD is transmitted by direct contact with the blood, bodily fluids and/or tissues of infected persons or wild animals (e.g., monkeys and fruit bats).
                  Investigations are ongoing to identify the source of the infection. Guinea has previous experience in managing viral hemorrhagic diseases such as EVD and Lassa fever, but this was the first time that MVD was reported. The country has a fragile health care system due to the overburden of disease outbreaks, COVID-19 pandemic, and the recurrent threat of epidemics such as malaria, yellow fever, measles, Lassa fever, EVD, health care-associated infections, high rates of acute malnutrition, cyclical natural disasters such as floods, and socio-political unrest.
                  Guinea health authorities responded rapidly to the event, and measures were rapidly implemented to control the outbreak. Cross-border population movement and community mixing between Guinea and neighboring Sierra Leone and Liberia increased the risk of cross-border spread. Sierra Leone and Liberia health authorities activated contingency plans and started public health measures at the points of entry with Guinea.

                  The affected village is in a remote forest area located at the border with Sierra Leone, about 9 km from a main international border crossing point between the two countries. The proximity of the affected area to an international border, cross-border movement between the affected district and Sierra Leone, and the potential transmission of the virus between bat colonies and humans posed an increased risk for cross-border spread.

                  These factors suggested a high risk at the national and regional level, and given that Guéckédou prefecture is well connected to Foya in Liberia, and Kailahun in Sierra Leone, this outbreak required an immediate and coordinated response with support from international partners. The risk associated with the event at the global level was assessed as low.


                  WHO advice

                  Human-to-human transmission of Marburg virus is primarily associated with direct contact with blood and/or bodily fluids of infected persons, and Marburg virus transmission associated with the provision of health care has been reported when appropriate infection control measures have not been implemented.
                  Health care workers caring for patients with suspected or confirmed Marburg virus disease should apply standard and transmission-based IPC precautions to avoid any exposure to blood and/or bodily fluids, as well as unprotected contact with the possibly contaminated environment. IPC precautions include:
                  • Early recognition (screening, triage) and isolation of suspected cases;
                  • Appropriate isolation capacity (including infrastructure and human resources);
                  • Health care workers’ access to hand hygiene resources (i.e., soap and water or alcohol-based hand rub);
                  • Appropriate and accessible PPE for health care workers;
                  • Safe infection practices (emphasize on single-use only needles);
                  • Procedures and resources for decontamination and sterilization of medical devices; and
                  • Appropriate management of infectious waste.
                  IPC assessments of health facilities in affected areas using the IPC Scorecard revealed sub-optimal results highlighting the need for ongoing supportive supervision and mentorship for implementation of IPC in health care settings in addition to implementing IPC minimum requirements to support and strengthen future preparedness for emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases.
                  Integrated disease surveillance and response activities, including community-based surveillance must continue to be strengthened within all affected health zones.

                  Raising awareness of the risk factors for Marburg virus disease and the protective measures individuals can take to reduce human exposure to the virus are the key measures to reduce human infections and deaths. Key public health communication messages include:
                  • Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission in the community arising from direct contact with infected patients, particularly with their bodily fluids;
                  • Avoiding close physical contact with patients who have Marburg virus disease;
                  • Any suspected case ill at home should not be managed at home, but immediately transferred to a health facility for treatment and isolation. During this transfer, health care workers should wear appropriate PPE;
                  • Regular hand washing should be performed after visiting sick relatives in hospital; and
                  • Communities affected by Marburg should make efforts to ensure that the population is well informed, both about the nature of the disease itself to avoid further transmission, community stigmatization, and encourage early presentation to treatment centers and other necessary outbreak containment measures, including safe burial of the dead. People who have died from Marburg should be promptly and safely buried.
                  To reduce the risk of wildlife-to-human transmissions, such as through contact with fruit bats, monkeys, and apes:
                  • Handle wildlife with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing;
                  • Cook animal products such as blood and meat thoroughly before consumption and avoid consumption of raw meat; and
                  • During work, research activities or tourist visits in mines or caves inhabited by fruit bat colonies, people should wear gloves and other appropriate protective clothing including masks.


                  Further information



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                  • #24
                    Translation Google

                    Marburg fever: the wife of Julien Millimono, the only victim, still untraceable (DRS)

                    By Mohamed BangouraFor 5 daysin Health

                    While the Guinean health authorities have just declared the end of the Marburg fever epidemic, according to our sources the wife of Julien Millimono, the sole victim of the disease has so far been reported missing.

                    According to Moussa Touré, the communication officer of the regional health directorate of Guéckédou, the many steps taken to find the lady have remained in vain, but reassures that there is no reason to worry, in the extent to which the suspected case has shown no signs from the onset of the disease to the present day.

                    “The woman is still missing and when we go to the village where she is hidden, the inhabitants tell us that she is well. There is no risk, because we did 42 days and if she was contaminated, she was going to develop the disease somewhere and we could have been informed. We carried out a lot of actions to be able to find her, but in vain and we even involved the local authorities, the wise men and the neighboring villages, but you know the black everyone is afraid to give the information. We really cannot identify this lady, because we do not know her physically, ” Moussa Touré said at the microphone of mosaiqueguinee.com this Friday, September 17, 2021.

                    https://mosaiqueguinee.com/fievre-ma...trouvable-drs/
                    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                    -Nelson Mandela

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                    • #25
                      https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-98971-0

                      Remdesivir is efficacious in rhesus monkeys exposed to aerosolized Ebola virus



                      We performed a randomized and blinded study to compare outcomes from vehicle-treated and remdesivir-treated rhesus monkeys in a lethal model of infection resulting from aerosolized Ebola virus exposure. Remdesivir treatment initiated 4 days after exposure was associated with a significant survival benefit, significant reduction in serum viral titer, and improvements in clinical pathology biomarker levels and lung histology compared to vehicle treatment. These observations indicate that remdesivir may have value in countering aerosol-induced Ebola virus disease.
                      ....
                      Previously, we have demonstrated that intravenous (IV) remdesivir provides a statistically significant clinical benefit in rhesus monkeys and crab-eating macaques parenterally inoculated with EBOV or MARV when treatment was initiated 4 days after virus inoculation34,35. Here we describe the first study to evaluate the efficacy of IV remdesivir in rhesus monkeys exposed to aerosolized EBOV.
                      Last edited by sharon sanders; October 3, 2021, 08:48 PM. Reason: added title
                      ?The only security we have is our ability to adapt."

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