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Tanzania - Marburg Virus disease outbreak 2023, total of 9 cases (8 confirmed and one probable) and 6 deaths - declared over (June 02, 2023)

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  • #16

    WEEKLY BULLETIN ON OUTBREAKS
    AND OTHER EMERGENCIES

    Week 13: 20 - 26 March 2023
    Data as reported by: 17:00; 26 March 2023

    ...

    United Republic of Tanzania

    Marburg virus disease


    8 Cases
    5 Deaths
    62.5% CFR


    EVENT DESCRIPTION

    On 16 March 2023, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of the
    United Republic of Tanzania announced seven cases
    and five deaths due to an unknown disease in Bukoba
    Rural district of Kagera Region.

    The cases were described to have symptoms of fever,
    vomiting, bleeding, and kidney failure. Regional and
    district level rapid response teams were deployed to
    investigate the illness and implement infection prevention
    and control measures. Samples were collected from
    living and deceased cases.

    On 21 March 2023, the MoH declared an outbreak of
    Marburg disease virus (MVD) after receiving reverse
    transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)
    confirmatory results from the National Public Health
    Laboratory.

    As of 24 March, eight cases and five deaths (CFR 62.5%)
    have been reported. Three cases are being treated in the
    hospital and remain under close monitoring. No cases
    have been reported from outside Bukoba Rural district.

    The first reported case travelled from of Goziba Island
    in Lake Victoria and developed symptoms upon return
    to his village located in Bukoba Rural district. The case
    died in the community and additional four deaths were
    recorded among members of his family. Progressively,
    two healthcare worker that provided care to the first
    patient were infected and one of them died from their
    illness. The first patient died in the community while all
    other deaths were given safe and dignified burials. An
    eighth case is still being investigated.

    As of 24 March, a total of 205 contacts have been identified
    and are being followed up by health professionals.

    PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

    MoH is coordinating a response to the outbreak with
    the support of partners. Meetings are held daily with
    the technical pillars.

    Rapid response teams were deployed from district
    and regional levels to conduct investigations and
    infection control measures

    Active case searching including contact tracing was
    conducted in the community and among healthcare
    workers.

    Public awareness and community sensitization are
    ongoing through national and local media, social
    media networks, dissemination of disease prevention
    materials, public address system, community,
    political and faith leaders as well as key influencers
    mainly promoting prevention messages

    Development of additional public awareness materials
    is ongoing to address rumours and misinformation
    collected through the national call centre.

    SITUATION INTERPRETATION

    Despite the existence of readiness plans for VHF
    outbreaks, Tanzania is facing several challenges with
    appropriate specialists for laboratory and supplies
    for diagnostics and infection prevention and control
    measures. Though the outbreak seems to be affecting
    only one district so far, the potential for disease spread
    is high to the rest of the country and across international
    borders. The affected region could face even greater
    challenges if the outbreak spreads due to the limited
    experience of response to VHF outbreaks.


    ...
    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela

    Comment


    • #17
      Translation Google

      THE GOVERNMENT IS FEARING TANZANIANS ABOUT MARBURG SICKNESS

      Emmanuel change April 04, 2023
      ...

      The GOVERNMENT through the Ministry of Health has assured Tanzanians and the International community that Tanzania is safe from the Marburg disease that was discovered in Bukoba in Kagera region recently.

      Speaking to journalists today April 4, 2023 in Dar es Salaam, the Minister of Health Hon. Ummy Mwalimu has said that until today there are a total of eight cases and among them five have died and one has already been discharged and two are still undergoing treatment.

      "Today we have allowed one patient, a 26-year-old man in good health, I hope that the community will receive it well and cooperate with him in his daily activities". ...

      In addition, he said that a total of 212 people who interacted with patients have been identified, among these 35 people have completed 21 days of introduction without showing any symptoms of this disease and thus they have been allowed to come out of quarantine and return to their families and activities.


      Despite this, the Minister has said that the Government encourages all citizens, especially in the Kagera Region, to continue to take precautions to control and prevent new infections in the community.

      "We should avoid touching the patient or his body fluids including saliva, tears, blood, urine, feces as well as the patient's bedding and clothes without protection". He has said

      ...



      ----------------------------------------------

      Tanzania says there are no new Marburg infections

      Esau Ng'umbi 0804Hrs April 04, 2023 Information

      The number of cases remains eight while the number of deaths remains five.
      One is allowed after it is found that he no longer has the virus.
      The 35 excluded were released immediately after completing 21 days of critical care.

      Dar es Salaam. The Tanzanian government has said that no new infections of Marburg disease have been recorded in recent days, eight people were previously infected while 35 out of 212 people who were under special care were allowed to return to their homes.

      The Minister of Health, Ummy Mwalimu has told journalists in Dar es Salaam today (April 4, 2022) that so far the disease has not yet spread beyond the two wards of Bukoba District where it was previously reported.

      "Until today, April 4, 2023, the total number of cases of people who have been confirmed to have Marburg disease has remained the same as eight and five deaths. It is a matter of thanking Almighty God that we have not had any new cases or new deaths," said Ummy.

      Despite the non-increase in the number of Marburg cases, Ummy said today the doctors have allowed one patient who was being treated for the disease after he satisfied himself that he no longer has the virus.

      "Today we have allowed one patient, a 26-year-old man, in good health and free of Marburg Virus, I hope that the community will receive him well and cooperate with him in his daily activities," said Ummy.

      Minister Ummy has given an opinion to the community not to stigmatize the patient, including 35 other people who have also been discharged after completing their period of special care.

      Idadi ya visa yasalia nane huku waliofariki dunia wakisalia watano. Mmoja aruhusiwa baada ya kubainika hana tena virusi hivyo.


      -----------------------------------------

      The Marburg patient recovers, is allowed to return home

      Tuesday, April 04, 2023

      By Saada Amir
      ...

      Mwanza One of the three people who were admitted to Bujunangoma Hospital in Bukoba District in Kagera region after being found to have symptoms of Marburg disease, has recovered and been allowed to return home.

      The patient, Washington Mushobozi was discharged today, Tuesday April 4, 2023 after recovering from all the symptoms of Marburg disease he had.

      Speaking shortly before leaving the special facility set aside at the Bujunangoma Hospital in Bukoba District in Kagera Region to serve Marburg patients, Mushobozi thanked the doctors, nurses and health workers for saving his life.

      "I thank the Government, doctors, nurses and all the health sector workers for the good service since I was found to have symptoms of this disease which has killed three of my siblings including my mother, aunt and cousin," said Mushobozi.

      The Marburg disease that was discovered on March 16, 2023 in Maruku and Kanyangareko counties, Bukoba District in Kagera region has caused the death of five out of eight people who were found to have symptoms, while two patients are still undergoing treatment.

      Among the symptoms of the disease that is transmitted from one person to another or from an animal to a human include fever, headache, muscle aches, coughing, joint pain, diarrhea and vomiting and bleeding in various parts of the body.
      ...

      Mmoja mmoja kati ya watatu wa waliobainika kuwa na dalili za ugonjwa wa Marburg na kulazwa kwa matibabu katika kituo maalum kilichopo Hospitali ya Bujunangoma Wilaya Bukoba mkoani Kagera amepona...
      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
      -Nelson Mandela

      Comment


      • #18
        WEEKLY BULLETIN ON OUTBREAKS
        AND OTHER EMERGENCIES

        Week 15: 3-9 April 2023
        Data as reported by: 17:00; 9 April 2023

        ...

        United Republic of Tanzania

        Marburg Virus Disease


        8 Cases
        5 Deaths
        62.5% CFR


        EVENT DESCRIPTION

        As of 8 April 2023, the United Republic of Tanzania
        has reported eight confirmed cases of Marburg virus
        disease (MVD) including five deaths yielding a 62.5%
        case fatality rate (CFR). Out of the eight total cases, two
        were healthcare workers of which one died. The other
        healthcare worker affected is still undergoing treatment.
        One of the three surviving cases has been discharged
        from the treatment centre following full recovery.

        All cases were reported from the Bukoba Rural district
        in Kagera region in the northwest of Tanzania mainland.
        The first case reportedly travelled from Goziba island in
        Lake Victoria and developed symptoms after returning to
        their village in Bukoba Rural district. The first case and
        four other members of the family died. The first patient
        died in the community, however, all others were buried
        using safe and dignified burial protocols.

        As part of response interventions, contact tracing is
        conducted daily. A total of 212 individuals were identified
        as contacts of a confirmed MVD case.

        As of 8 April 2023, 173 (81.6%) contacts have
        completed their follow-up period while 39 remain under
        daily monitoring. Among the contacts, 89 (42%) were
        healthcare workers that provided medical care to the
        cases in health facilities.

        PUBLIC HEALTH ACTIONS

        MoH holds daily outbreak response meetings with
        the technical pillars and partners.

        Resource mobilization efforts are coordinated by the
        MoH and partners.

        Rapid response teams were deployed from district
        and regional levels to conduct investigations and
        implement infection control measures.

        Mental health and psychosocial support experts
        were deployed to support cases, recovered patients,
        contacts, and other aspects of the response.

        Active case searching including contact tracing was
        conducted in the community and among healthcare
        workers.

        Travellers are screened using the MVD case
        definition at points of entry into the country as well as
        domestically at several points.

        Public awareness and community sensitization are
        ongoing through national and local media, social
        media networks, community-based radio stations,
        dissemination of disease prevention materials,
        political and faith leaders as well as key influencers
        mainly promoting prevention messages

        Rumour and misinformation tracking via community
        based platforms is helping to inform the response.
        Enhanced infection prevention and control measures
        are being taken at lake shores, ports, and check
        points including hand washing, hazardous waste
        management, and decontamination of health facilities.

        SITUATION INTERPRETATION

        The MVD outbreak in Tanzania has not spread to other
        individuals since the first reports of the disease on 16
        March 2023. One of the three surviving cases has been
        discharged. The outbreak now requires support of mental
        health and psychosocial experts to increase sensitization
        of the community as survivors reunite with their families
        and renter the community.

        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
        -Nelson Mandela

        Comment


        • #19
          WEEKLY BULLETIN ON OUTBREAKS
          AND OTHER EMERGENCIES

          Week 16: 10 - 16 April 2023
          Data as reported by: 17:00; 16 April 2023

          ...
          All events currently being monitored by WHO AFRO
          ...

          Tanzania, United Republic of

          Marburg virus disease
          Grade 2

          Date notified to WCO 21-Mar-23
          Start of reporting period 21-Mar-23
          End of reporting period 16-Apr-23

          Total cases 9
          Cases Confirmed 9
          Deaths 6
          CFR 66.7%


          On 21 March 2023, the Ministry of Health in Tanzania declared an outbreak of Marburg virus disease. As of 16 Apr 2023, nine cases and six deaths (CFR 66.7%) have been reported. All cases were reported from the Bukoba Rural district in Kagera Region. A total of 212 contacts, of which 206 have completed their monitoring period.

          https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/...1016042023.pdf
          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
          -Nelson Mandela

          Comment


          • #20
            bump this

            Comment


            • #21

              WEEKLY BULLETIN ON OUTBREAKS
              AND OTHER EMERGENCIES

              Week 17: 17-23 April 2023
              Data as reported by: 17:00; 23 April 2023

              ...
              All events currently being monitored by WHO AFRO
              ...

              Tanzania, United Republic of

              Marburg virus disease
              Grade 2

              Date notified to WCO 21-Mar-23
              Start of reporting period 21-Mar-23
              End of reporting period 23-Apr-23

              Total cases 9
              Cases Confirmed 9
              Deaths 6
              CFR 66.7%


              On 21 March 2023, the Ministry of Health in Tanzania declared an outbreak of Marburg virus disease. As of 23 Apr 2023, nine cases and six deaths (CFR 66.7%) have been reported. All surviving cases have been discharged following recovery from the disease. All cases were reported from the Bukoba Rural district in Kagera Region. The majority of cases (66.7%) were male with an average age of 35 years. A total of 212 contacts, of which 208 have completed their monitoring period.

              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela

              Comment


              • #22
                No more Marburg cases in Tanzania-Health Minister

                DAILY NEWS Reporter 6 hours ago

                THE outbreak of the deadly Marburg virus in Tanzania’s Northwestern Region- Kagera has been officially contained, but authorities will maintain active surveillance for 42 more-days before declaring an end to the outbreak.

                Health Minister Ummy Mwalimu announced today (Saturday, April 29, 2023) in Dar es Salaam.

                “We expect to declare an end to Marburg virus outbreak at the end of next month (May 31, 2023) should there be no new cases,” she told reporters citing the decision as part of the World Health Organisation (WHO) directives.

                At least six people including a healthcare provider and the 18-months child died when nine people contracted the disease that hit the far northwestern part of the country in March this year.

                Two patients were left under the specialized facility for monitoring and medical treatment. “As of April 21, 2023 the two patients were scientifically confirmed to be Marburg free,” Ummy told reporters.

                “Those who survived the disease include a medical doctor who took care of the first Marburg patient.
                ...

                THE outbreak of the deadly Marburg virus in Tanzania’s Northwestern Region- Kagera has been officially contained, but authorities will maintain active surveillance for 42 more-days before declaring an end to the outbreak. Health Minister Ummy Mwalimu announced today (Saturday, April 29, 2023) in Dar es Salaam. “We expect to declare an end to Marburg virus

                Last edited by sharon sanders; April 29, 2023, 04:25 PM. Reason: link
                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela

                Comment


                • #23
                  Translation Google


                  NOTICE TO THE PUBLIC ABOUT THE TREND OF THE DISEASE OF...
                  Posted On: April 29th, 20





                  Click image for larger version  Name:	image.png Views:	1 Size:	642.8 KB ID:	973535


                  Click image for larger version  Name:	image.png Views:	1 Size:	674.3 KB ID:	973536


                  "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                  -Nelson Mandela

                  Comment


                  • #24
                    Marburg virus disease - Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania

                    8 May 2023


                    Situation at a glance

                    Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania have been responding to separate outbreaks of Marburg virus disease (MVD) since early February and late March 2023, respectively.

                    In Equatorial Guinea, from 13 February to 1 May 2023, 17 laboratory-confirmed MVD cases and 23 probable cases have been reported. The last confirmed case was reported on 20 April. Among the laboratory-confirmed cases, there are 12 deaths (Case Fatality Ratio (CFR) 75%).For one confirmed case, the outcome is unknown. Among the confirmed cases, four have recovered. All of the probable cases are dead. The most affected district is Bata in Litoral province, with 11 laboratory-confirmed MVD cases reported.

                    In the United Republic of Tanzania, between 16 March to 30 April 2023, a cumulative total of nine cases including eight laboratory-confirmed cases and one probable case have been reported. The last confirmed case was reported on 11 April 2023. A total of six deaths (CFR 66.7%) have been reported, including one probable case and five among the confirmed cases. Among the confirmed cases, three have recovered. All cases have been reported from Bukoba district, Kagera region.

                    Health authorities in both countries have shown strong political commitment. In recent weeks they have further strengthened critical response functions, such as disease surveillance, including at points of entry; laboratory activities; clinical case management; infection prevention and control; risk communication and community engagement; and operations support and logistics with support of WHO and partners.

                    WHO continues to monitor the situation in these two countries closely and to support the responses.

                    Description of the situation

                    Equatorial Guinea:

                    Since the declaration of the outbreak on 13 February 2023, a total of 17 laboratory-confirmed cases of MVD and 23 probable cases have been reported as of 1 May (Figure 1). Among laboratory-confirmed cases, 12 deaths were recorded (CFR 75%). For one confirmed case, the outcome of the illness is unknown. All probable cases are dead. Five districts (Bata, Ebebiyin, Evinayong, Nsok Nsomo and Nsork) in four of the country’s eight provinces (Centro Sur, Kié-Ntem, Litoral and Wele-Nzas) have reported confirmed or probable cases (Figure 2). The most affected district is Bata in Litoral province, with 11 laboratory-confirmed MVD cases reported.
                    Among the confirmed cases, four have recovered and five have been reported among healthcare workers, of whom two died.

                    Among the reported cases, many are linked within a social network/gathering or by geographic proximity, however, the earlier presence of cases and/or clusters across multiple districts without clear epidemiologic links may indicate undetected virus transmission.

                    There are currently no confirmed cases in the Marburg treatment centre following the most recent discharge of a patient on 26 April 2023. This brings the total of survivors to four since the outbreak was declared.

                    Figure 1. MVD cases by week of symptom onset* and case classification, Equatorial Guinea, between 13 February to 1 May 2023.


                    Among MVD laboratory-confirmed cases with age and sex information (n = 16), the majority occurred among females (10/16; 62.5%), while the most affected age group is 40-49 years (6/16; 37.5%), followed by the age groups 30-39 years (3/16; 18.8%), 10-19 years (2/16; 12.5%), and 0-9 years (2/16; 12.5%).

                    In the last 21 days (from 11 April to 1 May 2023), two confirmed cases were reported from Bata district (Figure 3). These cases had a known epidemiological link to a confirmed case, through a family cluster or through a healthcare setting.

                    Figure 2. Map of Equatorial Guinea districts reporting confirmed and probable MVD cases or affected district reporting contacts with cases, between 13 February to 1 May 2023 .

                    Figure 3. Map of district reporting MVD confirmed cases in the last 21 days (11 April - 1 May 2023), Equatorial Guinea.






                    The United Republic of Tanzania:

                    Since the declaration of the MVD outbreak on 21 March 2023, a total of nine cases (eight laboratory-confirmed and one probable case) have been reported as of 30 April 2023 (Figure 4). Among the total cases, six deaths were recorded (CFR 66.7%). Among the confirmed cases, three have recovered, and two have been reported among healthcare workers, one of whom died .

                    In the last 21 days, from 10 to 30 April, one confirmed case was reported on 11 April. This case was the mother of a previously reported MVD case, a child of 18 months old, who died on the same day. The mother was quarantined as soon as MVD was detected in the child in March. No further contacts linked to this case have been reported. There are currently no confirmed cases in the treatment centre in Bukoba following the discharge of the confirmed patient on 21 April 2023. This brings the total of survivors to three since the outbreak was declared.

                    Figure 4: Distribution of MVD cases (confirmed and probable) by date of symptom onset in the United Republic of Tanzania, as of 30 April 2023.



                    Figure 5: Map of district reporting MVD confirmed and probable cases in the United Republic of Tanzania, as of 30 April 2023.



                    All cases are reported from Bukoba district in Kagera Region.

                    Cases ranged in age from 1 to 59 years old (median 35-year-old), with males being the most affected (n= 6; 66.7%).

                    Epidemiology of Marburg virus disease


                    Marburg virus spreads between people via direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected people and with surfaces and materials such as bedding, and clothing contaminated with these fluids. Healthcare workers have previously been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed MVD. Burial ceremonies involving direct contact with the deceased's body can also contribute to the transmission of the Marburg virus.

                    The incubation period varies from 2 to 21 days. Illness caused by the Marburg virus begins abruptly, with high fever, severe headache, and severe malaise. Severe haemorrhagic manifestations may appear between five and seven days from symptom onset. However, not all cases have haemorrhagic signs, and fatal cases usually have some form of bleeding, often from multiple areas.

                    Although no vaccines or antiviral treatments are approved to prevent or treat the virus, Remdesivir is being used on a modified, monitored emergency-use basis in Equatorial Guinea. Early supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms and co-infections can improve survival. A range of potential treatments are being evaluated, including blood products, immune therapies, and drug therapies.

                    This is the first reported outbreak of MVD in both Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania. Other MVD outbreaks have been previously reported in Ghana (2022), Guinea (2021), Uganda (2017, 2014, 2012, 2007), Angola (2004-2005), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 and1998), Kenya (1990, 1987, 1980) and South Africa (1975).

                    Public health response


                    In Equatorial Guinea:

                    Coordination
                    • The Government activated a regional public health emergency operation center in Bata under the leadership of the Minister of Health and the Minister Delegate.
                    • The MoH developed a national operational response plan and is currently organising regular meetings to coordinate response activities at the national, regional, and district levels.
                    • Partners from the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) were mobilized to assist response activities. Several experts have been deployed through WHO to support case management, laboratory, epidemiology, and surveillance functions.
                    • The UN system, including WHO, continues to advocate for the Prevention of Sexual Exploitation and Abuse as it awaits government agreement to undertake community-based activities.

                    Partner Support
                    • Several partners are supporting the government-led response through the provision of technical, financial and operational support. These include WHO, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US-CDC), the Cuban Medical Brigade, the Africa Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (Africa CDC), the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF).

                    Surveillance
                    • The alert and dispatch center for MVD alert management across the region developed by the MoH, with support from WHO, is operational. However, the daily level of alerts reported remains low.
                    • WHO is supporting the MoH in training and supportive supervision of surveillance activities, including case investigation and contact tracing and coordinating with healthcare facilities for active surveillance.
                    • WHO is coordinating with the US-CDC and the Cuban Medical Brigade on human resources and activity distribution.

                    Laboratory
                    With the support of the US-CDC, and WHO, a laboratory with RT-PCR capacities is set up in Bata for MVD diagnostic and national staff continue to be trained.
                    • WHO is supporting the strengthening of sample collection and sample transportation system, to ensure quality and timely testing of samples.
                    • WHO continues to work with the MoH and support partner coordination efforts towards establishing Marburg testing and sequencing capacity in Malabo.

                    Clinical care
                    • WHO continues to support the MoH in the operations of the Mondong Treatment Center in Bata. In addition to the 18 individual beds, two cubes1 were installed for improved patient care and a well-stocked pharmacy was put in place.
                    • WHO continues to support MoH in the coordination of a referral system, including three ambulances that can retrieve suspected and confirmed patients from any district in the region and bring them to the Mondong treatment center.
                    • WHO is supporting the MoH in the establishment of a survivor clinic that provides medical and psychological care and testing to survivors.
                    • WHO provides continual training of local clinical and hygienist staff and provides clinical mentorship at the treatment centre.

                    Infection Prevention and Control (IPC)
                    • WHO continues to support the MoH regional task force for coordination of IPC activities and a national strategy for the IPC response.
                    • WHO continues to support the MoH in providing supervision and mentorship to complete evaluations and improvement plans at priority healthcare facilities and training of health workers.
                    • WHO continues to work with partners to advocate for improved Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in health facilities, in particular water supply and waste management.
                    • WHO continues to support the decontamination of healthcare facilities, including training of teams in priority hospitals.
                    • WHO has recruited and trained five national IPC focal points in Bata, Ebibeyin, Mongomo, Evinayong and Malabo.
                    • Safe and dignified burials teams have been established in Bata and Ebibeyin. Training of these teams on taking oral swabs of the deceased is on-going and needs to be scaled up.

                    Risk Communication and Community Engagement (RCCE)
                    • WHO is coordinating with other key partners to ensure timely, relevant and actionable RCCE messaging, and activities reach affected and at-risk populations. (UNICEF, IFRC, Africa CDC, among others).
                    • WHO is supporting public awareness and capacity building for RCCE national experts, social mobilisers and community leaders (such as civil society organizations, religious leaders, and women groups).
                    • Intensive public awareness and sensitization sessions have been conducted to sensitize decision makers in Malabo and affected communities in Mongomo District.
                    • Community engagement with religious leaders, and with school delegates have been intensified.
                    • An RCCE national plan for (April-June 2023) has been developed with partners. Implementation is ongoing in all affected districts responding to the outbreak. Preparedness and readiness activities are ongoing in Malabo.
                    • Media networks in Bata have been engaged to understand and amplify protective messages to communities in the local languages, and in French and Spanish.

                    Border health and points of entry
                    • WHO is supporting health authorities in convening key travel and transport partners to strengthen capacities and preventive measures at points of entry.
                    • On 26 April 2023, WHO organized a webinar with the support of the US-CDC and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) to raise awareness on the necessary border health readiness and response activities in the context of MVD outbreaks for affected and neighboring countries.

                    Operational support and logistics (OSL)
                    • WHO has provided operational and logistics support and maintenance of the Marburg treatment centre, including structural rehabilitation, provision of electricity and water, and supply chain management.
                    • WHO has established support for fleet management, including three ambulances on standby 24/7 at the Bata treatment centre, and approximately 20 vehicles. WHO has provided essential medicines and supplies to all pillars. Procurement is ongoing.
                    • WHO has established a central warehouse for essential items in Bata, which supports distribution to other areas.

                    Readiness and preparedness in neighboring countries
                    • WHO developed a readiness checklist to assist neighbouring countries in assessing their level of readiness, and identifying potential gaps and concrete actions to be taken in case of any potential outbreak of filovirus including MVD. The checklist consists of several key components and an average score is calculated to provide readiness scores to each of the identified countries. A second round of readiness assessment across all pillars was conducted for Cameroon and Gabon. As of 3 May 2023, the sub-region's overall readiness capacity was evaluated at 66%.
                    • Based on the gaps identified during the assessments, a gap analysis was conducted and shared with Cameroon and Gabon to inform priority readiness activities. The identified gaps would be addressed through the optimization of operational capacities and capabilities using various strategies, including trainings, table-top exercises, and simulation exercises. Additionally, the deployment of experts would be employed to support the implementation of the readiness activities.


                    In the United Republic of Tanzania:

                    Coordination
                    • The Ministry of Health holds daily response meetings to discuss the ongoing response activities. These meetings are attended by heads of pillars and partners
                    • Resource mobilization activities by the Ministry of Health, in collaboration and support from WHO and UNICEF, are ongoing
                    • The MoH continue capacity building efforts for the regional response team .
                    • Prevention of sexual misconduct activities are ongoing at the country level. This include briefing of all Emergency Prepared and Response (EPR) new comers, signature and display of code of conduct at any WHO event, refresher for all WHO personnel, printing of awareness materials, for both partners, and community.
                    • WHO also supports the Inter-agency protection of sexual exploitation, abuse, and harassment (PSEAH) network in facilitating community awareness sessions and ensuring that the reporting mechanism is well known to all community members. In addition, WHO ,in coordination with the Inter-agency PSEAH network conducted the PSEAH Rapid risk assessment along with risk mitigation measures.


                    Surveillance
                    • Contact tracing activities ongoing: As of 30 April, a cumulative of 212 contacts have completed 21 days follow up.
                    • Active case search and alert management is ongoing. The daily level of alerts reported remains low. As of 30 April, a total of 176 alerts have been reported since the start of the outbreak.

                    Laboratory
                    • Capacity building activities are ongoing to train the regional laboratory officers on Marburg specimen management and analysis.

                    Case management and IPC
                    • No new hospitalizations have taken place since the last case was discharged on 21 April. However, suspect cases identified continue to be isolated and receive treatment while awaiting for MVD testing.
                    • Supervision and orientation on proper donning and doffing of personal protective equipment (PPE) is ongoing

                    RCCE
                    • Activities include public awareness through radio, mass sensitization and information dissemination on MVD to Community Health Workers and community leaders in Bukoba district
                    • The MoH continues to provide information on MVD through social media platforms.
                    • Ongoing tracking of rumors and misinformation is being performed using established community-based platforms.
                    • Information Education and Communication material continues to be reviewed and disseminated, as well as off-line social listening findings (Africa Infodemic Response Alliance, Afya call center, community polling survey)

                    Border health and points of entry
                    • Activities to enhance screening at points of entry (PoE) are ongoing, including for domestic travellers to identify any suspected or probable cases of MVD. As of 30 April, over 250 000 people have been screened.
                    • Relevant PoE have been assessed and capacities enhanced through the provision of health education materials, hand washing equipment, and medical supplies and infrastructure for screening and isolation.

                    Operational support and logistics (OSL)
                    • With support from WHO, medical supplies including thermo-scanners, spray pumps, surgical masks, face shields, burial bags, and other PPEs have been provided.
                    • Following a joint assessment with UNHCR, WHO is currently supporting a proposal of eight beds isolation unit for UN staff in the UNHCR compound in Kigoma region.

                    Readiness and preparedness in neighboring countries
                    • First round of WHO readiness assessment was conducted for Burundi, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Rwanda, and Uganda. As of 3 May 2023, the overall readiness capacity for this sub-region was evaluated at 70%.
                    • Based on the gaps identified during the assessments, a gap analysis was conducted and shared with the mentioned five countries to inform priority readiness activities. The identified gaps would be addressed through the optimization of operational capacities and capabilities using various strategies, including trainings, table-top exercises, and simulation exercises. Additionally, the deployment of experts would be employed to support the implementation of the readiness activities.


                    WHO risk assessment

                    Both countries have reported MVD outbreaks for the first time.

                    In Equatorial Guinea, while many cases are linked within a social network/gatherings or by geographic proximity, the earlier presence of cases and/or clusters across multiple districts without clear epidemiologic links may indicate undetected virus transmission. The last cases occurred in Bata, the most populated city and economic hub of Equatorial Guinea, with an airport and seaport, posing challenges for the response. The country surveillance system remains suboptimal, with few alerts reported. Additionally, there are population movements between the different districts of the mainland and island regions. Frequent population movements and porous land borders are also reported in the districts bordering Cameroon and Gabon, with suboptimal surveillance at land entry points and countless uncontrolled paths or trails along the border with Cameroon and Gabon.

                    In the United Republic of Tanzania, the affected region, Kagera, borders three countries (Uganda to the north, and Rwanda and Burundi to the west) and Lake Victoria, and cross-border population movements may increase the risk of disease spread. Following the recent Ebola virus outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 23 April - 3 July 2022 and from 21 August - 27 September 2022, and Sudan ebolavirus outbreak in Uganda from 20 September 2022 to 11 January 2023, neighbouring countries in the subregion, including the United Republic of Tanzania, have been building preparedness capacities against filovirus diseases. However, an epidemiological investigation, which is still being carried out, has not revealed the source of the outbreak which may pose an additional risk to the population in the affected district.

                    In March 2023, WHO assessed the public health risk posed by the MVD outbreaks in Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania as very high at the national level, high at the sub-regional level, moderate at the regional level, and low at the global level. WHO continues to monitor the situation in these two countries closely.


                    WHO advice


                    MVD outbreak control relies on using a range of interventions, such as early isolation and optimized supportive care; surveillance including active case search, case investigation and contact tracing; an optimal laboratory service; infection prevention and control; safe and dignified burial; and social mobilization. Risk Communication and Community engagement is key to successfully controlling MVD outbreaks. Raising awareness of risk factors for infection with Marburg virus and the protective measures that individuals can take is an effective way to reduce human transmission.

                    Health workers caring for patients with confirmed or suspected MVD should apply IPC measures including, standard and transmission-based precautions and wearing personal protective equipment and performing hand hygiene to avoid contact with the patient’s blood and body fluids and with contaminated surfaces and objects. Health facilities should ensure environmental controls, such as adequate water, sanitation and hygiene, as well as that safe infectious waste management protocols are in place to enable health workers to practice IPC measures. In addition, healthcare facilities should conduct appropriate screening, isolation and referral of suspected cases. WHO recommends that male survivors of MVD practice safer sex for 12 months from onset of symptoms, or until their semen twice tests negative for the Marburg virus. WHO does not recommend isolation of male or female convalescent patients whose blood has tested negative for the Marburg virus.

                    Based on the available information and current risk assessment, WHO advises to strengthen surveillance in the country through alert management, case investigation, contact listing, tracing and follow up and active case search. In addition, WHO advises to strengthen surveillance at points of entry in the affected areas in Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania for the identification of cases, including through exit screening; to map cross-border population mobility to identify populations in vulnerable situations and target public health interventions; and to provide public health information and advice in all relevant languages in affected districts, at points of entry and in adjacent communities near land borders. Furthermore, suspect, probable and confirmed cases and their contacts should not undertake travel, including international. Based on available information, WHO advises against any other international travel and/or trade measures in Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania. States Parties adopting international travel- and trade-related measures potentially more restrictive than those advised by WHO, are invited to report them to WHO, pursuant to Article 43 of the International Health Regulations (2005).

                    Before initiating discussion on the 42-day countdown to declare the end of an outbreak, it is recommended that all listed contacts of confirmed or probable cases have completed their 21-day follow-up period with no symptoms. If not, there is still a possibility that a contact becomes a case.



                    Once all contacts have completed their 21-day period, the date of last possible exposure to a MVD probable or confirmed case can be set, based on two possible scenarios:

                    • The person was a confirmed positive case. He/she recovered and later tested negative by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on two blood samples collected at an interval of at least 48 hours. The 42-day count starts on the day after the day on which the second negative PCR sample was collected.
                    • The person was a confirmed or probable MVD case. He/she died and a burial was organized. The 42-day count begins the day after the burial.​


                    ...

                    Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania have been responding to separate outbreaks of Marburg virus disease (MVD) since early February and late March 2023, respectively. In Equatorial Guinea, from 13 February to 1 May 2023, 17 laboratory-confirmed MVD cases and 23 probable cases have been reported. The last confirmed case was reported on 20 April. Among the laboratory-confirmed cases, there are 12 deaths (Case Fatality Ratio (CFR) 75%).For one confirmed case, the outcome is unknown. Among the confirmed cases, four have recovered. All of the probable cases are dead. The most affected district is Bata in Litoral province, with 11 laboratory-confirmed MVD cases reported. In the United Republic of Tanzania, between 16 March to 30 April 2023, a cumulative total of nine cases including eight laboratory-confirmed cases and one probable case have been reported. The last confirmed case was reported on 11 April 2023. A total of six deaths (CFR 66.7%) have been reported, including one probable case and five among the confirmed cases. Among the confirmed cases, three have recovered. All cases have been reported from Bukoba district, Kagera region. Health authorities in both countries have shown strong political commitment. In recent weeks they have further strengthened critical response functions, such as disease surveillance, including at points of entry; laboratory activities; clinical case management; infection prevention and control; risk communication and community engagement; and operations support and logistics with support of WHO and partners. WHO continues to monitor the situation in these two countries closely and to support the responses.
                    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                    -Nelson Mandela

                    Comment


                    • #25
                      Marburg Virus Disease outbreak in Tanzania declared over

                      02 June 2023

                      Brazzaville/Dar es Salaam – Tanzania today declared the end of the Marburg Virus Disease outbreak which was confirmed just over two months ago in the north-western Kagera region. It was the country’s first outbreak of the disease.

                      A total of nine cases (eight confirmed and one probable) and six deaths were recorded in the outbreak which was declared on 21 March after laboratory analysis confirmed that the cause of deaths and illnesses that were reported earlier in the region was Marburg.

                      The national health authorities with support from World Health Organization (WHO) and partner organizations immediately rolled out outbreak response to stop the spread of the virus and save lives. The last confirmed case tested negative for the second test of Marburg on 19 April, setting off the 42-day mandatory countdown to declare the end of the outbreak.

                      Across the African region, WHO has been working with countries to reinforce readiness and response to health emergencies, with teams of first responders trained in the key aspects of outbreak preparedness, response and control. In Tanzania, teams of responders – one trained in March 2023 and another in 2022 as neighbouring Uganda battled an outbreak of Sudan Virus Disease – were instrumental in controlling the just-ended Marburg outbreak.

                      “With the investments being made to prepare for and tackle health emergencies in the region, we are responding even faster and more effectively to save lives, livelihoods and safeguard health,” said Dr Matshidiso Moeti, WHO Regional Director for Africa.

                      In support of the national efforts, the WHO office in Tanzania deployed outbreak response experts to reinforce surveillance, testing, infection prevention and control, contact tracing, treatment and community engagement. Additionally, with partners, WHO shipped nearly three tons of supplies of personal protective equipment and is also working with the Ministry of Health to support survivors of the disease.

                      “Thanks to these efforts, Tanzania has been able to end this outbreak and limit the potentially devastating impacts of a highly infectious disease,” Dr Moeti said.

                      Marburg is highly virulent and causes haemorrhagic fever, with a fatality ratio of up to 88%. It is in the same family as the virus that causes Ebola virus disease. Illness begins abruptly, with high fever, severe headache, and severe malaise. Many patients develop severe haemorrhagic symptoms within seven days.

                      The virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through direct contact with the bodily fluids of infected people, surfaces and materials. There are no vaccines or antiviral treatments approved to treat the virus. However, supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms, improve survival.

                      In Africa, previous outbreaks and sporadic cases have been reported in Angola, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Equatorial Guinea, South Africa and Uganda.


                      Tanzania today declared the end of the Marburg Virus Disease outbreak which was confirmed just over two months ago in the north-western Kagera region. It was the country’s first outbreak of the disease.
                      "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                      -Nelson Mandela

                      Comment


                      • #26
                        Marburg virus disease - the United Republic of Tanzania

                        2 June 2023

                        Situation at a glance

                        On 2 June 2023, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania declared the end of its first documented outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Between 21 March and 31 May, a total of nine cases (eight laboratory-confirmed and one probable) were reported. All cases were reported from Bukoba district, Kagera region. A total of six deaths (case fatality ratio 67%) were reported during the outbreak.

                        In accordance with WHO recommendations, the declaration was made 42 days (twice the maximum incubation period for Marburg virus infection) after the last possible exposure to an MVD probable or confirmed case.

                        WHO encourages countries to maintain most response activities for three months after the outbreak ends. This is to make sure that if the disease re-emerges, health authorities would be able to detect it immediately, prevent the disease from spreading again, and ultimately save lives.

                        Description of the situation

                        On 21 March 2023, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of the United Republic of Tanzania officially declared the first MVD outbreak in the country. Between 21 March and 31 May, a total of nine cases, including eight laboratory-confirmed cases and one probable (the index case), were reported (Figure 1). The last confirmed case was reported on 11 April 2023 and the date of sample collection of the second negative PCR test was on 19 April 2023. All cases were reported from Bukoba district, Kagera region, in the north of the country.

                        Among the confirmed cases, three have recovered, and a total of six deaths (CFR 67%) have been reported, of which five were confirmed and one was a probable case.

                        Cases ranged in age from 1 to 59 years old (median 35 years old), with males being the most affected (n= 6; 67%). Six cases were close relatives of the index case, and two were healthcare workers who provided medical care to the patients.

                        On 2 June 2023, the MoH of the United Republic of Tanzania declared the end of the MVD outbreak. This declaration was made 42 days (twice the maximum incubation period for Marburg virus infection) after the last possible exposure to MVD probable or confirmed case.

                        Figure 1: Distribution of MVD cases (confirmed and probable) by date of symptom onset in the United Republic of Tanzania, as of 31 May 2023.



                        Figure 2: Map of district reporting MVD confirmed and probable cases in the United Republic of Tanzania, as of 31 May 2023.




                        Epidemiology of Marburg virus disease

                        Marburg virus spreads between people via direct contact through broken skin or mucous membranes with the blood, secretions, organs, or other body fluids of infected people and with surfaces and materials such as bedding, and clothing contaminated with these fluids. Healthcare workers have previously been infected while treating patients with suspected or confirmed MVD. Burial ceremonies involving direct contact with the body of the deceased can also contribute to the transmission of the Marburg virus.

                        The incubation period varies from 2 to 21 days. Illness caused by the Marburg virus begins abruptly, with high fever, severe headache, and severe malaise. Severe haemorrhagic manifestations may appear between five and seven days from symptom onset. However, not all cases have haemorrhagic signs, and fatal cases usually have some form of bleeding, often from multiple areas.

                        Early supportive care – rehydration with oral or intravenous fluids – and treatment of specific symptoms and co-infections can improve survival. A range of potential treatments are being evaluated, including blood products, immune therapies, and drug therapies.

                        This was the first documented outbreak of MVD reported in the United Republic of Tanzania. There is an ongoing outbreak of MVD in Equatorial Guinea (for more information, please see the Disease outbreak news published on 8 May 2023 in Equatorial Guinea and the United Republic of Tanzania). Other MVD outbreaks have been previously reported in Ghana (2022), Guinea (2021), Uganda (2017, 2014, 2012, 2007), Angola (2004-2005), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2000 and 1998), Kenya (1990, 1987, 1980) and South Africa (1975).

                        Public health response
                        • The MoH, together with WHO and other partners, initiated response measures to control the outbreak and prevent further spread to other regions in the country and neighboring countries. Regular coordination meetings were held to coordinate responses.
                        • Active case search and alert management were implemented, with a total of 243 alerts received as of 30 May, of which 62 MVD suspected cases were detected, and samples were sent for laboratory confirmation. The eight laboratory-confirmed cases were identified, and the remaining samples tested negative.
                        • A total of 212 contacts were identified and monitored with 210 having completed their 21-day follow-up period with no symptoms. Of the remaining two contacts, one developed symptoms and subsequently tested positive for MVD while the other died due to other causes.
                        • The three recovered cases were provided with care and, together with their relatives, received mental health and psychosocial support services (MHPSS) through the survivor programme.
                        WHO risk assessment


                        On 2 June 2023, the Ministry of Health of Tanzania declared the end of the MVD outbreak that affected Bukoba district in Kagera region. This was the first documented MVD outbreak in the country.

                        MVD is an epidemic-prone disease associated with high case fatality ratios (CFR 24-90%). MVD is caused by the same family (Filoviridae) as Ebola virus disease (EVD) and is clinically similar. In the early course of the disease, clinical diagnosis of MVD is difficult to distinguish from other tropical febrile illnesses because of the similarities in the clinical symptoms. Other viral hemorrhagic fevers need to be excluded, particularly Ebola diseases, as well as malaria, typhoid fever, and dengue. Epidemiologic features can help differentiate between diseases (i.e., exposure to bats, caves, or mining).

                        Marburg virus has been isolated from fruit bats (Roussettus aegyptiacus) that are present in Tanzania and countries neighboring the affected Kagera region, therefore the same bat species may carry the virus in this region.

                        WHO advice


                        WHO encourages countries to maintain most response activities for three months after the outbreak is declared over. This is to make sure that if the disease re-emerges, health authorities would be able to detect it immediately, prevent the disease from spreading again, and ultimately save lives.

                        WHO advises the following risk reduction measures as an effective way to reduce MVD transmission:
                        • Reducing the risk of bat-to-human transmission arising from prolonged exposure to mines or caves inhabited by fruit bat colonies. During work or research activities or tourist visits in mines or caves inhabited by fruit bat colonies, people should wear gloves and other appropriate protective clothing (including masks). During outbreaks, all animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.
                        • Health facilities should ensure infection, prevention and control measure (IPC) programmes are in place including screening for cases of MVD, training of health workers on IPC practices, safe injection practices, environmental cleaning and disinfection protocols are in place, decontamination of reusable medical devices and safe waste management.
                        • Health workers caring for patients with confirmed or suspected MVD should apply transmission-based precautions in addition to standard precautions, including appropriate use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and hand hygiene according to the WHO 5 moments to avoid contact with patients' blood and other body fluids and with contaminated surfaces and objects.
                        • Surveillance activities should be strengthened to ensure early detection of any future cases.
                        • Raising community awareness of the risk factors for Marburg infection and the protective measures that individuals can take to reduce human exposure to the virus are key to reducing human infections and deaths.

                        WHO advises against any other international travel and/or trade measures in the United Republic of Tanzania.

                        ...
                        This Disease Outbreak News was first published on 2 June 2023 and updated on 9 June 2023 to include a risk statement. On 2 June 2023, the Ministry of Health of the United Republic of Tanzania declared the end of its first documented outbreak of Marburg virus disease (MVD). Between 21 March and 31 May, a total of nine cases (eight laboratory-confirmed and one probable) were reported. All cases were reported from Bukoba district, Kagera region. A total of six deaths (case fatality ratio 67%) were reported during the outbreak. In accordance with WHO recommendations, the declaration was made 42 days (twice the maximum incubation period for Marburg virus infection) after the last possible exposure to an MVD probable or confirmed case. WHO encourages countries to maintain most response activities for three months after the outbreak ends. This is to make sure that if the disease re-emerges, health authorities would be able to detect it immediately, prevent the disease from spreading again, and ultimately save lives.


                        "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                        -Nelson Mandela

                        Comment


                        • #27
                          Tanzania’s successful Marburg outbreak control helps bolster emergency preparedness

                          06 June 2024

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                          Dar es Salam – “I remember hearing the news that I was infected with Marburg like it happened yesterday. It was one of the most challenging periods for me,” recalls Dr Mahona Jumanne Ndulu, who works at Bukoba Regional Referral Hospital in Tanzania’s Kagera region in the north.

                          A year since the Marburg Virus Disease (Marburg) outbreak in Tanzania was declared over in June 2023, memories of the disease, which was controlled in a record 90 days, remain fresh in the minds of survivors.

                          A total of nine cases (eight confirmed and one probable) and six deaths were recorded. The outbreak response that was rolled out, thanks to support from World Health Organization (WHO) and partners, has helped strengthen the country’s public health emergency preparedness and response.

                          Notably, the refurbishment of the Mutukula Border Isolation Unit in the Kagera region is just one aspect of government’s Marburg Virus Disease recovery plan. Through funding from the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in Tanzania, this has significantly enhanced the country’s capacity to detect, prevent and respond swiftly to public health outbreaks and emergencies.

                          Tanzania is a popular tourist destination bordered by eight countries, including some that have long struggled with outbreaks of both Marburg and Ebola. With its Mutukula border post as one of the busiest crossings, the new facility has a pivotal role to play in timely screening and isolation of infectious disease suspected cases, to help control community disease transmission.

                          “Previously, we used an old, dilapidated tent that accommodated both male and female suspected cases. The conditions were not favourable at all. We are grateful to WHO and its partners for the immense support in fighting outbreaks, especially the support during the Marburg outbreak,” says Salum Rajab Kimbau, Regional Vaccination Coordinator for Kagera.

                          Ndulu echoes this view. "As a health worker who was exposed to a deadly virus before there was a diagnosis, I believe that having the newly refurbished Mutukula isolation unit is going to be significant in protecting health workers like myself, and communities, from infectious diseases.”

                          Since the outbreak, WHO has supported the Government of Tanzania to provide infectious disease management training to over 200 environmental health officials, community health workers, medical attendants and religious leaders from eight districts in the Kagera and Mwanza regions.

                          WHO supplied 14 220 infection prevention and control (IPC) standards of operations and checklists, prepositioned and utilized in 106 health facilities, which were assessed and monitored for IPC compliance. With support from the United Kingdom’s Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, WHO also trained 35 IPC focal people from health care facilities across in districts in Kagera region, enabling them to establish IPC committees within these facilities. WHO was also able to facilitate the delivery of two dialysis machines to Bukoba Regional Hospital to support essential health care during outbreaks, with support from USAID.

                          To support their recovery from outbreak-associated shock and depression, 1400 people affected by the consequences of the Marburg outbreak also received counselling and psychological care.
                          Marburg is highly virulent and causes haemorrhagic fever, with a fatality ratio of up to 88%. It is in the same family as the virus that causes Ebola virus disease. Illness begins abruptly, with high fever, severe headache and severe malaise. Many patients develop severe haemorrhagic symptoms within seven days.

                          Reflecting on the situation one year after the end of the outbreak, Dr Charles Sagoe-Moses, WHO’s Country Representative in Tanzania, said significant advances had been made that would help the country cope even more efficiently with the next outbreak.

                          “If the Marburg virus outbreak has taught us anything, it is that we must stay alert and always be prepared to respond to emergencies. So, this is no time to let down our guard," he says.


                          Dar es Salam – “I remember hearing the news that I was infected with Marburg like it happened yesterday. It was one of the most challenging periods for me,” recalls Dr Mahona Jumanne Ndulu, who works at Bukoba Regional Referral Hospital in Tanzania’s Kagera region in the north.  A year since the Marburg Virus Disease (Marburg) outbreak in Tanzania was declared over in June 2023, memories of the disease, which was controlled in a record 90 days, remain fresh in the minds of survivors.
                          "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                          -Nelson Mandela

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