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Kogi and Kwara States, Nigeria: Unconfirmed reports of over 100 undiagnosed fatalities - July 2017 + - yellow fever suspected?

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  • Kogi and Kwara States, Nigeria: Unconfirmed reports of over 100 undiagnosed fatalities - July 2017 + - yellow fever suspected?

    Published Date: 2017-08-11 21:19:35
    Subject: PRO/EDR> Hemorrhagic disease - Nigeria: RFI
    Archive Number: 20170811.5244725
    HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE - NIGERIA: REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
    ************************************************** ****
    A ProMED-mail post
    http://www.promedmail.org
    ProMED-mail is a program of the
    International Society for Infectious Diseases
    http://www.isid.org

    Date: Fri 11 Aug 2017
    Source: Punch [edited]
    http://punchng.com/confusion-as-stra...ara-community/


    There is confusion in Oro-Ago community, in the Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, as leaders and members say no fewer than 70 persons have died of a strange illness.

    They told one of our correspondents that the illness was predominant among the Fulani settlers called the Bororos in the community. It was gathered that a large number of the Bororos had died since the outbreak of the strange illness on 23 Jul 2017.

    Those who spoke with The PUNCH include the Oloro of Oro-Ago, Oba Tafa Dada; the President, Oro-Ago Development Union, Olaniyi Olushosa; a community member, who identified himself simply as Taiwo; and another concerned person, identified as Stephen. According to them, those affected by the illness would 1st vomit blood and some black substances.

    They said families had been devastated and called on government to come to their aid.

    Olushosa said the death toll as a result of the strange illness had hit 70 in 2 weeks. He added that he had reported the matter to the state Ministry of Health in Ilorin through a doctor that he identified simply as Dr. Lawal.

    He said: "It is worrisome that the Oro-Ago General Hospital had been abandoned and left dilapidated. No health workers, nothing; right now, our community lacks health centres."

    The ODU President called on the Kwara State Government as well as other relevant bodies to visit the community and stop the harvest of death.

    He said: "The death toll has reached about 70 in 2 weeks. Those affected are mostly the Fulani people. The matter has been reported to the Ministry of Health.

    Oba Dada also confirmed the outbreak of the strange illness. He said he sent Olushosa to report the sad development to the Ministry of Health in Ilorin. He said: "It is true that a strange illness has hit some members of Oro-Ago. The affected people vomited blood and some black substances. That is the report that I got. I was also told that many people have died; that was why I sent the ODU president to the ministry of health."

    A resident said the strange illness started on 23 Jul 2017. He claimed that no fewer than 120 people had died. He said about 5 persons died on Thu [10 Aug 2017] on the way to the General Hospital, Omu-Oran. He explained that 74 people died in Michede, in Oro-Ago, between 23 Jul and Thu 10 Aug 2017. He added that 36 people died at Gaa Wakil along Oreke Road, Oro-Ago, between Sun 6 Aug and Thu 10 Aug 2017.

    According to him, 14 people died at Orisa via Ahun in Oro. He also said that 4 people died on Wed [9 Aug 2017], while 5 died on Thu [10 Aug 2017]. He said: "Since 23 Jul 2017, we have been experiencing a strange disease around the Oro-Ago area. About 120 people have died. The symptoms are usually intermittent headaches and serious stomach pain. If it starts, between 1-1.5 hours, they would start vomiting blood. Those who were unable to vomit blood will die within 6 hours. But those who vomited blood would stay for about 3 days before they die. We have called the attention of the state Ministry of Health. We have not seen anybody."

    Stephen also said that many people had died in the community.

    But the Kwara State Commissioner for Health, Alhaji Suliaman Aloge, said there was no strange illness in the area.

    He said people were making unnecessary claims because they wanted a functional health centre in the area. He, however, said he got a report that a woman died on Tue [8 Aug 2017] of cancer.

    Aloge said: "The Public Health Department, through the Epidemiological Unit, has investigated, and such a thing is not recorded. There is no outbreak of any strange illness in Oro-Ago. Why some people raised the alarm is that the worker at the health centre in Oro-Ago was transferred and has not been replaced. I have directed relevant units to move another nurse to the health centre.

    "I was informed that only one woman died, on Tue [8 Aug 2017]. She died of a confirmed case of cancer. There is nothing like outbreak of illness in that community."

    However, doctors and experts who spoke to our correspondents on Thu [10 Aug 2017] said the symptoms described by the victims were suggestive of a viral haemorrhagic disease.

    A surgeon, Dr Adekunle Ashimi, said the symptoms could be indicative of Lassa fever.

    Ashimi said: "I know that there was or is a cholera outbreak, but the symptoms described here do not fit cholera. It appears they have another viral haemorrhagic disease from the family of Ebola and Lassa. But samples need to be collected and analysed to get a conclusive diagnosis."

    Corroborating his colleague's view, a medical practitioner, Dr Adeoye Oyewole, said it could either be a situation aggravated by local poisoning or Lassa fever.

    Adeoye said: "I would say a high index for Lassa infection. Also, considering the population and the mortality figure, it could be poisoning. Let's not forget that Lassa itself is poisoning of food by rat faeces and urine. There is a local factor in that place that is poisoning their collective food or water intake. A lot of analyses are required."

    The Director, Institute for Molecular Science and Biotechnology, University of Ilorin, Kwara State, Dr Ayokunle Afolabi-Toye, said a blood toxicological screening would yield some insight into an accurate diagnosis of the disease.

    He noted that epidemiologists and relevant health authorities in the state needed to confirm the deaths.

    Afolabi-Toye said: "I would 1st explore the possibility of chemical poisons in the community. Not enough symptoms are reported, and the sequence and timing of appearance of symptoms is not indicated either. But blood toxicological screening will yield some insights."

    --
    Communicated by:
    ProMED-mail


    [Black vomit is usually caused by bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Any of the hemorrhagic viruses might cause black vomit. These include Ebola, Lassa, Marburg, and yellow fever, among others.

    Lassa fever, suggested in the report, is a viral disease carried by rats of the genus _Mastomys_ and is endemic in portions of West Africa. Infection occurs through direct contact with, or consumption of food contaminated by, rodent urine or fecal matter containing virus particles; fatality rates can reach 50 percent in epidemic outbreaks.

    In severe cases of yellow fever, in 15 percent of cases, people enter a 2nd, toxic phase of the disease, with recurring fever, accompanied by jaundice due to liver damage, and abdominal pain. Bleeding in the mouth, the eyes, and the gastrointestinal tract cause vomit containing blood, hence the Spanish name for yellow fever, vomito negro ("black vomit").

    ProMED awaits test results from these patients. Any information on these cases that knowledgeable sources may have would be appreciated.

    Last edited by sharon sanders; August 13th, 2017, 05:55 PM. Reason: format

  • #2
    Kwara Government Denies Disease Outbreak in Oro Ago Community

    You are here:Home Press Release Kwara Government Denies Disease Outbreak…

    THE Kwara State government has denied reports of alleged outbreak of a mystery illness that claimed 70 lives in Oro-Ago community in Ifelodun Local Government Area of the state.

    The State’s Commissioner for Health, Alhaji Suleiman Alege, on Friday told newsmen in Ilorin, that the report is a mere rumor as the ministry has no confirmed outbreak of diseaseKr fatalities in any part of the state.

    He noted that there are epidemiological systems for reporting suspected disease outbreak in the state and that if any occurs, the State Health Response team would be the first to know and is always ready to swing into action.

    The Commissioner recalled that when there were reported cases of Cholera in some communities in the State, the State government immediately deployed emergency kits to the affected areas and also commenced vaccination in most of the state primary healthcare centers to forestall outbreak of an epidemic.

    Alhaji Alege noted that immediately the rumour of the strange disease broke last week Thursday, the Ministry of Health deployed a team from the endemic unit under the department of public health to the Gaa Okuta community along Oke-ode road axis in Ifelodun Local Government area who found no evidence of any strange illness or casualties.

    He disclosed that members of the community also insisted that there was no disease outbreak in the area.

    He further explained that when the rumour persisted, the state epidemiology team was redeployed to the community to verify and take samples for laboratory analysis.

    The Commissioner, however, noted that when the team got to the community, residents insisted that there was no record of disease outbreak or death.

    He added that the community’s water source was also tested to ascertain if there was any form of contamination.

    Speaking on the state of the health centre in the community, the commissioner noted that Governor Abdulfatah Ahmed has given the approval for its rehabilitation and posting of medical staff.

    Also addressing pressmen, the Ifelodun council Chairman, Alhaji Mukaila Omoniyi Ayinla insisted that the reports of the alleged disease outbreak In Oro Ago community are false and should be disregarded.

    He said the council is working on posting new medical team to the primary health care facility in the area, following the transfer of the staff at the facility.

    http://www.kwarastate.gov.ng/kwara-g...ago-community/
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • #3
      Reporting is all over the place.


      Published Date: 2017-08-13 22:21:33
      Subject: PRO/EDR> Hemorrhagic disease - Nigeria (02): (KW)
      Archive Number: 20170813.5247854
      HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE - NIGERIA (02): (KWARA)
      *******************************************
      A ProMED-mail post
      http://www.promedmail.org
      ProMED-mail is a program of the
      International Society for Infectious Diseases
      http://www.isid.org

      [A request for information (RFI) on the hemorrhagic disease outbreak reported in Nigeria was sent to EpiCore surveillance project volunteers. Below is a synopsis of the responses received. ProMED is grateful for the numerous Epicore and subscriber responses to the request for information on the mysterious disease with hemorrhagic manifestations characterized by "black vomit" that reportedly has killed approximately 74 people, mostly the Fulani people, in the Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. These responses have fallen into 3 categories. The 1st takes the middle road stating that the outbreak is real, but fewer than 10 people have died and only a single child has exhibited vomiting with hemorrhagic manifestations. The 2nd set is confirmation of the numbers and event; and the 3rd is absolute denial of an outbreak by the government and community. - Mods.LK/JH]

      Responses to RFI:
      [1] Apparent confirmation of outbreak with fewer victims
      [2] Apparent confirmation of outbreak as originally described
      [3] Government statement denying outbreak

      ******
      [1] Apparent confirmation of outbreak with fewer victims
      Date: 12 Aug 2017
      Source: EpiCore Surveillance Project [edited]


      Babalobi Olutayo stated "I am following-up initial information from a Kwara State based Fulani pastoralist who mentioned 17 fresh mortalities, all male, mainly Fulani but including 3 Yorubas, in the last 3 days in Oke-Ode village/settlement in Ifelodun LGA of Kwara State. They suspect ecological poisoning [meaning unclear] and are asking for post-mortem of mortalities. There is no report of animal mortality.

      "I am expecting information from the Sarkin (Fulani Head) of the area.

      "Share is the headquarters of the Ifelodun local government (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ifelodun,_Kwara). Share (Saare) is an ancient Yoruba town in Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The people of Share belong to the Igbomina extract of Yoruba tribe who are mainly harvest crops (including cassava and cocoa) and have had some reported clashes with Fulani pastoral farmers. I suspect some geographical location-related epidemiological factors."

      --
      Communicated by:
      Epicore Surveillance Project member
      Babalobi Olutayo
      Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
      University of Ibadan

      ******
      [2] Apparent confirmation of outbreak as originally described
      Date: 12 Aug 2017
      Source: Epicore Surveillance Project [edited]


      [The following 3 sources were provided in response to the request for information which showed similar reporting to that of the original story. - Mod.JH]
      https://www.olisa.tv/2017/08/strange...nity-in-kwara/
      http://dailypost.ng/2017/08/11/stran...nity-kills-70/
      http://www.blacknaija.com/new-update...wara-community

      --
      Communicated by:
      Epicore Surveillance Project member
      Olayinka

      ******
      [3] Government statement denying outbreak
      Date: 11 Aug 2017
      Source: Premium Times [edited]
      http://www.premiumtimesng.com/region...ase-kwara.html


      The Kwara State Government on Friday denied a report that an outbreak of a mystery illness had claimed 70 lives in Oro-Ago in Ifelodun Local Government Area of the state. Suleiman Alege, the State's Commissioner for Health, said the report is a mere rumour as the ministry has no confirmed outbreak of disease or fatalities in any part of the state.

      Mr. Alege said there are epidemiological systems for reporting suspected disease outbreaks in the state and that if any occurs, the State Health Response team would be the first to know and is always ready to swing into action.

      The commissioner recalled that when there were reported cases of Cholera in some communities in the state, the state government immediately deployed emergency kits to the affected areas and also commenced vaccination in most of the state primary healthcare centers to forestall outbreak of an epidemic.

      There had been unverified reports of outbreak of disease in the community on Thursday [10 Aug 2017].

      But the commissioner noted that immediately the rumour of the strange disease broke on Thursday, the state Ministry of Health deployed a team from the endemic unit under the department of public health to Gaa Okuta community along Oke-ode road in Ifelodun Local Government area.

      The team, however, found no evidence of any strange illness or casualties, he said. He disclosed that members of the community also insisted that there was no disease outbreak in the area.

      He added that the community's water source was also tested to ascertain if there was any form of contamination.

      Similarly, the Ifelodun council Chairman, Mukaila Ayinla, on Friday [11 Aug 2017] said the reports of the alleged disease outbreak in the community are false and should be disregarded.

      A statement by Muideen Akorede, senior special assistant to the State Governor on Media and Communication, quoted Mr. Ayinla as saying the council was working on posting a new medical team to the primary health care facility in the area, following the transfer of the staff at the facility.

      [A similar response was also received from an Epicore Surveillance Project member denying any outbreak was occurring. - Mod.JH]

      [Byline: Oladeinde Olawoyin]

      --
      Communicated by:
      ProMED-mail from HealthMap Alerts


      ProMED-mail also thanks Irene Lai (), affiliation: International SOS, for submission of this report in response to the RFI.

      [If a diagnosis is received for the reported cases or a determination made that the cases are not real, ProMED will post what it learns about this situation in Nigeria. We appreciate Epicore members and ProMED subscribers having taken the time to submit what information they had available to them, and look forward to learning more as it becomes available. At this time, there appears to be no consensus of opinion as to the etiology, or whether there actually is an outbreak.

      Comment


      • #4

        https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kogi_State

        Mysterious Illness Kills 62 In Kogi

        Channels Television
        Updated August 17, 2017
        ...
        The state Commissioner for Health, Dr Saka Audu, told Channels Television that so far, 62 people have been killed by the illness which was initially thought to have been Lassa fever by many people.

        This is because it has some symptoms that are similar to Lassa fever such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and vomiting.
        ...
        With over 60 people dead and Lassa fever ruled out as a cause, the government has taken samples of the disease and is hoping to identify the illness as quickly as possible to prevent more deaths, according to the commissioner.

        https://www.channelstv.com/2017/08/1...ls-62-in-kogi/
        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
        -Nelson Mandela

        Comment


        • #5
          Metro Mysterious Hemorrhaging Disease Kills 50 In Kogi

          Discussion in 'Metro News' started by Lequte, Today at 5:42 PM. Views count: 326

          About 50 have been reported dead at Okunran, Okoloke and Isanlu-Esa villages in Yagba West LGA of Kogi state after they were afflicted by a strange disease, whose symptoms include diarrhea, blood-stained vomiting, and high fever.
          ...
          “We initially suspected Lassa Fever after getting some misleading reports about people bleeding around, so we made a diagnosis for viral haemorrhagic fever (lassa fever), but the result was negative,” Dr. Jannette Hathorn, a Consultant at ECWA Hospital, Egbe told Audu.

          She said that the first case was that of a child of two and half years, who died 12 hours after he was brought to the hospital.
          ...

          https://www.nigerianbulletin.com/thr...n-kogi.242905/
          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
          -Nelson Mandela

          Comment


          • #6
            This is NOT the same outbreak as:

            https://flutrackers.com/forum/forum/...cal-facilities

            ​which is in a different, bordering state.

            ​Perhaps the two outbreaks are caused by the same thing, however?

            Comment


            • #7
              50 die as strange disease spreads to Kogi

              Published August 18, 2017

              A strange disease that killed over 70 people in Kwara State some days ago may have spread to neighbouring Kogi State as over 50 people have died of the sickness in Okunran, Okoloke and Isanlu-Esa communities all in the Yagba West Local Government Area of the state.

              The Kogi State Government on Thursday confirmed the outbreak of the strange disease.
              ...
              Although the commissioner said government had yet to know the exact cause of the disease, he said laboratory results had ruled out Lassa fever.
              ...
              He noted that the information about the outbreak of the strange disease was received last week and the government immediately sent a technical team to take the sample which was sent to the General Hospital, Irua, Edo State, for definitive investigations.
              ...
              The Traditional Ruler of the Community, Oba J.D Ogunyanda, the Obalohun of Okoloke, appreciated the commissioner for coming to see them in spite of the difficulty of getting to their communities and the neighbouring Fulani settlements.

              He said that the outbreak started over three weeks ago, and they immediately alerted the local government administrator to come to their aid.
              ...
              Experts who spoke to one of our correspondents said the outbreak in Kogi State should be investigated alongside that which occurred in Kwara State given their proximity.
              ...

              http://punchng.com/50-die-as-strange...reads-to-kogi/
              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela

              Comment


              • #8
                Kogi mysterious disease: Death toll rise to 62

                Published on August 18, 2017 By Olatunde Odimayo
                ...
                Speaking with DAILY POST on the latest development on Friday, the state Commissioner for Health Dr Saka Haruna said information reaching the ministry shows that unknown disease has continued to claim the lives of some children and adults for the past few weeks in Koloke, Okuna, Isanlu-Isa and adjourning Hausa-Fulani communities, all in Yaba-West Local Government Area of Kogi State.

                “So far, about 62 people have been killed by this mysterious disease...

                “On arrival at the community, we interacted with the locals and samples were taken from their water sources and food supply. It was discovered that the people affected showed common symptoms including abdominal pain, vomiting and stooling. Few of the patients however had Hematemesis and Hematochezia.

                “Those found still manifesting the disease were transferred to Kogi State Specialist Hospital for proper management where an empirical diagnosis of Food Poisoning to rule out Gastroenteritis was made.They are, however responding well to the instituted line of treatment. ”
                ...

                http://dailypost.ng/2017/08/18/kogi-...-toll-rise-62/
                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela

                Comment


                • #9
                  18 August 2017 | Abuja – NIGERIA CENTRE FOR DISEASE CONTROL ADVISES CALM AS IT INVESTIGATES REPORTS OF ‘STRANGE ILLNESS’
                  Friday, August 18, 2017
                  On the 17th of August 2017, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) Event Based Surveillance (EBS) system detected the news of a strange illness in Kogi State. In addition to this, we had received a report of a strange illness in Kwara State a week before.
                  Our Surveillance Team immediately contacted the State Epidemiology Teams of both States. Preliminary findings from the States showed that some cases presented with symptoms that fits the case definition of Lassa fever. However, laboratory test came out negative for Lassa fever and tests are now being carried out for other viral diseases in one of our collaborating laboratories.
                  In Kogi State, the State Epidemiology Team led by the State Commissioner of Health visited towns said to be affected by the strange illness and found five cases with mild illness. The patients were treated and discharged immediately. No other cases/ deaths of unknown illness have been identified. However, samples for routine laboratory investigation have been taken from the sick and results are being awaited.
                  The Nigeria Centre for Disease Control is supporting Kogi and Kwara States in ongoing investigations and our Rapid Response Team is ready to be deployed as required. We are constantly working with all the State Epidemiologists to ensure the health security of all Nigerians, by developing our laboratory capacity and ability to respond rapidly.
                  We ask members of the public to continue to ensure proper hygiene and sanitation measures are in place at all times and avoid self-medication. They are also encouraged to report to a health facility immediately if they experience symptoms such as sudden high fever, especially if it does not respond to conventional remedies.
                  Health workers should ensure universal care precautions while handling patients at all times. If common causes of febrile illnesses are ruled out, health workers should inform the Local Government or State Disease Surveillance and Notification Officer (DSNO) and ensure immediate laboratory investigation.
                  We will continue to work with the States to monitor the current situation and will share new information received, proactively. Our communication channels remain open.
                  Contacts
                  NCDC toll-free number: 0800-970000-10
                  SMS 08099555577
                  Whatsapp 07087110839.
                  Twitter/Facebook: @NCDCgov
                  SIGNED
                  MANAGEMENT
                  Twitter: @RonanKelly13
                  The views expressed are mine alone and do not represent the views of my employer or any other person or organization.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    This is starting to look like a false report as well. But why?

                    https://www.dailytrust.com.ng/news/g...lm/210741.html

                    Strange Disease: Kogi State government appeals for calm The Kogi State Commissioner for Health, Dr Saka Audu, has appealed for calm over reports of a mysterious disease in the state.
                    The commissioner, who denied that 62 people had died from the disease, told newsmen in Lokoja that those so far diagnosed were found to be suffering from gastroenteritis and Malaria.
                    The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) reports that the state Ministry of Health had in a statement put the figure of those who died at 62 in Okunran, Okoloke and Isanlu-Esa all in Yagba West Local Government Area.
                    “The current information available to us is that the strange disease actually started six weeks ago in Okoloke village in Yagba West, which is a settlement that is predominantly inhabited by Fulani herdsmen.
                    “There have been cases of reported deaths following abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhoea, but the patients who showed signs of illness had since been evacuated and transported to Kogi State Specialist Hospital, Lokoja for better treatment.
                    “So far, we have evacuated 39 patients from Okoloke area and only six of them were admitted and have shown significant sign of improvement while others have since been discharged.
                    “Out of the six that were admitted, three of them were diagnosed of gastroenteritis and the remaining three were just cases of malaria, and they have shown remarkable signs of improvement,” Audu said.
                    [snip]

                    Comment


                    • #11
                      Other possibilities may be frightening to the local population. Those in charge always fear panic: both for maintenance of social order, maintaining the local economy (which would suffer badly if there was a major outbreak of any nasty communicable disease), and because panic causes people to flee and spread disease with them. The downplaying of this event is potentially concerning, as the initial reports seemed quite clear on numbers. There are a few obvious candidates that need ruling out quickly - as quick action will be key to their control, in the unlikely event that one of them is the causative agent. Given recent history in this geographical region, Ebola needs ruling out quickly, just to err on the side of safety. A novel flu should also be ruled out, although it does not sound like one.

                      Comment


                      • #12
                        Ebola is not native to Nigeria; the cases it experienced in 2014 were linked to an importation. Ebola in Nigeria today would be no more likely than Ebola in Dallas.

                        ​On the infectious side, cholera and meningitis are both endemic in Nigeria and could be roughly symptomatically consistent with what has been reported. One article has hinted that many/most of the cases are children, which might implicate malaria, which in fact several suspected cases appear to have had. A mass poisoning might also be possible.

                        ​But curiously, no one has died in treatment, and there haven't been any specific reports of an ill person reporting a deceased contact. The previous event in Kwara state now appears to be a false report, could this one be as well? The fact that 39 people were evacuated as ill, but only 6 needed treatment makes me think something non-medical might be going on.

                        ​At this point, I'm wondering what else could be going on in Nigeria (economically? politically? socially?) that could be generating false or exaggerated reports of illnesses.

                        Comment


                        • #13
                          NEWS

                          Disease: Community faults Kwara govt’s claim

                          Published August 20, 2017

                          The Oro-Ago community in Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State has faulted the claim by the Kwara State Government that there is no evidence of a strange disease in the 15 Fulani settlements in the area.

                          The President of Oro-Ago Unity Alliance, Prof. Olu Dada, and Secretary, Dr. Adebisi Molomo, claimed that no fewer than 96 persons have died as result of the strange illness.

                          It was also learnt that the disease has spread to Ajaso-Ipo and Lafiagi areas of the state.

                          A source said no fewer than 12 persons suspected to have been killed by the disease have been buried at Kara cemetery at Ajase-Ipo.
                          ...

                          http://punchng.com/disease-community...a-govts-claim/
                          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                          -Nelson Mandela

                          Comment


                          • #14
                            Government Gastroenteritis: Kogi Govt Addressing The Health Issues in Yagba West – Spokesman

                            Aug 20, 2017, 13:06 Pm580
                            ...
                            Addressing reporters in Lokoja, Sunday, the Director General on Media and Publicity to the Governor, Kingsley Fanwo said the Governor is handling the issue “with utmost seriousness”, saying government will ensure the epidemic is tamed from doing further damage.
                            ...
                            “We have been circumspect in disclosing the cause of the deaths and the statistics of casualties because Kogi State Government will not rely on unverified claims by people who do not have accurate information and data on the incident.

                            “The Governor has directed the Commissioner for Health to immediately ensure we have scientific proofs of the causes of the epidemic with a view to finding medical remedies to the unfortunate incident. Survivors are under intensive care by the State Government and our fears that the victims died of Lassa Fever are being allayed. There is no proof to link it with Lassa Fever.

                            “In a couple of days, we will be able to address all the issues surrounding the epidemic and give accurate information to the public as medical experts are on the field gathering facts.
                            ...
                            The state Commissioner for Health, Dr. Saka Audu who denied that 62 people had died from the disease, told newsmen in Lokoja that those so far diagnosed were found to be suffering from Gastroenteritis and Malaria.


                            http://kogireports.com/gastroenterit...est-spokesman/
                            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                            -Nelson Mandela

                            Comment


                            • #15
                              Archive Number: 20170822.5265287 HEMORRHAGIC DISEASE - NIGERIA (04): (KWARA) REQUEST FOR INFORMATION
                              ************************************************** *****************
                              A ProMED-mail post
                              http://www.promedmail.org
                              ProMED-mail is a program of the
                              International Society for Infectious Diseases
                              http://www.isid.org

                              A request for information (RFI) on the hemorrhagic disease outbreak reported in Nigeria was sent to EpiCore surveillance project volunteers. An initial synopsis of EpiCore responses was posted in ProMED-mail. Hemorrhagic disease - Nigeria (02): (KW) 20170813.5247854. Below is a recent update of the responses received. Lassa virus appears to have been ruled out as the etiologic agent even though a case was detected in Kwara [ProMED-mail. Lassa fever - West Africa (32): Nigeria 20170819.5262007].

                              ProMED-mail is grateful for the numerous Epicore and subscriber responses to the request for information on the mysterious disease with hemorrhagic manifestations that has affected mostly the Fulani people, in the Ifelodun Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. - Mod.LK

                              Responses in this update:
                              [1] Norovirus gastroenteritis as causative agent
                              [2] Investigation by government
                              [3] Yagba West LGA in neighboring Kogi State
                              [4] Deaths and symptoms
                              [5] Food poisoning

                              ******
                              [1] Norovirus gastroenteritis as causative agent
                              Norovirus gastroenteritis disease has been diagnosed as the mostly likely cause of the disputed mortalities in Kogi State Nigeria. Norovirus is stated to be the commonest cause of serious of gastroenteritis and also of foodborne disease outbreaks: http://naijagists.com/gastroenteriti...eportedly-ill/.
                              It will need to be confirmed if the similar outbreak in adjoining Kwara is also norovirus gastroenteritis disease, if it has a common source, and why Fulani settlements are mostly affected.

                              --
                              communicated by:
                              Olutayo Olajide Babalobi
                              Lecturer and Consultant Epizootiologist
                              (One Health, Participatory Epizootiology and Veterinary ICT Research Group)
                              Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine
                              Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
                              University of Ibadan
                              Ibadan, Nigeria


                              [Norovirus are single-stranded RNA viruses enclosed in a non-enveloped protein coat, in the family Caliciviridae. Norovirus infections cause diarrhea in some of those who are exposed and vomiting in others and are asymptomatic in about one 3rd of [infected individuals]. After an incubation period of 10 to 51 hours, the disease often begins with vomiting, followed by abdominal cramps, fever (in 37 to 45 per cent of cases), watery diarrhea, and other constitutional symptoms such as headache, chills, and myalgias. The illness normally lasts only 2-3 days but can last longer (4-6 days) in nosocomial outbreaks and among children under 11 years of age. Virus can be shed in low titers for up to 8 weeks in previously healthy persons and for more than a year in patients who are immunocompromised. Fatalities have been reported in association with outbreaks of gastroenteritis among elderly people in nursing home facilities and, in the United Kingdom, an estimated 80 deaths from norovirus infections occur each year among people over 64 years of age. Recent reports have suggested possible associations of norovirus infection with necrotizing enterocolitis in newborns, with benign seizures in infants, and with exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease in pediatric patients; further study is needed to confirm these links.

                              [excerpted and edited from: RI Glass, UD Parashar, MK Estes. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361:1776-178. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMra0804575]

                              Although not a common feature, haemorrhage has been noted in norovirus infections in children http://jmm.microbiologyresearch.org/...9/jmm.0.000046 and https://link.springer.com/content/pd...16-0699-2.pdf; and in immunocompromised people http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMra1207742. - Mods.SH/LK]

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                              [2] Investigation by government
                              The Kogi State government on Saturday [August 2017] revealed that those who died from a mysterious disease in the state were not victims of Lassa fever. The state government also said it would investigate and count the number of grave sites of those affected to determine the actual number of people who died as a result of the mysterious disease suspected to be gastroenteritis and malaria.
                              For details please visit https://www.today.ng/news/nigeria/61...ever-kogi-govt.

                              Whatever is finally resolved that the outbreak is, 2 related questions need be addressed:
                              1. Why is the Fulani/Fulani settlement appear to be a risk factor?
                              2. Is outbreak notification more among the Fulani or are they more susceptible?

                              --
                              communicated by:
                              Olutayo Olajide Babalobi
                              [details above]


                              ******
                              [3] Yagba West LGA in neighboring Kogi State
                              I just read that a similar (if not the same) human disease incident is occurring in the adjoining Yagba West LGA in neighboring Kogi State (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yagba_West). It is also instructive that the Fulani are worst hit. However, Lassa fever has been ruled out after sample test (http://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/08/j...0-people-kogi/).

                              Extract:
                              A strange disease whose symptoms include diarrhea, bloodstained vomiting and high fever has killed 50 people at Okunran, Okoloke and Isanlu-Esa villages in Yagba West Local Government of Kogi State. Initial reports had suspected Lassa fever, but medics told Dr Saka Audu, commissioner for health, who visited the affected areas on Thursday [August 2017], that it was a strange disease that was unknown. "We initially suspected lassa Fever after getting some misleading reports about people bleeding around, so we made a diagnosis for viral haemorrhagic fever (lassa fever), but the result was negative," Dr Jannette Hathorn, a consultant at ECWA Hospital, Egbe told Audu.

                              She said the 1st case was that of a child of 2 1/2 years, who died 12 hours after he was brought to the hospital. "We are sure it is not Lassa fever; but our concern is that we do not know exactly what is happening. We have not arrived at a definitive diagnosis. "Two adult patients were also brought here; one showed symptoms of ulcer-viral illness, but there was no bleeding component of any haemorrhagic symptom. "We isolated them and both of them were treated for malaria. When they started improving, we let them go.

                              "Another parent brought a child to the hospital and pleaded for help. He said that 50 people had died in their village with similar symptoms of bloodstained vomiting, diarrhea and fever. "When the child died, we called the World Health Organisation (WHO). Yesterday [Wed 16 Aug 2017], their officials came and took samples of everything; we must know exactly what we are dealing with," she said.

                              Audu, who described the situation as "serious", said the visit was to assess it "especially since many lives have been lost to the disease". "We want to determine the cause of these mysterious deaths and then proffer solution to it. "Government is committed to assisting the people irrespective of how remote their settlements may be. We must ensure that we take healthcare to the door steps of rural dwellers. "We want to reassure the people that government is with them and will take full responsibility of those who are already ill, so as to arrest the spread of this disease. "For now, what is clear and confirmed is that it is not lassa fever; but whatever it is, we will carry out further investigation and come up with definitive diagnosis," Audu said.

                              He said that the information about the outbreak of the strange disease came to government last week [week of Sun 6 Aug 2017] and a technical team was immediately sent to take samples which were sent to General Hospital Irrua, Edo State, for definitive investigation. "We are digging into the real cause of this ailment. All hands are on deck toward unraveling the definitive cause of the mysterious deaths among the kids," the commissioner assured.

                              According to him, the Fulani settlers have been reported to be the worst hit by the disease which broke out 3 weeks ago. Ardo Damina Ibrahim, leader of the Fulani settlement, told newsmen that the 1st case was reported 3 weeks ago, adding that children were worst hit. "We at first used herbs to treat the patients but had to rush to the hospital after recording several deaths," he said. He explained that parents became more confused when doctors could not ascertain the cause of the illness, saying that many died in the hospital while others were discharged without any cure. "We have lost more than 50 people and still have many helpless patients at home,'' he said.

                              Oba Joshua Ogunyanda, the traditional ruler of the community, who thanked the commissioner for visiting the area in spite of the difficult terrain, said that he ran to the Yagba Local Government when the disease broke out. "We are confident that the disease will soon be brought under control with the commitment that you have shown," he said. The commissioner later gave N50 000 [USD 138] to the leader of the Fulani community to transport the sick patients to Lokoja for proper treatment (http://www.vanguardngr.com/2017/08/j...0-people-kogi/).

                              (Yagba West is a Local Government Area in Kogi State, Nigeria, in the west of the state adjoining Kwara State. Its headquarters are in the town of Odo Ere. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yagba_West)

                              --
                              communicated by:
                              Olutayo Olajide Babalobi
                              [details above]


                              ******
                              [4] Deaths and symptoms
                              One respondent reported 2nd hand that the date of onset of the outbreak was [Sun 23 July2017] and since then approximately 120 people have died around the Oro-Ago area. The infected individuals experienced intermittent headaches and severe stomach pain. Approximately 1-1.5 hours after onset, they started vomiting blood. Those who were unable to vomit blood died within 6 hours. But those who vomited blood survived for about 3 days before dying.

                              --
                              communicated by:
                              Olutayo Olajide Babalobi
                              [details above]


                              ******
                              [5] Food poisoning
                              The outbreak is likely to be poisoning due to a longstanding feud between local crop farmers and settled pastoralist/itinerant nomadic pastoralist. I learnt that the present Kwara State governor is from the affected area and the government is overwhelmed by the armed itinerant nomads who are taking over the place. That could explain why government officials are denying what seems obvious -- a sporadic and deliberate food poisoning targeted at the Fulani 'nuisance' likely by the indigenous Yorubas that is becoming recurrent/endemic.

                              I am still expecting feedbacks from both Kwara State based Fulani contact and also from Kwara state based resident veterinarians.

                              --
                              communicated by:
                              Olutayo Olajide Babalobi
                              [details above]


                              [The cause of this situation remains unclear. We thank Olutayo Olajide Babalobi for providing such information as we have and hope for a definitive explanation in due course. - Mod.SH

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