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  • Ebola Situation Report - 18 March 2015
    Corrected on 19 March 2015

    SUMMARY

    A total of 150 new confirmed cases of Ebola virus disease (EVD) were reported in the week to 15 March, compared with 116 the previous week. There were 95 new confirmed cases reported in Guinea: the highest weekly total for the country in 2015. Sierra Leone reported 55 new confirmed cases over the same period: the country’s lowest weekly total since late June 2014. Liberia reported no new confirmed cases for the third consecutive week. March 15 was day 12 since the final patient in Liberia had a second negative test for EVD (42 days must elapse before transmission can be considered to have ended).

    A total of 12 districts in Guinea and Sierra Leone reported a confirmed case in the week to 15 March, all of which lie on a geographically contiguous arc in and around Conakry to the north and Freetown to the south. An additional 4 districts have reported a confirmed case in the past 21 days: Kono and Tonkolili in central and eastern Sierra Leone, and Lola and Macenta in eastern Guinea.

    Though transmission is currently confined to a relatively narrow geographic corridor, the population is highly mobile, with a great deal of movement throughout surrounding districts and countries. Limiting the movements of cases and contacts is challenging but essential to prevent the seeding of new outbreaks.

    Key response indicators for Guinea suggest that there remain significant challenges to overcome before transmission is brought under control. Of 49 total reported EVD deaths in the week to 15 March, almost half (23) were identified post-mortem in the community. In the week to 8 March, a low proportion (28%) of confirmed cases arose from registered contacts, and there were a reported 18 unsafe burials. Taken together, these indicators suggest that the outbreak in Guinea is still being driven by unknown chains of transmission.

    In the week to 15 March a total of 125 suspected cases of EVD were reported in Liberia, none of whom tested positive for EVD. All contacts associated with the last known chain of transmission have now completed 21-day follow-up.

    By contrast with Guinea, key response indicators for Sierra Leone present a more promising outlook. In the week to 8 March over two-thirds (67%) of confirmed cases came from registered contacts, whilst in the week to 15 March, 6 of 62 total EVD-confirmed deaths were identified post-mortem in the community. There was 1 reported unsafe burial over the same period. However, there are still areas where most new cases arise from unknown chains of transmission. Kambia, a district north of Freetown on the border with the Guinean prefecture of Forecariah, reported 7 new cases in the week to 8 March, 5 of which came from post-mortem testing of people who had died in the community and who were not known to be contacts of a previous case.
    ...
    COUNTRIES WITH WIDESPREAD AND INTENSE TRANSMISSION

    There have been over 25 000 reported confirmed, probable, and suspected cases of EVD in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone (table 1), with over 10 000 reported deaths (outcomes for many cases are unknown). A total of 95 new confirmed cases were reported in Guinea, 0 in Liberia, and 55 in Sierra Leone in the 7 days to 15 March.

    The total number of confirmed and probable cases is similar in males and females (table 3). Compared with children (people aged 14 years and under), people aged 15 to 44 are approximately three times more likely to be affected. People aged 45 and over are nearly four times more likely to be affected than children.

    A total of 852 confirmed health worker infections have been reported in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone; there have been 492 reported deaths (table 5).

    Table 1: Confirmed, probable, and suspected cases reported by Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone

    Guinea Confirmed 2966 204 1829
    Probable 395 * 395
    Suspected 28 *
    Total 3389 204 2224
    Liberia** Confirmed 3150 0
    Probable 1879 *
    Suspected 4497 *
    Total 9526 0 4264
    Sierra Leone Confirmed 8487 194 3325
    Probable 287 * 208
    Suspected 2977 * 158
    Total 11 751 194 3691
    Total Confirmed 14 603 398
    Probable 2561 *
    Suspected 7502 *
    Total 24 666 398 10 179

    Data are based on official information reported by ministries of health. These numbers are subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation and availability of laboratory results. *Not reported due to the high proportion of probable and suspected cases that are reclassified. Data not available.
    ...
    GUINEA

    Key performance indicators for the EVD response in Guinea are shown in table 2.

    A total of 95 confirmed cases were reported in the 7 days to 15 March (figure 1), compared with 58 cases the week before.

    At present transmission is confined to an area around and including the capital Conakry (25 confirmed cases), with the nearby prefectures of Boffa (3 cases), Coyah (20 cases), Dubreka (2 cases), Forecariah (42 cases), and Kindia (3 cases) being the only other prefectures to report cases (figure 1, figure 4). Lola and Macenta in the east of the country and the northern prefecture of Mali have reported confirmed cases in the past 21 days.

    Limiting the movements of cases and contacts is essential but challenging in the context of a highly mobile population.

    Challenges engaging effectively with communities are affecting several crucial aspects of the response. In the week to 8 March, a relatively low proportion of confirmed EVD cases arose among known contacts (16 of 58 cases: 28%), whilst almost half (23 of 49) of EVD-positive deaths occurred in the community in the week to 15 March. Of 425 samples that were tested in the week to 15 March, a high proportion (32%) tested positive for EVD. A total of 18 unsafe burials were reported over the same period. A total of 4 prefectures reported at least one instance of community resistance.

    Locations of 8 operational Ebola treatment centres (ETCs) are shown in figure 6. Two ETCs have been assessed and have met minimum standards for infection prevention and control (IPC). Four new health worker infections were reported in the week to 15 March, 3 from Conakry and 1 from Forecariah.

    Locations of the 9 operational laboratories in Guinea are shown in figure 7. Over 99% of samples were processed within 1 day of arrival at a laboratory in the week to 15 March.
    ...

    http://apps.who.int/ebola/current-si...-18-march-2015
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • Translation Google

      Embassy of France in Conakry

      Ebola: point location in March 24, 2015

      ...
      GUINEA

      - New cases registered (balance sheet of 24 March) since the last review March 20:
      32 new cases (10 cases Conakry, Forécariah 21 cases Coyah 1 case) 29 deaths.


      - Review Overall: 3011 confirmed cases, 1,865 deaths confirmed as follows:

      Conakry (501 cases, 255 deaths); Gueckedou (269 cases, 203 deaths); Macenta (718 cases, 475 deaths); Dabola (8 cases, 8 deaths); Kissidougou (100 cases, 71 deaths); Télimélé (40 cases, 17 deaths); Boffa (32 cases, 22 deaths); Kouroussa (18 cases, 11 deaths); Siguiri (24 cases, 15 deaths); Pita (7 cases, 3 deaths); N'Zérékoré (213 cases, 138 deaths); Yomou (11 cases, 5 deaths); Dubréka (112 cases, 66 deaths); Forécariah (270 cases, 161 deaths); Kérouané (160 cases, 97 deaths); Coyah (220 cases, 120 deaths) Dalaba (9 cases, 2 deaths); Beyla (46 cases, 27 deaths); Kindia (73 cases, 46 deaths); Lola (93 cases, 66 deaths); Boke (1 case, 0 death); Mali (5 cases, 3 deaths); Faranah (46 cases, 31 deaths); Kankan (31 cases, 20 deaths); Fria (2 cases, 2 deaths); Tougué (2 cases, 1 death)

      Map of affected districts mentioned by the National Crisis Committee - Update March 22, 2015



      ...
      http://www.ambafrance-gn.org/Ebola-p...ion-au-21-1137
      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
      -Nelson Mandela

      Comment


      • Translation Google

        Embassy of France in Conakry

        Ebola: update March 31, 2015

        ...
        GUINEA

        - New cases registered (balance sheet March 31) since the last review March 30:
        7 new cases (2 cases Conakry, Dubréka 1 case, 1 case Forécariah, Fria 3 cases) 9 deaths.

        - Review Overall: 3068 confirmed cases, 1,900 deaths confirmed as follows:

        Conakry (519 cases, 258 deaths); Gueckedou (269 cases, 203 deaths); Macenta (718 cases, 475 deaths); Dabola (8 cases, 8 deaths); Kissidougou (100 cases, 71 deaths); Télimélé (40 cases, 17 deaths); Boffa (34 cases, 24 deaths); Kouroussa (18 cases, 11 deaths); Siguiri (26 cases, 15 deaths); Pita (7 cases, 3 deaths); N'Zérékoré (213 cases, 138 deaths); Yomou (11 cases, 5 deaths); Dubréka (115 cases, 67 deaths); Forécariah (290 cases, 181 deaths); Kérouané (160 cases, 97 deaths); Coyah (229 cases, 126 deaths) Dalaba (9 cases, 2 deaths); Beyla (46 cases, 27 deaths); Kindia (73 cases, 47 deaths); Lola (93 cases, 66 deaths); Boke (1 case, 0 death); Mali (5 cases, 3 deaths); Faranah (46 cases, 31 deaths); Kankan (31 cases, 20 deaths); Fria (3 cases, 1 death); Tougué (2 cases, 1 death)

        Map of affected districts mentioned by the National Crisis Committee - Update March 29, 2015


        ...
        http://www.ambafrance-gn.org/Ebola-p...ion-au-31-1145
        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
        -Nelson Mandela

        Comment


        • Ebola Situation Report - 1 April 2015
          ...
          Table 1: Confirmed, probable, and suspected cases reported by Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone
          Guinea Confirmed 3068 197 1900
          Probable 414 * 414
          Suspected 10 *
          Total 3492 197 2314
          Liberia Confirmed 3151 1
          Probable 1879 *
          Suspected 4682 *
          Total 9712 1 4332
          Sierra Leone Confirmed 8545 113 3433
          Probable 287 * 208
          Suspected 3142 * 158
          Total 11 974 113 3799
          Total Confirmed 14 764 311
          Probable 2580 *
          Suspected 7834 *
          Total 25 178 311 10 445

          Data are based on official information reported by ministries of health. These numbers are subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation and availability of laboratory results. *Not reported due to the high proportion of probable and suspected cases that are reclassified. Data not available.

          ...

          GUINEA

          Key performance indicators for the EVD response in Guinea are shown in table 3.
          A total of 57 confirmed cases were reported in the 7 days to 29 March (figure 3), compared with 45 cases the previous week.

          In addition to an increase in incidence, the geographic area of transmission has also expanded. A total of 7 prefectures reported at least one case, compared with 3 the previous week (figure 2; figure 6). Transmission remains centred in the west of the country, in and around the capital Conakry (19 confirmed cases). The nearby prefectures of Boffa (2 cases), Coyah (8 cases), Dubreka (3 cases), and Forecariah (20 cases) also reported cases (figure 2, figure 6). Two additional prefectures, Fria and Siguiri, reported cases for the first time in over 50 days. Fria, which borders Boffa and Dubreka to the south, reported 3 confirmed cases, one of which was identified only after post-mortem testing of a body found in a community setting. The prefecture had only reported 2 confirmed cases previously, both of which were reported over 80 days ago. A rapid investigation team has been deployed to the area. To the north, on the border with Mali, Siguiri prefecture reported 2 confirmed cases: its first for 50 days.

          Response indicators for Guinea present a mixed picture (table 3). Of 35 confirmed deaths from EVD in the week to 29 March, 15 (43%) were identified post-mortem in the community, compared with 10 of 37 (27%) the previous week. This increase may be attributable to improved access to communities in Forecariah prefecture, where effective community engagement had previously been a challenge. The proportion of confirmed cases that arose among registered contacts increased from 38% in the week to 15 March to 53% in week to 22 March. A total of 20 unsafe burials were reported in the week to 29 March, compared with 26 the previous week.

          ...
          http://apps.who.int/ebola/current-si...1-april-2015-0
          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
          -Nelson Mandela

          Comment


          • Ebola Situation Report - 22 April 2015
            Corrected on 23 April 2015
            ...

            Table 1: Confirmed, probable, and suspected EVD cases
            in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone
            Guinea Confirmed 3136 70 1943
            Probable 415 * 415
            Suspected 14 *
            Total 3565 70 2358
            Liberia** Confirmed 3151 0
            Probable 1879 *
            Suspected 5182 *
            Total 10 212 0 4573
            Sierra Leone Confirmed 8575 30 3511
            Probable 287 * 208
            Suspected 3405 * 158
            Total 12 267 30 3877
            Total Confirmed 14 862 100
            Probable 2581 *
            Suspected 8601 *
            Total 26 044 100 10 808

            Data are based on official information reported by ministries of health. These numbers are subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation and availability of laboratory results. *Not reported due to the high proportion of probable and suspected cases that are reclassified. ‡Data not available. **Data is missing for 12-14 April.
            ...


            http://apps.who.int/ebola/current-si...2-april-2015-0
            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela

            Comment


            • Ebola Situation Report - 20 May 2015
              ...
              GUINEA


              • Key performance indicators for the EVD response in Guinea are shown in table 4.
              • A total of 27 confirmed cases were reported in the 7 days to 17 May (table 3, figure 3), compared with 7 cases the previous week (figure 4). The number of prefectures that reported a case also increased from 2 to 3 compared with the previous week.
              • Of 26 prefectures that have reported at least one confirmed case of EVD since the beginning of the outbreak, 18 have not reported a confirmed case for over 6 weeks (figure 6). This is one prefecture less than the previous week, after the north western prefecture of Boke reported 5 confirmed cases: its first for over 200 days. The remaining 22 cases reported from Guinea in the week to 17 May came from the western prefectures of Dubreka (11 cases) and Forecariah (11 cases; figure 4).
              • The 5 cases in Boke were tightly clustered in the coastal sub-prefecture of Kamsar (figure 2, table 3), and initial investigations suggest they may have originated from a chain of transmission in Conakry.
              • All 11 cases reported from Dubreka in the week to 17 May came from the sub-prefecture of Tanene. Although the exact origin of the cluster is unknown, retrospective investigation has identified 4 probable cases who attended a funeral of another probable case in Dubreka in mid-April, which may have been the source of the outbreak. Difficulty engaging local communities has made case investigation and contact tracing in the area challenging.
              • In Forecariah, 11 cases were widely distributed across 6 sub-prefectures. A 4-day active case finding and sensitization campaign began in Forecariah on 16 May, aiming to visit over 7000 households over the course of the campaign.
              • A total of 1078 contacts are currently being monitored daily in the 3 Guinean prefectures that reported a confirmed case: 172 in Boke, 248 in Dubreka, and 609 in Forecariah. In addition, 49 in Conakry are also being monitored.
              • Owing to the proximity to Guinea-Bissau of the recent cluster of cases in the north west Guinean prefecture of Boke (figure 2, figure 3), a response team from Guinea-Bissau has been deployed to the border with Guinea to assess points of entry, and an epidemiology investigation team has been mobilized to ensure the rapid tracing of any contacts who cross the border.
              • Of the 27 cases reported from Guinea, 5 were registered contacts of a previous case, an additional 13 cases were not registered contacts but were found on further investigation to have an epidemiological link with a previous case, and the remaining 9 cases were reported to have originated from an as-yet unknown source of infection. The relatively large proportion of cases reported to have originated from an unknown source of infection indicates that the strengthening of capacity for case investigation and active surveillance must continue in order to uncover all remaining chains of transmission.
              • In total, 6 of the 27 cases reported from Guinea in the week to 17 May were identified after post-mortem testing of deaths in community settings (table 3). The number of reported unsafe burials increased very slightly compared with the previous week, from 23 to 25, but remained stable as a proportion of all reported burials, at 6% of 386.
              • A total of 520 laboratory samples were tested in the week to 17 May, including both initial and repeat testing. Including repeat positive samples taken from patients undergoing treatment, 10% of samples tested positive for EVD.
              • Locations of 8 operational Ebola treatment centres (ETCs) are shown in figure 7. For the fifth consecutive week, no health worker infections were reported in Guinea the week to 17 May.
              • Locations of the 10 operational laboratories in Guinea are shown in figure 8.
              • ...
              Table 1: Confirmed, probable, and suspected EVD cases in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone
              Guinea Confirmed 3201 43 1988
              Probable 419 * 419
              Suspected 15 *
              Total 3635 43 2407

              ...
              http://apps.who.int/ebola/en/current...rt-20-may-2015
              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela

              Comment


              • Ebola Situation Report - 10 June 2015
                ... Table 1: Confirmed, probable, and suspected EVD cases in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone
                Guinea Confirmed 3239 38 2018
                Probable 419 * 419
                Suspected 12 *
                Total 3670 38 2437
                Liberia§ Confirmed 3151 0
                Probable 1879 *
                Suspected 5636 *
                Total 10 666 0 4806
                Sierra Leone Confirmed 8635 30 3549
                Probable 287 * 208
                Suspected 3979 * 158
                Total 12 901 30 3915
                Total Confirmed 15 025 68
                Probable 2585 *
                Suspected 9627 *
                Total 27 237 68 11 158

                Data are based on official information reported by ministries of health. These numbers are subject to change due to ongoing reclassification, retrospective investigation and availability of laboratory results. *Not reported due to the high proportion of probable and suspected cases that are reclassified. Data not available. §The outbreak in Liberia was declared over on 9 May, after 42 complete days elapsed since the burial of the last confirmed case. The country has now entered a 3-month period of heightened vigilance. ...
                GUINEA
                ...
                A total of 16 confirmed cases were reported from 5 prefectures in the west of the country in the 7 days to 7 June (table 3, table 4, figure 2, figure 3), compared with 13 cases from 4 prefectures the previous week and 9 cases from 3 prefectures the week before that (table 3, figure 4). This is the most prefectures to report active transmission since late April this year.

                Half of all cases (8) were reported from the prefecture of Forecariah, which borders the Sierra Leonean district of Kambia to the south and the Guinean prefectures of Conakry, Coyah, and Kindia to the north. As was the case in the previous week, the sub-prefectures of Farmoriah (1 case), Kaliah (2 cases), and Moussayah (5 cases) reported cases, with transmission centred on an area where the three sub-prefectures intersect (figure 2). A total of 6 cases were registered contacts of a previous case, with the remaining 2 arising from an as-yet unknown source of infection.

                In the north west of the country, on the border with Guinea-Bissau, a single case was reported from the prefecture of Boke. The case was a registered contact of a previous case in the sub-prefecture of Kamsar, which has been the site of a localised cluster of cases for the past month. However, the contact was lost to follow-up during a period of civil unrest in the area, and was later re-identified post mortem as a community death. An intensive search for the many high-risk contacts thought to be associated with this case is underway.

                The remaining 7 cases were reported from Dubreka (2 cases), the capital, Conakry (2 cases), and Kindia (3 cases; figure 2, table 3, table 4). The cases in Conakry and Kindia were the first to be reported from those prefectures for over 40 days. Both cases in Conakry were registered contacts of previous cases from outside the capital (Boke and Forecariah), but all 3 cases from Kindia arose from an as-yet unknown source or sources of infection (table 4). Investigations are ongoing to trace the origin of the cases.

                Community engagement remains challenging in most affected prefectures of Guinea. A total of 3 of the 16 nationally reported cases were identified only after post-mortem testing of community deaths, and, as described above, one of those community deaths was discovered to be a registered contact lost to follow-up during civil unrest. A total of 19 unsafe burials were reported during the week to 7 June, representing 5% of 355 recorded community deaths; up from 4% of 394 recorded community deaths the previous week.

                As at 7 June, a total of 1693 contacts associated with reported confirmed cases were under follow-up in 8 Guinean prefectures (table 3), up from 6 prefectures the previous week.
                Given the proximity to Guinea-Bissau of the recent cluster of cases in the north west Guinean prefecture of Boke (figure 2, figure 3), two response teams from Guinea-Bissau have been deployed to the border with Guinea to assess several points of entry and sensitize the communities.

                A total of 602 laboratory samples were tested in the week to 7 June, including both initial and repeat testing. Including repeat positive samples taken from patients undergoing treatment, 6% of samples tested positive for EVD, compared with 4% the previous week. Over 80% of samples were collected from dead bodies, and 49% of all samples tested were collected in the capital, Conakry.

                Locations of the 8 operational Ebola treatment centres (ETCs) are shown in figure 7; 1 new ETC is under construction in Boke. No health worker infections were reported in Guinea in the week to 7 June.

                Locations of the 9 operational laboratories in Guinea are shown in figure 8.
                ...

                http://apps.who.int/ebola/en/current...t-10-june-2015
                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela

                Comment


                • Ebola Situation Report - 8 July 2015

                  ...
                  Table 1: Confirmed, probable, and suspected EVD cases in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone
                  Guinea Confirmed 3287 42 2049
                  Probable 450 * 450
                  Suspected 11 *
                  Total 3748 42 2499
                  Liberia§ Confirmed 3151§ -
                  Probable 1879§ -
                  Suspected 5636§ -
                  Total 10 666§ - 4806§
                  Liberia** Confirmed 3 3 1
                  Probable 1 1
                  Suspected *
                  Total 4 4 1
                  Sierra Leone Confirmed 8674 25 3574
                  Probable 287 * 208
                  Suspected 4194 * 158
                  Total 13 155 25 3940
                  Total Confirmed 15 115 70
                  Probable 2617 1
                  Suspected 9841 *
                  Total 27 573 71 11 246
                  ...


                  GUINEA

                  Key performance indicators for the EVD response in Guinea are shown in table 6.

                  Eighteen confirmed cases were reported from 3 prefectures—Boke, Conakry, and Forecariah—in the week to 5 July (table 3, table 4, figure 2, figure 3).
                  Five of 6 cases reported from the northwestern prefecture of Boke, which borders Guinea-Bissau, have come from the sub-prefecture of Boke Centre (table 3, table 4, figure 2). All 5 cases were registered contacts. By contrast, the remaining case, which was reported from the coastal sub-prefecture of Kamsar, arose from an as-yet unknown source of infection, and was identified after post-mortem testing of a community death.

                  The single case reported this week from Conakry came from the Matam commune (municipal district) of the city. The case was only identified after post-mortem testing despite being a registered contact of a previous case from Benty.

                  Most cases (11) were reported from the prefecture of Forecariah, which reported 1 case in the previous week. The sub-prefecture of Benty, which borders Sierra Leone, reported 9 cases, of which all but one was either a registered contact of a previous case, or otherwise had an epidemiological link to one. The remaining 2 cases in Forecariah were reported from the sub-prefectures of Farmoriah and Maferinyah. The case from Farmoriah was a registered contact, the case from Maferinyah arose from an unknown source of infection, and both cases were detected after post-mortem testing of community deaths.

                  Overall, 12 (67%) of the 18 cases reported from Guinea in the week to 5 July were registered contacts, compared with 10 (83%) of 12 cases reported the previous week. Three cases were not registered contacts but do have an established epidemiological link to a previous case, and 3 arose from an as-yet unknown source of infection. Four cases were identified after post-mortem testing of community deaths. On 5 July there were 2431 contacts being monitored across 5 Guinean prefectures (table 3).

                  The number of unsafe burials reported from Guinea remained stable at 7 (1%) unsafe burials of the 547 recorded community deaths in the week to 5 July, compared 7 (1%) unsafe burials of the 503 recorded community deaths in the previous week.

                  Including both initial and repeat testing, a total of 906 laboratory samples were tested in the week to 5 July: the fourth consecutive weekly increase in samples tested.

                  Locations of the 8 operational Ebola treatment centres (ETCs) are shown in figure 7. A new ETC in Boke opened in the week to July 5.

                  Locations of the 11 operational laboratories in Guinea are shown in figure 8. One new laboratory became operational in Conakry during the week to 5 July. After reporting health worker infections for 2 consecutive weeks, no health worker infections were reported from Guinea in the week to 5 July.
                  ...
                  http://apps.who.int/ebola/current-si...rt-8-july-2015
                  "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                  -Nelson Mandela

                  Comment

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