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Uganda declares Ebola Virus Disease outbreak (SEBOV) - 20 Sept 2022 - Outbreak is over

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  • Sigh of relief as 11 Masaka Ebola contacts test negative

    Sunday, November 20, 2022
    ...
    Health authorities in Masaka City have breathed a sigh of relief after 11 contacts of the first Ebola victim tested negative for the deadly virus.

    According to Mr Ronald Katende, the chairperson of Masaka City Task Force, the results from Uganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe have given them hope that they can control the spread of the deadly virus in Masaka sub-region.

    He said that they are pretty progressing in the contact tracing exercise, adding that they have so far gotten 47 per cent of the contacts they have been looking for.
    ...
    The only confirmed Ebola case in Masaka was a resident of Kabowa in Kampala, who went to Kimaanya A, Masaka City suburb at her parents' request after her health situation deteriorated and she was later found with symptoms of Ebola. She later succumbed to the deadly virus.

    https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/new...gative-4026292
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • Ministry of Health- Uganda
      @MinofHealthUG


      PRESS RELEASE: The @MinofHealthUG would like to categorically state that the @mtnug Marathon was not an #Ebola superspreader.

      Unlike COVID-19, #Ebola transmission and spread is highest when patients are symptomatic.

      No participant at the marathon presented with any symptom.



      5:47 AM · Nov 21, 2022
      ·Twitter for iPhone

      https://twitter.com/MinofHealthUG/st...58779638939650
      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
      -Nelson Mandela

      Comment


      • Doctor sexually transmits Ebola to girlfriend

        Monday, November 21, 2022

        ...
        A doctor in Mubende District has sexually transmitted Ebola to his girlfriend, the Health minister, Dr Jane Ruth Aceng, has said.

        Dr Aceng said the doctor had dismissed scientifically proven facts that Ebola can be sexually transmitted.

        “Its (Ebola virus) is sexually transmitted. When I say stay away [from sex] for one year, I am telling you science, and you have to use a condom,” she said on Friday while meeting editors in Kampala.
        ...

        https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/new...friend-4027192
        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
        -Nelson Mandela

        Comment


        • Ugandan government under fire over MTN marathon amid Ebola

          TUESDAY NOVEMBER 22 2022
          By NELSON NATURINDA
          More by this Author

          The Ugandan government has come under attack after a major marathon event organised by MTN at a time when the country closed its schools, placed the central districts of Mubende and Kassanda under restrictive movement and is monitoring and restricting travel out of the country as well as encouraging social distancing in a bid to fight the spread of Ebola.

          Flagged off by the country’s Prime Minister Robinah Nabbanja, the Sunday morning marathon, which started at Kololo Airstrip in Kampala city centre, attracted over 22,000 runners after two years of absence due to the Covid-19 pandemic-related lockdown and restrictions.

          ... while meeting journalists in Kampala, the Health minister, Dr Jane Ruth Aceng, had indicated that the government is considering restricting or blocking people from traveling for Christmas, noting that the movements will spread the disease and make it run out of control. She said people were reckless and the disease could bring the country to its knees in a matter of weeks...https://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/tea...​​​​
          CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

          treyfish2004@yahoo.com

          Comment


          • UNICEF Uganda Situation Report No. 3 (Ebola Virus Disease) - 21 November 2022

            Format Situation Report SourcePosted21 Nov 2022 Originally published21 Nov 2022Attachments
            Highlights
            • 21 November marked 66 days of responding to the Ebola outbreak since confirmation of the first case on 19 September. New cases continue to be reported, and spreading into a new district (Jinja).
            • 48 children, adolescents and care givers accessed community based Mental Health and Psychosocial support (MHPSS) in the affected districts.
            • During this reporting period, 127,665 people were engaged in community dialogues to raise awareness for Sudan Virus Disease (SVD) prevention and control.
            • 1,518 teachers and non teaching staff oriented on SVD prevention, early treatment seeking and notification.
            • UNICEF supported Government efforts to safely evacuate 549 (249 girls, 300 boys) school children from Mubende and Kassanda across the country after their exams.
            • The UNICEF SVD response plan is costed at US$18.2 million and has a funding gap of 56 per cent.

            Situation overview and humanitarian needs

            According to Ministry of Health (MoH) reports, 21 November marked 66 days of responding to the Ebola outbreak since the confirmation of the first case on 19 September and declaration of an outbreak on 20 September. 1 A total of 141 confirmed Ebola cases2 with 55 confirmed deaths3 of which 11 children4 and seven health workers5 are among the confirmed deaths and 79 recoveries had been reported as of 19 November. Ebola infections are confirmed in nine districts: Jinja, Masaka, Kampala, Wakiso, Kagadi, Mubende, Kyegegwa, Kassanda and Bunyangabu. MoH attributes the spread of the virus to movements of contacts and symptomatic individuals to new areas. Bunyangabu and Kagadi districts have been dropped from the follow up list because they have completed 42 days, which is two incubation cycles of the disease without a case.

            UNICEF is scaling up risk communication and community engagement to reinforce early reporting and treatment seeking and adherence to case management and infection prevention protocols such as isolation. Further focus on mental health and psychosocial support is critical for preventing and addressing stigma against families affected by Ebola and for the reintegration of survivors within the communities. The Ministry of Health, with support from partners has established an Ebola Survivor’s programme that aims to provide integrated health, psychosocial care and other services to survivors.

            There are presently four operational Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs) - three in Mubende and one in Entebbe with two isolation units in Madudu and Mulago established in response to the outbreak. ETU construction in Kassanda District is on going.

            The President addressed the nation on the situation of Ebola outbreak for the fourth time on 15 November 2022.The public health and social measures announced by the President of Uganda in mid October to curb Ebola transmission, will continue with intensified sensitization of the population by MoH and Local Government leaders. These include prohibition of movements into and out of Mubende and Kassanda districts, curfew (07:00pm-06:00am) and a restriction on the movement of public transport, private transport, trucks carrying logs and boda-bodas for a period of 21 days, starting 16 October 2022. All traditional healers and witch doctors were prohibited from carrying out their activities during the outbreak. The MoH issued a directive stating that all contacts to confirmed cases are not allowed to travel locally or internationally for 21 days. On 14 November 2022, Government of Uganda issued a directive for all travelers at both departure and arrival points to fill out the online digital health declaration form.
            https://reliefweb.int/report/uganda/...​​​​
            CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

            treyfish2004@yahoo.com

            Comment


            • ...Airport restrictions

              The Health ministry has also eased the restrictions previously imposed on Entebbe airport. According to a statement from the Uganda Civil Aviation Authority, the country’s body that manages air travel, the restrictions, which had previously caused inconveniences at Entebbe, the country’s only international airport, have been removed.

              Following communication from the Ministry of Health, the requirement for inbound and outbound passengers through Entebbe Airport to fill in a digital health declaration/locator form has been temporarily suspended until further notice,” the statement stated....https://www-theeastafrican-co-ke.tra..._x_tr_pto=wapp
              CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

              treyfish2004@yahoo.com

              Comment


              • Govt accused of double standards in Ebola fight

                Tuesday, November 22, 2022

                ..Citizens have raised concerns in regard to the government’s commitment to the fight against Ebola.
                This follows the MTN-Uganda marathon that was organised on Sunday....

                ​​​​​​One of the concerned citizens, Mr Jeje Odea, tweeted after the marathon: “Schools are closing two weeks earlier because of Ebola, yet adults are converging in thousands to sweat, one of the easiest ways of spreading the disease. How do you convince one that the Ebola card is not a gig to attract international sympathy and hence foreign donations.”...

                .Ever since the Education ministry announced the shortening of third term, several music concerts have been organised, including the one of Edrisa Musuuza, aka Eddy Kenzo that pulled an estimated 30,000 revellers.

                In a press statement issued yesterday in defence of the big crowds around the city, the Health ministry reasoned that the MTN-Uganda marathon did not pose any risk of transmission or spread of Ebola.
                ..that the event posed no risk of Ebola transmission among the participants,” read the ministry’s statement.

                “Unlike Covid-19, the risk of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) transmission and spread is highest when people are symptomatic (presenting with signs and symptoms). With the screening measures in place at the MTN Kampala Marathon, no participant presented with any other symptom,” the statement added.

                But another concerned citizen said: “Are you trying to lie that all participants in the marathon were screened?! Additionally, we would like to know how exactly this Ebola risk assessment is conducted.” ...https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/new...​​​​
                CSI:WORLD http://swineflumagazine.blogspot.com/

                treyfish2004@yahoo.com

                Comment


                • Source: https://www.who.int/emergencies/dise...em/2022-DON425


                  Ebola disease caused by Sudan ebolavirus – Uganda

                  24 November 2022



                  Source: Ministry of Health Uganda and WHO Situation Reports
                  Description of the situation
                  Since the outbreak declaration on 20 September, a total of 141 confirmed cases and 55 confirmed deaths (CFR 39%) from Ebola disease caused by the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) have been reported by the Uganda Ministry of Health as of 21 November. In addition, 22 probable cases (all are deaths) have been reported since the beginning of the outbreak. Overall, 19 cases with seven deaths occurred among healthcare workers (HCWs).
                  The weekly number of confirmed cases reported has decreased for the third consecutive week (Figure 1) after the peak observed in the week 17-23 October. During the week commencing 7 November, five confirmed and one probable case was reported, including one confirmed case and one probable death from a newly affected district (Jinja), in the Eastern Region of Uganda, which is 80 km distant from Kampala. The most recent confirmed case was reported by the Uganda MoH on 14 November, from Kampala district.
                  Figure 1. Number of confirmed and probable cases of Ebola disease caused by SUDV by date of symptom onset, with 3-day moving average, as of 21 November 2022. Source: Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda Situation Report - 57
                  A higher proportion of cases are male (57.5%), and the most affected age group is represented by those aged 20-29 years, followed by those aged 30-39 years (Figure 2). Around 25% of cases are reported among children under 10 years old, indicating potential household transmission.
                  Figure 2. Age and sex distribution of confirmed and probable cases of Ebola disease caused by SUDV, as of 21 November 2022. Source: Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda Situation Report - 57
                  Since the last DON published on 10 November, one newly affected district has been reported (Jinja), leading to a total of nine districts that have reported confirmed SVD cases. The most affected district remains Mubende with 64 (45%) confirmed cases and 29 (53%) confirmed deaths, followed by Kassanda with 48 (34%) confirmed cases and 20 (36%) confirmed deaths. Two districts, Bunyangabu and Kagadi, have not reported cases for more than 42 days.
                  Table 1. Number of cases and deaths (confirmed and probable) of Ebola disease caused by SUDV, by district, as of 21 November.
                  Figure 3. Map of confirmed cases and deaths of Ebola disease caused by SUDV, by district, as of 21 November 2022.
                  Although there is significant improvement in surveillance activities in most affected districts, contact tracing gaps have been reported in newly affected districts. The suboptimal performance could be attributed to different factors, such as the non-reporting of probable cases, high population mobility including the movement of non-listed and/or missing contacts, and initial gaps in human and material resources. Surveillance strengthening plans have been put in place in newly affected districts.
                  Since the beginning of the outbreak, 4652 contacts have been registered, of which 3599 (78%) have completed the 21-day follow-up period.
                  As of 21 November, a total of 700 contacts in five districts (Jinja, Kampala, Kassanda, Masaka, and Mubende) were under active surveillance. In the week commencing 14 November, the average follow-up rate was 65%, representing a decrease of 26% in the follow-up rate as compared to 91% the previous week. Follow-up rates have been particularly low in Jinja and Masaka, at an average of 42% and 53%.
                  Figure 4. Weekly average number of contacts under active follow-up and follow-up rate, as of 21 November 2022. Graph re-produced using data reported in the Ministry of Health Uganda and WHO Situation Reports
                  The daily number of alerts received has not been regularly reported to WHO since 7 November, however, the number of alerts verified has been reported. During the week commencing 14 November, at least 953 alerts were verified (daily average 159), of which 335 (35%) met the definition of a suspected case.

                  Public health response

                  For further information on the public health response in Uganda by the Ministry of Health, WHO and partners, see the latest situation reports jointly published by the Ministry of Health and the WHO Regional Office for Africa: https://www.afro.who.int/countries/p...ns?country=879.
                  In addition to responding to this outbreak, the MoH and WHO are also responding to an ongoing outbreak of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Uganda, supporting clinical management and facilitating a referral pathway for the effective isolation and treatment of suspected and confirmed cases of CCHF and SUDV disease.
                  Following a Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) Request for Assistance, as of 22 November, there have been 52 offers of support received from 21 partner institutions. Six experts are currently deployed through GOARN in the functions of case management, partner coordination and infection prevention and control. Additional offers of support have been received for the functions of water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH), epidemiology and surveillance, and laboratory capacities. In addition to the GOARN Request for Assistance, partners continue to support the Ministry of Health-led response across multiple areas.
                  WHO held expert consultations to identify candidate therapeutics and vaccines for inclusion in trials throughout October and November 2022 and to draft clinical trial protocols for both vaccine and therapeutic candidates against Sudan ebolavirus. WHO also requested the existing COVID-19 Vaccine Prioritisation Working Group (WG) to extend its COVID-19 remit to rapidly evaluate the suitability of candidate SUDV vaccines for inclusion in the planned trial in Uganda using similar considerations on safety, potential efficacy and logistic issues relating to availability and implementation. The experts recommended that three candidate vaccines should be included in the planned ring vaccination trial: VSV-SUDV from Merck/IAVI, ChAd3-SUDV from the Sabin Institute, and biEBOV from Oxford University/Jenner Institute. The first doses of one of these vaccine candidates are expected to arrive in the country soon.
                  Preparedness and operational readiness in neighboring countries
                  WHO has revised the prioritization of the surrounding countries after conducting a risk assessment. In addition to the six surrounding countries that were assessed to be at-risk, five additional countries are being included, namely Central African Republic, Ethiopia, Somalia, Sudan and Djibouti. These countries have important population movements to and from Uganda. WHO has started to engage with these countries and will report their readiness activities in the next DON report.
                  The Ministries of Health of the six neighboring countries (Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, and the United Republic of Tanzania), in-country and international partners, and WHO are supporting SUDV readiness actions.
                  • Burundi is scaling up its operational readiness by coordinating with provinces and districts on upcoming activities such as the reinforcement of points of entry bordering Tanzania and Rwanda. In addition, training of community health workers and health care workers have been on going to enhance surveillance activities. As of 21 November, all alerts have been investigated and resulted negative for SUDV.
                  • Democratic Republic of the Congo has been focusing their readiness efforts on training staff at points of entry. As of 21 November, 98% of travelers at airports are being screened. In addition, the health zones have been strengthening their capacities in laboratory and case management. As of 21 November, all alerts have been investigated and resulted negative for SUDV.
                  • Kenya is strengthening their capacities in case management through conducting trainer-of-trainers and holding a comprehensive simulation exercise with WHO’s support. Points of entry at high-risk counties have been conducting screenings as well. As of 21 November, all alerts have been investigated and resulted negative for SUDV.
                  • Rwanda is updating its contingency plan to guide the efforts in scaling up its readiness capabilities. Specifically, there are advancements in the establishment of Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs). The Ministry of Health is also reinforcing its core capacities in infection prevention and control and case management. Specifically, WHO is developing and implementing a training package in case management. As of 21 November, all alerts have been investigated and resulted negative for SUDV.
                  • South Sudan has been enhancing its capacities in the areas of surveillance, case management and infection prevention and control. Health care workers at the subnational level have been undergoing trainings on SUDV management at health facilities. In addition, this past week, sensitization trainings for SUDV stakeholders have been completed. As of 21 November, all alerts have been investigated and resulted negative for SUDV.
                  • United Republic of Tanzania has conducted training in the areas of IPC including safe and dignified burials. Health promoters have completed trainings in risk communication and community engagement and in mental health and psychosocial support. As of 21 November, all alerts have been investigated and resulted negative for SUDV.

                  WHO risk assessment

                  On 4 November 2022, WHO revised the risk assessment for this event from high to very high at the national level, and from low to high at the regional level, while the risk remained low at the global level.
                  The risk will be continuously assessed based on available and shared information.

                  WHO advice

                  Successful SUDV disease outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, including case management, community engagement, surveillance and contact tracing, strengthening laboratory capacity, safe and dignified burials.
                  Health-care workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis. Implementation of IPC measures in health care (e.g., hand hygiene, training of health workers, adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies, waste management, environmental cleaning, and disinfection etc.) with ongoing monitoring and supervision for implementation is required to reduce risks of health care facilities amplifying the outbreak.
                  Ensuring the provision of safe and dignified burials, supporting IPC in community settings (including adequate WASH facilities, hand hygiene capacity and safe waste management) and community engagement and social mobilization are essential to prevent and mitigate ongoing transmission.
                  Upon case identification, early initiation of supportive treatment has been shown to significantly improve survival.
                  Establishing active surveillance at points of entry is an essential component of the outbreak response to mitigate the risk of international spread due to the high cross-border mobility between Uganda and neighbouring countries.
                  There are no licensed vaccines for SUDV, but there are candidate vaccines which are due to be used in trials.
                  WHO advises against any restrictions on travel and/or trade to Uganda based on available information for the current outbreak.

                  Further informationCitable reference: World Health Organization (24 November 2022). Disease Outbreak News; Ebola disease caused by Sudan ebolavirus – Uganda. Available at: https://www.who.int/emergencies/dise...em/2022-DON425


                  See all DONs related to this event



                  Read more about Ebola virus disease



                  Comment


                  • EBOLA OUTBREAK STATISTICS 2022

                    NEW CASES 1

                    CUMULATIVE CONFIRMED CASES 142

                    CONFIRMED DEATHS 56

                    RECOVERIES 80

                    https://www.health.go.ug/ebola/

                    -------------------------------------------------

                    Ministry of Health- Uganda @MinofHealthUG

                    The positive #Ebola case today, 28 Nov 2022,is a 28-week male stillborn to an Ebola survivor mother.The mother, is a 23 year old resident of Kikandwa,Kasanda district who had stillbirth.She was attended to during delivery by an appropriately donned midwife & is in good condition




                    8:00 AM · Nov 28, 2022·Twitter for iPhone
                    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                    -Nelson Mandela

                    Comment



                    • Mubende Ebola unit now empty as last four patients are discharged

                      Thursday, December 01, 2022

                      By BARBARA NALWEYISO
                      Reporter
                      Daily Monitor

                      The health team at Mubende Ebola treatment Unit can now breathe a sigh of relief after discharging their last patients.

                      The last batch of four patients including three women and a one-year-old baby, received their discharge letters on Wednesday evening and are now free to reunite with their families.

                      Dr Paskar Apiyo, a consultant physician attached to Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, but currently heading the Mubende Ebola Treatment team, described the discharging of patients as a milestone that has given them a great experience that they will always share.

                      "We had a total of 111 patients where 62 of them recovered and 49 died, some of them came very late, but with the grace of God, we have managed to save their lives,” she said.

                      "With the experience we have attained here in Mubende, I think if there is another Ebola outbreak in Uganda, more people are going to survive. We are going to write what has been here and it will change the story about Ebola," she added.

                      ...
                      https://www.monitor.co.ug/uganda/new...harged-4039472
                      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                      -Nelson Mandela

                      Comment



                      • Dr. Diana Atwine@DianaAtwine

                        As of now we have no Ebola patient admitted in our ETU . I can confidently say we have defeated Ebola . Thank you all who believed in the capacity Uganda has and worked with us to not only protect our citizens but our Neighbors


                        Dr. Diana Atwine@DianaAtwine
                        ·
                        9h
                        Happy to announce that we discharged the past Ebola patient . We are sorry for those who predicted doom for Uganda . God has seen us though this epidemic . We continue to follow up actively the remaining contacts till they complete 21 days

                        Mubende Ebola unit now empty as last four patients are discharged



                        9:34 AM · Dec 2, 2022
                        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                        -Nelson Mandela

                        Comment


                        • Uganda’s disappearing Ebola outbreak challenges vaccine testing
                          ...

                          5 DEC 202212:15 PM BYJON COHEN

                          Last week, Uganda announced uplifting news about the Ebola outbreak that surfaced there in mid-September: The last known patient had recovered and been discharged from a hospital. Health officials hope that signals the spread of the virus has slowed dramatically, if not stopped altogether. Yet the aggressive containment efforts that led to the waning of the outbreak also means a quickly arranged trial of experimental ebolavirus vaccines faces formidable hurdles. The goal of the so-called ring trial is to test the efficacy of the vaccines by giving them to contacts of known cases. But the number of potential participants is dwindling fast.
                          ...
                          According to the World Health Organization (WHO), as of 25 November, Uganda had 141 confirmed cases, 55 of whom had died. WHO tallies include another 22 deaths as likely due to the virus, which had spread, alarmingly, to Kampala, the heavily populated capital.

                          The last confirmed case was diagnosed on 13 November, save for a stillborn baby on 27 November whose mother had already recovered. After 42 days have passed without a case, the outbreak officially will have ended. But epidemiologist Mike Ryan, director of WHO’s Health Emergencies Programme, cautioned at a press conference last week that there were still “significant gaps in tracing some of the chains of transmission,” which means new cases and their contacts may soon surface. “Ebola always has a sting in its tail,” he said.
                          ...
                          https://www.science.org/content/arti...accine-testing
                          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                          -Nelson Mandela

                          Comment


                          • Ebola disease caused by Sudan ebolavirus – Uganda

                            8 December 2022Source: Ministry of Health Uganda and

                            WHO Situation Reports


                            *Following a data reconciliation exercise, one case previously classified as ‘dead’ has been re-classified as ‘recovered’

                            Description of the situation

                            Since the last Disease Outbreak News published on 24 November, one new confirmed case of Ebola disease caused by the Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) was reported on 27 November in Kassanda district. According to information shared by the Ministry of Health, the new case was a stillborn baby delivered at 28 weeks of gestation. The mother was infected with SUDV while pregnant and had since recovered and was in good condition at the time of delivery.

                            Since the outbreak declaration on 20 September, to 5 December 2022, a total of 142 confirmed cases have been reported by the Uganda Ministry of Health. Among them, 55 deaths occurred leading to a CFR of 39%. In addition, 22 probable cases (all are deaths) have been also reported. The number of cases among healthcare workers (HCWs) remains unchanged since the last DON report, with 19 confirmed cases, and seven deaths.

                            On 2 December, Uganda health authorities announced that all patients have been discharged from Ebola treatment units (ETUs) and that no more cases are currently hospitalized. As of 5 December, there are no active cases.

                            As of 5 December 2022, out of 2564 contacts listed, 2167 (84.5%), have completed the 21-day follow-up period. There are currently 36 contacts actively being followed up in four districts, with a follow-up rate of 100%.

                            Figure 1. Number of confirmed and probable cases of Ebola disease caused by SUDV by date of symptom onset, with 3-day moving average, as of 5 December 2022. Source: Ebola Virus Disease in Uganda Situation Report - 69

                            Table 1. Number of cases and deaths (confirmed and probable) of Ebola disease caused by SUDV, by district, as of 5 December.

                            Figure 2. Map of confirmed cases and deaths of Ebola disease caused by SUDV, by district, as of 5 December 2022.

                            Public health response


                            For further information on the public health response in Uganda by the Ministry of Health, WHO and partners, see the latest situation reports jointly published by the Ministry of Health and the WHO Regional Office for Africa: https://www.afro.who.int/countries/p...ns?country=879.

                            Following a Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) Request for Assistance, as of 7 December, there have been 66 offers of support received from 23 partner institutions. Five experts are currently deployed through GOARN in the functions of case management, infection prevention and control and Go.Data implementation. Additional offers of support have been received for the functions of water, sanitation and hygiene (WaSH), epidemiology and surveillance, partner coordination and laboratory capacities. In addition to the GOARN Request for Assistance, partners continue to support the Ministry of Health led response across multiple areas.

                            WHO held expert consultations to identify candidate therapeutics and vaccines for inclusion in trials throughout October and November 2022 and developed clinical trial protocols for both vaccine and therapeutic candidates against Sudan ebolavirus. The experts recommended that three candidate vaccines should be included in the planned ring vaccination trial: VSV-SUDV from Merck/IAVI, ChAd3-SUDV from the Sabin Institute, and biEBOV from Oxford University/Jenner Institute. On 8 December, 1200 doses of one of these candidate vaccines arrived in the country and will be evaluated in a clinical trial.

                            WHO is working closely with partners on the ‘accelerated campaign’ in Kampala, carrying out Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE) activities. A festive season RCCE plan was developed to orient RCCE activities in Uganda and prevention in neighboring countries during this period.

                            WHO continues to support the Uganda MoH and collaborate with partners to implement Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) measures in health facilities to prevent onward transmission including development of a national IPC strategy for SUDV response, implementation of screening, isolation and notification of suspect cases and health worker trainings. The IPC ring approach has been implemented and remains in place to support facilities and communities in the event of a confirmed case is reported.

                            Preparedness and operational readiness in neighboring countries

                            WHO has revised the prioritization of the surrounding countries after conducting a risk assessment. In addition to the six surrounding countries (Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kenya, South Sudan, Rwanda and Tanzania) that were assessed to be at-risk, five additional countries, with important population movements to and from Uganda, have been included, namely Central African Republic, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, and Sudan.

                            The Ministries of Health, WHO, in-country and international partners, are supporting SUDV preparedness and operational readiness activities in these countries.

                            Summary of the country’s preparedness and operational readiness activities (no new updates for Djibouti, Somalia and Sudan):
                            • Burundi continues to strengthen its surveillance at points of entry and is prepositioning infection prevention and control materials at the district level. The MoH has also received international experts in the areas of case management and IPC. Efforts to scale up the functionalities of points of entry and Ebola treatment centers continue as well as public communication and sensitizations.
                            • Central African Republic is conducting screening and all alerts are being investigated. The national Emergency Operation Center has been activated, and the national Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan is being finalized.
                            • Democratic Republic of the Congo continue to conduct screenings at 42 points of entry including airports, seaports, and ground crossings. Samples have been collected from suspect cases and resulted negative for SVD. The MoH is conducting surveillance, case management and IPC trainings of all staff deployed to at-risk health zones.
                            • Ethiopia has been on alert mode since September 2022. The MoH is in the process of conducting the SUDV readiness assessment to identify challenges and gaps to increase its readiness capacities. At international airport, screening activities continue.
                            • Kenya is planning on participating in a simulation exercise. In addition, a training course was held on case management at national and subnational levels. The MoH has also completed the SUDV readiness assessment and reports gained capacities in response and will continue scaling up its efforts to address challenges and gaps.
                            • Rwanda continues to conduct screenings and investigating all alerts. There are no reports of SUDV cases in the country. The MoH is coordinating readiness activities at national and subnational levels. A trainer-of-trainers workshop will be conducted in the coming week on digitalized community-based surveillance for community health workers. As well, trainings on case management and safe and dignified burial will be in mid-December in high-risk districts.
                            • South Sudan reports having conducted screening in Juba and Nimule. All 28 alerts have been investigated and all are negative for SVD. Rapid response teams and health care workers in laboratory procedures are being trained in Juba and Yambio next week.
                            • United Republic of Tanzania has increased its readiness activities in the past two weeks by strengthening its call centers, and increasing screenings at points of entry. All alerts have been investigated and are negative for SVD.

                            On 6 December, WHO Regional Office for Africa in partnership with Africa Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, West African Health Organization, United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, UK Health Security Agency, Robert Koch Institute and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, implemented a two-day public health emergency operation centre (PHEOC) simulation exercise with 36 countries in the WHO African Region, to improve readiness to respond to public health emergencies.
                            WHO risk assessment


                            On 4 November 2022, WHO revised the rapid risk assessment for this event from high to very high at the national level, and from low to high at the regional level, while the risk remained low at the global level. As of 8 December 2022, WHO’s assessment of risk remains unchanged.

                            The risk will be continuously assessed based on available and shared information.

                            WHO advice


                            Successful SUDV disease outbreak control relies on applying a package of interventions, including case management, community engagement, surveillance and contact tracing, strengthening laboratory capacity, safe and dignified burials.

                            Health-care workers should always take standard precautions when caring for patients, regardless of their presumed diagnosis. Implementation of IPC measures in health care (e.g., hand hygiene, training of health workers, adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) supplies, waste management, environmental cleaning, and disinfection etc.) with ongoing monitoring and supervision for implementation is required to reduce risks of health care facilities amplifying the outbreak.

                            Ensuring the provision of safe and dignified burials, supporting IPC in community settings (including adequate WASH facilities, hand hygiene capacity and safe waste management) and community engagement and social mobilization are essential to prevent and mitigate ongoing transmission.

                            Upon case identification, early diagnosis and early initiation of supportive treatment has been shown to significantly improve survival. There are currently no proven therapeutics for SUDV but candidate therapeutics are available and due to be used in randomized controlled trials. Care of SUDV patients should occur in safely designed isolation and treatment/care centers with trained health workers.

                            Establishing active surveillance at points of entry is an essential component of the outbreak response to mitigate the risk of international spread due to the high cross-border mobility between Uganda and neighbouring countries.

                            There are no licensed vaccines for SUDV, but there are candidate vaccines which are going be used in trials.

                            WHO advises against any restrictions on travel and/or trade to Uganda based on available information for the current outbreak.

                            Further information

                            ...
                            https://www.who.int/emergencies/dise...em/2022-DON428
                            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                            -Nelson Mandela

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                            • WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing – 14 December 2022

                              14 December 2022
                              ...
                              Likewise, with no new cases in more than two weeks, and no patients being treated at the moment, the countdown to the end of the Ebola outbreak in Uganda has begun.

                              If no new cases are detected, the outbreak will be declared over on the 10th of January.

                              With support from WHO and partners, the Government of Uganda is now focusing its efforts on surveillance and monitoring the last few contacts under follow up.

                              Last week, the first batch of candidate vaccines arrived in Uganda, within 80 days of the declaration of the outbreak – faster than for any previous outbreak.

                              This was thanks to a remarkable collaboration of partners around the world who have worked together to advance candidate vaccines and ensure their availability to carry out trials.
                              ...
                              https://www.who.int/news-room/speech...-december-2022
                              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                              -Nelson Mandela

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