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South China Agricultural University finds pangolin? as a potential intermediate host for new coronavirus - WHO says: the route of transmission to humans at the start of this event remains unclear.

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  • #16
    Translation Google
    New virus

    As explained by Christian Drosten, a virologist at Charité Hospital in Berlin, the new crown virus (SARS-CoV-2) reproduces in the throat in a manner similar to the flu virus. Its infectious capacity exceeds the original imagination. Drosten said that perhaps we never find the source of the virus.

    He believes that reports that pangolins may be the second passers to the virus are almost unfounded because pangolins do not eat bats. Bats are considered a virus bank. It is estimated that someone had been infected with the virus somewhere in China before, and then brought the virus to the South China seafood market in Wuhan. It was in this seafood market that the first cases of virus infection appeared. Drosten believes that the new coronavirus seems to be well adapted to humans.

    "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
    -Nelson Mandela


    • #17
      To be noted that serological studies conducted in rural population living close to bats natural habitat in caves revealed a 2.9% bat-CoV seroprevalence, demonstrating that humans exposure to bat-CoVs might be common.

      1 Wang, N., Li, S.Y., Yang, X.L., Huang, H.M., Zhang, Y.J., Guo, H., Luo, C.M., Miller, M., Zhu, G., Chmura, A.A. and Hagan, E., 2018. Serological evidence of bat SARS-related coronavirus infection in humans, China. Virologica Sinica, 33(1), pp.104-107.

      2 Li, H., Mendelsohn, E., Zong, C., Zhang, W., Hagan, E., Wang, N., Li, S., Yan, H., Huang, H., Zhu, G. and Ross, N., 2019. Human-animal interactions and bat coronavirus spillover potential among rural residents in Southern China. Biosafety and Health, 1(2), pp.84-90.

      on en sait plus sur ce qui se passe depuis un moment dans ces populations et ce qui signifie ce taux de séroprévalence ?


      • #18
        what's with the 99% pangolin-identity ?
        It was all over the news - no followup so far.


        from the available German Drosten-quotes it is not clear to me whether he knew about the
        (alleged) 99% identity when he made that statement
        yes, pangolins don't eat bats, but ants and termites..
        But I remember the threads here, when they first found flu
        in bats and we researched that a bit. They drink water at common places which may also
        be visited by pangolins.
        Horseshoe bats may also eat ants or termites and leave their batshit there.
        At some time male ants fly to find new ant-queens, afaik
        > Bats eat moths, fruit, nectar , insects, beetles. mosquitos, mayflies, and flying ants.
        >Bats Feast on Termites. In fact the building had termites that had eaten their way up from the >ground almost 8 feet into the wall and the bats were having a feast.
        Last edited by gsgs; February 16th, 2020, 03:24 AM.
        I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
        my current links: [url][/url] ILI-charts: [url][/url]


        • #19
          il y eu cela :

          mais, à Hong Kong , visiblement, la loi c'est pour les autres

          zoo de Taipei


          • #20
            Translation Google

            Wu Jinxiang, an epidemiologist, infers that the new crown pneumonia is the local mouse in Wuhan

            New York Newspaper , February 18, 2020 16:30

            The source of the virus and intermediate host of new coronal pneumonia (COVID-19) is still inconclusive, and some studies refer to pangolin or bat. However, epidemiologist Wu Jinxiang, who had participated in the Hong Kong government's investigation of SARS in 2003, pointed out in the latest ResearchGate online article that the largest suspicious intermediate host for COVID-19 is a mouse, more specifically It is a local mouse in Wuhan .

            Professor Wu Jinxiang's argument is that the South China Seafood Wholesale Market is generally considered to be the source of the virus for New Crown Pneumonia. But subsequent research surveys showed that of the first four confirmed cases, three of them had not visited the market and had no contact with the staff of the seafood market. And these three patients did not have any contact with each other before the onset of the disease. He pointed out that at the same time, according to a paper published on January 24 by the Lancet of the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Wuhan Virus Research Institute, 34% of the first 41 confirmed cases had not visited the seafood market. Wu Jinxiang believes that this can rule out that this seafood market is the sole source of the virus.

            Secondly, new crown pneumonia virus was indeed detected on the floor, table top and other utensils in this market. At the same time, no CONVID-19 virus has been isolated from other wild animals. Pangolin may be one of the intermediate hosts, but no new crown pneumonia virus has been found in pangolin so far. Wu Jinxiang concluded that this shows that there must be another small mammal as a suspect.

            Wu Jinxiang is a pediatrician and an epidemiologist. He graduated from the Medical School of the University of Hong Kong in 1972, received a professional diploma in pediatrics from the United States in 1981, and received a PhD in epidemiology from Columbia University in New York in 1986. port. He was an adjunct associate professor at the School of Public Health, The Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1999 and 2010.

            He also specializes in the cause and transmission of infectious diseases. He participated in the Hong Kong government's investigation of atypical pneumonia (SARS) in 2003 and published a paper in the "Lancet" journal. He first proposed that the rat might be an outbreak of the Xiangtao Garden Important cause of infection.

            In his latest article, Wu Jinxiang pointed the most suspected intermediate host to mice.

            He pointed out that they are currently looking for "Patient Zero" (the first infected person), and the transmission route of the intermediate host is the mouse, which can provide a reasonable explanation. There are two possibilities: The "Patient No. 0" found is not the genuine one, and the source of the "darkness" of New Coronary Pulmonary Inflammation is the "Personal No. 0". The second possibility is that "Patient Zero" does not live near this seafood market. He was infected by other mammals carrying the virus.

            Wu Jinxiang said that so far, there is no evidence that there are patients with invisible latency before the "zero patient", and there is no evidence that the other three confirmed cases who have not visited the seafood market have independently contacted this invisible latency. patient.

            He said that if the "Patient Zero" who did not live near the seafood market was indeed infected by other animals, then this animal, bats might be the biggest suspects, but it might also be rats. But this Wuhan seafood market didn't sell bats at the time, and bats were usually not active in winter, and there was not much chance for ordinary people to come into contact with bats.

            Wu Jinxiang, who retired in Hawaii, noted in the article that mice are the most likely intermediate host. On the one hand, the rats were wading around. As a result, the mice in the seafood market were infected by the wild animals carrying the COVID-19 virus. This spread among the rats. Once the new crown pneumonia virus is transmitted between mice, the number reaches a certain level and it begins to spread to humans.

            Another possibility is that the mouse is the intermediate host, and the mouse is infected by the bat. These sick bats may be from nearby facilities.

            He also believes that mice in Wuhan may be particularly susceptible to this new coronary pneumonia, and that outbreaks have occurred early in the herd. Although Wuhan currently adopts the strictest blockade and epidemic prevention measures that prohibit outsiders from entering and exiting, rats continue to move around and inside the residential buildings and spread viruses.

            Wu Jinxiang finally suggested that the mice in Wuhan should be tested immediately. If they were found to have the COVID-19 virus, then the Wuhan authorities must start a comprehensive anti-rat operation.

            "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
            -Nelson Mandela


            • #21
              bioRxiv is receiving many new papers on coronavirus 2019-nCoV. A reminder: these are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in news media as established information.

              Identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in southern China

              Posted February 18, 2020.
              Download PDF

              Tommy Tsan-Yuk Lam, Marcus Ho-Hin Shum, Hua-Chen Zhu, Yi-Gang Tong, Xue-Bing Ni, Yun-Shi Liao, Wei Wei, William Yiu-Man Cheung, Wen-Juan Li, Lian-Feng Li, Gabriel M Leung, Edward C Holmes, Yan-Ling Hu, Yi Guan

              This article is a preprint and has not been certified by peer review [what does this mean?].Abstract

              The ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in China and beyond is associated with a novel coronavirus, provisionally termed 2019-nCoV. This outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection. Although bats are likely reservoir hosts for 2019-nCoV, the identity of any intermediate host facilitating transfer to humans is unknown. Here, we report the identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in pangolins (Manis javanica) seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Metagenomic sequencing identified pangolin associated CoVs that belong to two sub-lineages of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses, including one very closely related to 2019-nCoV in the receptor-binding domain. The discovery of multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to 2019-nCoV suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible intermediate hosts for this novel human virus and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission.

              "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
              -Nelson Mandela


              • #22
                OIE -

                Questions and Answers on Coronavirus Disease COVID-19
                Are animals responsible for COVID-19 virus infections in people?

                Genetic sequence data reveals that the COVID-19 virus is a close relative of other CoV found circulating in Rhinolophus bat (Horseshoe Bat) populations. There is suspicion that the COVID-19 virus may have had an animal source, but further investigations are required to confirm this.

                Although there is suspicion that the initial introduction of the COVID-19 virus to humans may have come from an animal source, the predominant route of subsequent transmission appears to be from human to human.

                Ongoing investigations are important for identifying the animal source (including species) and establishing the potential role of an animal reservoir in this disease.


                Credit: bertrand789

                Latest information provided by the OIE Delegate for the People’s

                Republic China on 5 February 2020
                1. Have any investigations (epidemiological or laboratory) been carried out to investigate the
                animal or environmental source of the virus?

                After the detection of human cases, veterinary departments of China have carried out 2019-
                nCoV testing towards samples of pigs, poultry and dogs and other domestic animal animals
                collected since 2019 (mainly in late 2019). So far, results of such testing are all negative.

                Molecular epidemiology analysis indicates the first published sequence of 2019-nCoV (WHHuman 1/China/2019-Dec)
                released by the Chinese Health Department shows high homology
                (87.99%) to bat-derived coronavirus, and low homology (lower than 66%) to the whole genome
                of domestic animal-derived coronavirus (such as IBV, PEDV, TGEV, etc.)
                3. Did you isolate the virus from some non- human hosts? If so from what species or samples?

                Chinese health and veterinary departments have launched a joint project to trace back the
                source of the 2019-nCov. So far, the virus has not been isolated from non-human hosts.


                "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                -Nelson Mandela


                • #23
                  Translation Google

                  2020-02-23 12:07:39Beijing News reporter:Li Yukuneditor: Zhou Bohua

                  Is pangolin a potential intermediate host for a new coronavirus? Expert opinions differ

                  The source initially pointed to the South China seafood market, but recent research results increasingly do not support this conclusion.

                  Beijing News (Reporter Li Yukun) Since February 7, researchers at South China Agricultural University have declared that pangolins are potential intermediate hosts for a new type of coronavirus. Concerns about "intermediate host theory of pangolins" have continued to rise. Wu Yuanbin, director of the Department of Social Development and Science and Technology of the Ministry of Science and Technology, also said on the 15th that relevant scientific research teams are being organized to demonstrate that the transmission of the new crown virus from pangolin to humans is also being further studied.

                  Recently, 4 manuscripts related to pangolin coronavirus were published on bioRxiv, a pre-release platform for biological thesis. These are the thesis identification of 2019-nCoV related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins in southern China. Identification of 2019-nCoV-associated coronaviruses in Laiya pangolins, Shen Yongyi, professor of South China Agricultural University, et al. Isolation and Characterization of 2019-nCoV-like Coronavirus from Malayan Pangolins And the paper by Chen Jinping, from the Institute of Applied Research of Biological Resources of Guangdong Province, Are pangolins the intermediate host of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)? Evidence of recombination in coronaviruses implicating pangolin origins of nCoV-2019 submitted on February 7 (Evidence of coronavirus recombination indicates that the new coronavirus originated from pangolin).

                  Three papers in China have analyzed the similarity between the genetic sequences of coronaviruses found in the pangolin body and the human prevalent neocoronavirus. The papers by Guan Yi and Shen Yongyi believe that pangolins are likely to be intermediate hosts of the new coronavirus, Chen Jinping's paper Some doubts were raised. In addition, some experts have also posted articles online and put forward their views.

                  Evidence 1:

                  Pangolin coronavirus and neocoronavirus 90% similar

                  South China Agricultural University said at a press conference on February 7 that, by analyzing the virus's genome, it was found that the coronavirus strain isolated from pangolins had a sequence similarity of 99% with the currently infected human strain.

                  However, according to the paper submitted recently, the researchers obtained a near-complete coronavirus genome (29,578 bp) from multiple samples, of which the E, M, N, and S genes were expressed in 2019-nCoV (new crown virus), respectively. Gives 100%, 98.2%, 96.7% and 90.4% amino acid identity. S, E, M, and N4 genes are 3798, 228, 669, and 1260 bp (base pairs) in length. From this point of view, it is not that the entire gene sequence has reached 99%.

                  The South China Agricultural University paper pointed out that in the whole genome sequence analysis, the pangolin coronavirus genome is very similar to the human new coronavirus and a bat SARS-associated coronavirus (Bat SARSr-CoV RaTG13) in the entire genome. Sex is between 80% and 98%.

                  In Guan Yi's paper, it is speculated that the pangolin coronavirus genome has 85.5% to 92.4% similarity to the new coronavirus. Chen Jinping's research showed that the nucleotide sequence identity between pangolin coronavirus and neocoronavirus is 90.23%, and the sequence identity of a single protein can reach 100%. The nucleotide sequence similarity between pangolin coronavirus and bat SARS-associated coronavirus (Bat SARSr-CoV RaTG13) was 90.5%.

                  The conclusions of all three groups of studies can prove that pangolin coronavirus is genetically related to neocoronavirus and a group of bat coronaviruses.

                  According to the paper, the reporter found that the pangolins used by the three groups of research institutes were not exactly the same batch, but part of Guangdong came from the same batch of customs anti-smuggling operations. Lung tissue was obtained from four Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) and 25 Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) collected from the Wildlife Rescue Center from March to December 2019. Amplification. Most of the pangolin samples studied by Guan Yi were obtained by Guangxi Customs in an anti-smuggling operation from August 2017 to January 2018.

                  Evidence 2

                  The receptor binding domains are very similar

                  The paper from South China Agricultural University specifically pointed out that the receptor binding domain of the S protein of pangolin coronavirus is actually the same as the S protein receptor domain of human neocoronavirus, but with one amino acid difference. Chen Jinping's paper explained that the coronavirus S protein binds to the host receptor through the receptor binding domain (RBD) and plays an important role in triggering viral infection and determining host tropism.

                  Previous studies have shown that coronaviruses found in neocoronavirus, SARS virus, and bats have similar receptor-binding domains, suggesting that they all use the same receptor ACE2, which is different from the receptor domain of the MERS virus. "Our analysis shows that the pangolin coronavirus is more consistent with the receptor binding domains of these three viruses, which indicates that pangolin CoV is likely to use ACE2 as a receptor. On the other hand, ACE2 receptors are present in pangolin and interact with humans. The sequences of the gene homologs are highly consistent. However, the zoonotic situation of this pangolin coronavirus is unknown. "Chen Jinping and others analyzed in the paper.

                  The paper specifically analyzes that by comparing and analyzing the S protein of SARS-associated coronavirus found in four animals: human, pangolin, civet, and bat, the receptor binding domain of the S protein of SARS virus can effectively bind human and fruit. The raccoon's ACE2, in addition, it seems to be able to bind the pangolin's ACE2, as well as the bat strain (Bat-CoV-RaTG13). In contrast, the S protein of neocrown virus and pangolin coronavirus may only recognize human and pangolin ACE2. Therefore, ACE2 of humans and pangolins may recognize the S proteins of all four SARS-associated coronaviruses, while ACE2 of civet cats can only reliably recognize the S proteins of SARS and bat coronavirus (Bat-CoV-RaTG13).

                  Guan Yi and others also analyzed in the paper that in terms of the receptor binding domain, the new coronavirus and the coronavirus found in Guangdong pangolin showed very high sequence similarity.

                  Matthew Wong, a member of Joe Petrosino's research group, posted on the website of virology 21 days ago that spike protein (or spike protein or ear protein) of Wuhan New Crown Virus strain is the "crown tip" of coronavirus. The receptor binding domain mentioned in the article is on the spike protein, which is responsible for binding with the receptor and letting the virus enter the cell .—— Reporter's Note) Generally closer to the bat virus strain (RaTG13), which may be due to the pangolin coronavirus Some subdomains of the S protein are very different, but starting from a certain part (S1-CTD), the Wuhan strain of new crown virus and pangolin coronavirus receptor binding domains are very similar, about 97%.

                  The paper by Matthew Wong et al. Shows that from the perspective of the composition of the receptor binding domain of the neocrown virus, the bat strain virus (RaTG13) genome shares only one of the five key amino acids involved in the receptor binding motif, while the pangolin corona virus Five key residues. It appears that the recombination of coronavirus strains and bat virus strains found in pangolins has resulted in the receptor binding domains of neocoronaviruses. However, Guan Yi and others did not tend to reorganize, but believed that convergent evolution occurred.

                  Evidence 3

                  Pangolin coronavirus has the potential to infect humans

                  Although the research data of Chen Jinping's team does not support the direct evolution from pangolin coronavirus to new coronavirus, this study shows that pangolin is a natural host of Beta coronavirus (SARS / new coronavirus belongs to this category-reporter's note) The potential to infect humans.

                  Studies have shown that the coronavirus genome sequences detected in two batches of pangolins intercepted from two different customs offices on different dates were related to bat coronavirus. Although it is not clear whether the two batches of smuggled pangolins came from the same area, it can be shown that pangolins are natural hosts of βeta coronavirus and may be symbiotic with pangolins. All three pangolins detected in Chen Jinping's research were infected with Beta coronavirus, which is very ill and suffers from severe respiratory diseases. It is unclear whether the coronavirus is a common virus in the pangolin respiratory tract flora. The pathogenesis of pangolins by a coronavirus remains to be studied.

                  Chen Jinping and others believe that their findings cannot prevent other coronaviruses from spreading in pangolins, and extensive monitoring of coronaviruses in pangolins can improve people's understanding of the pandemic coronavirus spectrum. Protecting wildlife and limiting human and wildlife contact can minimize the risk of coronavirus transmission from wildlife to humans.

                  Zhao Suwen also mentioned that pangolins are basically living alone in the wild, and even if they are sick, they are not likely to cause a pandemic. In the smuggling process, live pangolins are often smuggled together. Due to the harsh environment, it is easy to get lung disease and infect each other. Therefore, pangolin coronavirus has the conditions for long-term epidemic among the smuggled pangolin groups.

                  Doubt 1

                  Intermediate host similarity lower than native host?

                  However, the reporter found that about 90% of the similarities are far lower than the similarities between the new coronavirus and the coronavirus found in bats. Studies by the Wuhan Institute of Virology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Huazhong Agricultural University have confirmed that the similarity between the new coronavirus and the coronavirus found in a bat sample from Yunnan is as high as 96%. (Bat-CoV-RaTG13 mentioned above, the bat settles in Yunnan Province, nearly 2000 kilometers away from Wuhan)

                  Compared with the spread of SARS virus, this situation is not reasonable. In 2017, the Wuhan Virus Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences determined that the primary host of the SARS virus was a chrysanthemum, and the civet was previously thought to be only an intermediate host. Gene sequencing revealed that the SARS-associated coronavirus detected in civet was in agreement with the entire genome sequence of the SARS virus prevalent in the population of 99.8%, and the two were highly correlated. Sequencing of a bat coronavirus full-length genome proved that the genome sequence similarity to the SARS coronavirus capable of infecting humans and civet cats was 92%.

                  Zhao Suwen, a researcher at the iHuman Institute of the University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, pointed out that in terms of distantness and closeness with the new coronavirus, bat coronavirus RaTG13 ranks first, and pangolin coronavirus currently ranks second.

                  Chen Jinping and others directly pointed out in the paper that there is a high degree of sequence similarity between pangolin coronavirus and neocoronavirus. However, phylogenetic analysis does not support coronavirus generated directly from pangolin coronavirus.

                  Doubt 2

                  New crown virus-specific Furin protease cleavage site

                  Matthew Wong has previously mentioned that the receptor binding domains of pangolin coronavirus and neocoronavirus are very similar, but neocoronavirus has an additional Furin protease cleavage site.

                  Nankai University Takayama et al. Submitted a manuscript for the preprinted ChineseXiv website of the Chinese Academy of Sciences on February 2, 2020, “The Wuhan 2019 Coronavirus S protein may have a Furin protease cleavage site” for the first time in the world to report an important mutation. This mutation introduced A site for Furin digestion is not available in all previously discovered SARS and SARS-like coronaviruses. This mutation may enhance the ability of Wuhan 2019 coronavirus to spread.

                  According to the author, on the basis of previous work, it was inadvertently discovered that there may be Furin protease cleavage sites in Wuhan 2019 coronavirus genome. This finding suggests that Wuhan 2019 Coronavirus may be significantly different from SARS Coronavirus in the infection pathway. The virus may use packaging mechanisms of other viruses such as HIV and Murine Hepatitis Coronavirus, unlike most other Betas such as SARS. Coronavirus, due to changes in the packaging mechanism, Wuhan 2019 Coronavirus S protein has achieved a higher efficiency in infecting cells, which may be one of its reasons for its ability to spread more than SARS coronavirus. In addition, some avian influenza viruses can also obtain a Furin protease cleavage site through mutation to improve the efficiency of infecting cells.

                  Li Yanze, an associate researcher in the Department of Microbiology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, has commented on this. He believes that the new coronavirus has more Furin cleavage sites than other closely related viruses, and its receptor binding region is similar to the overall genome relative to bat coronavirus. The degree is not as good as that of the pangolin coronavirus, whose kinship is farther away. It would be incredible if these uniqueness were acquired through natural evolution.

                  Zhao Suwen also believes that the spike protein of pangolin coronavirus does not have the Furin digestion site like the new crown virus. From the pictures in the news report, we can see that Guangdong experts only wore gloves, no masks, no goggles, and no protective clothing when they participated in the pangolin treatment. We know that there is no outbreak in Guangzhou. Obviously this pangolin virus It is not as contagious as the new crown virus. From the point of being intercepted upon entry, it can be speculated that this batch of pangolins should have been carrying the coronavirus before entering (Vietnam). Guan Yi's team has also detected similar coronaviruses in multiple batches of pangolin samples intercepted by Guangxi Customs, which proves this.

                  Sorry: No animal sampling in South China market

                  Although the source of pneumonia of unknown origin in Wuhan was initially directed to the South China seafood market, recent research results increasingly do not support this conclusion.

                  Thesis of Yu Wenbin, associate researcher of Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, et al. Decoded the evolution and transmission analysis of new coronaviruses based on whole-genome data. Patient samples associated with the South China seafood market were all haplotypes (and not the oldest haplotypes). And its derived haplotypes, only one from Wuhan appears in the sample, and there is no connection with the South China market. This type of haplotype appears in samples from other countries and regions, and even some countries have the new crown virus haplotype in Wuhan. No findings were found during sampling.

                  They analyzed that it could be as early as mid-to-late November last year. Infected people are likely to spread the new crown virus to workers or sellers on the market, and then quickly circulate on the market.

                  However, the positive samples of shops selling wild animals in the South China market are concentrated. Before and after the market was ordered to close on January 1, the shop owners also had multiple confirmed cases.

                  According to the information from the China Disease Control and Virus Disease Prevention Institute, they went to South China Seafood City at 8 am on January 1st, and collected 515 environmental samples for case-related merchants and related neighborhoods. On January 12th, experts from the Viral Diseases Institute visited South China Seafood again The market collected 70 specimens from wildlife dealers. Of these 585 environmental samples, 33 samples were detected to contain novel coronavirus nucleic acids, and the virus was successfully isolated from positive environmental samples, suggesting that the virus originated from wild animals sold in the South China Seafood Market.

                  The CDC report states that there are wildlife trades in the western area of ​​the South China Seafood Market, especially in the areas near the 7th and 8th streets in the western area. There are many wildlife dealers in the area. 42.4% (14/33) of the sample. In summary, it is highly suspected that the outbreak is related to the wildlife trade.

                  Unfortunately, from the current reports, relevant organizations have only taken environmental samples, not animals, and the market has been disinfected several times. In this regard, Guan Yi said in an interview with the media that the South China Seafood Market was closed and washed, and the "crime scene" was gone, making it difficult to solve the case. He said that tracing animal sources is a complicated process, and it is impossible to find an animal with a virus and blame it as the culprit.

                  Chen Jinping and others also pointed out in the paper that the important point to control the spread of the disease is to determine the animal source of the new crown virus. In the wet market in Wuhan, environmental samples have reported high viral loads. However, a variety of animals, including some wild animals, are sold in this market, and the numbers and species are very dynamic. It is not clear which animal started the first infection.

                  Beijing News reporter Li Yukun

                  Editor Zhou Bohua proofreading He Yan

                  "Safety and security don't just happen, they are the result of collective consensus and public investment. We owe our children, the most vulnerable citizens in our society, a life free of violence and fear."
                  -Nelson Mandela


                  • #24
                    "Wu Jinxiang a finalement suggéré que les souris de Wuhan soient testées immédiatement. S'il s'avérait qu'elles étaient infectées par le virus COVID-19, alors les autorités de Wuhan devraient commencer une opération anti-rat complète."


                    On a fait la recherche des rongeurs présents sur les lieux et leur ou leurs portage ?


                    • #25
                      still very distant , there must be a better match
                      buy all the animals from traders and test them
                      try rats civets more_bats seals insects ...whatever keucht and fleucht in China
                      I'm interested in expert panflu damage estimates
                      my current links: [url][/url] ILI-charts: [url][/url]


                      • #26
                        Translation Google

                        Author: High Alice Gan Xiao Source: Science Daily Chinese micro-channel public number Published: 2020/2/28 9:20:35
                        From abroad? New crown virus traces its source into the mist
                        On February 27, Zhong Nanshan, the leader of the high-level expert group of the National Health and Medical Commission, said at the press conference that the epidemic first appeared in China, not necessarily its origin in China.

                        At the same time, recent studies have shown that following snakes, pangolins, and mink, turtles may also be potential intermediate hosts for neocrown virus.

                        There is a steady stream of new advances in tracing the origin of the new crown virus. However, where does it come from? How to reach humans? Why is it Wuhan? These questions have not been answered so far, and the source of the virus is still in the mist.

                        Starting point: Open the Pandora's Box of Bats

                        On December 31, 2019, the Wuhan Health and Medical Commission issued an announcement confirming that 27 cases of viral pneumonia associated with South China Seafood City have been found. Soon after, pathogen detection revealed that these cases originated from an unknown "new coronavirus."

                        The identification of the pathogen sounded the clarion call for "suspecting". The first thing that scientists tracked was the beginning of the virus—the bat. 2020 January 23, Zhong Keyuan Wuhan Institute of Virology Dan Zhengli team preprint website BioRxiv published online, pointed out that bats are most likely to carry the virus in wild animals a new crown. On February 3, the article was published online in the journal Nature.

                        The research team found that, compared with the bat coronavirus RaTG13 previously detected in Yunnan chrysanthemum bat, the new coronavirus has 96.2% identity with the entire genome and 79.5% identity with SARS coronavirus. At the same time, the new crown virus enters cells by binding to the widely distributed protein ACE2 in the human body, which is exactly the same as the "routine" of SARS virus. [1]

                        This provides strong evidence that bats are the natural host of the new crown virus, and has been widely recognized by the scientific community.

                        Disputes abound. Can the new crown virus go directly from bat to human? On January 31, Trevor Bedford, a bioinformatics expert at the University of Washington, said in an interview with Science that "the RaTG13 sequence is nearly 1,100 nucleotides different from the new crown virus." Based on this, experts believe that this means that it There are also one or more intermediate hosts from bat to human.

                        However, according to "China Business News" reported on February 24, Richard Ebright, director of the Waxman Institute of Microbiology in the United States, believes that from bat virus to new coronaviruses infected by humans, there may be no need for an intermediate host.

                        An empirical study published by Shi Zhengli's team in Virologica Sinica (Chinese Virology: English Edition) in February 2018 also supports this. The paper states that in a sample survey of 218 Yunnan residents, six were positive for the detection of SARS-associated coronavirus. Excluding other possible factors, this study provides the first serological evidence that human SARS-associated coronavirus may infect humans. [2]

                        After opening the "Pandora's Box" of a bat, is there any intermediate host and who plays the role of intermediate host?

                        Intermediate host: Schrodinger's pangolin

                        After SARS coronavirus and MERS coronavirus, neocoronavirus is the third zoonotic coronavirus to infect humans for the third time in decades. The past two experiences have shown that identifying intermediate hosts is not easy.

                        From snakes and minks to pangolins and tortoises, the intermediate host of the new crown virus is like "Schrödinger's cat." Among the studies on the intermediate host of the new crown virus, pangolin is the most suspect.

                        On February 7th, South China Agricultural University held a press conference and announced that the sequence of beta coronavirus was found in pangolins. The sequence similarity to the strains currently infecting humans is as high as 99%, which is speculated to be a potential intermediate host. [3]

                        A preprinted paper submitted by the research team subsequently showed that at the genome-wide level, the entire pangolin coronavirus genome has 90% homology with human neocoronavirus. [4] The authors interpret this difference as "embarrassing miscommunication between the bioinformatics group and the research laboratory." [5]

                        The most encouraging conclusion of the paper is that in the most critical spike protein receptor binding domain, pangolin coronavirus differs from neocoronavirus by only one amino acid.

                        Questions from the academic community argue that the source of the pangolin sample is crucial. "It is not clear metagenomic samples from breeding places still wild, pangolins if 1000 samples from only a special group, is not representative." Zhong Keyuan animal researcher Jiang Zhigang told "China Science News." [7]

                        On February 21, a preprinted paper submitted by the Hong Kong University professor Guan Yi's team confirmed this conclusion. They found coronavirus in smuggled pangolin tissue samples, and the amino acid sequence of the receptor binding domain was as similar to human neocoronavirus as 97.4%. [6]

                        Another study reached very different conclusions. Professor Chen Jinping's team of Guangdong Institute of Applied Research of Biological Resources analyzed that although pangolin coronavirus is associated with new coronavirus and bat coronavirus, we do not know the zoonotic situation of this pangolin carrying coronavirus, so we cannot directly prove The pangolin is an intermediate host of the new crown virus. [8]

                        Previously, Chen Jinping's team published a paper in Viruses, revealing another batch of smuggled Malay pangolins infected with coronavirus. [9]

                        Joe Petrosino's research team at Baylor College of Medicine in the United States concluded that neocoronavirus is most similar to pangolin coronavirus in the receptor binding region of spike protein, and is most similar to bat coronavirus RaTG13 at the genome level. "This shows that during the evolution of the new crown virus, more than one reorganization occurred, and pangolins were only one of them." The team said in a paper published on February 13th in BioRxiv. [10]

                        On February 26, Liu Longlian's research group of the People's Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical College and other papers published in the Journal of Medical Virology pointed out that the composition and differences between the coronavirus spike protein and the host ACE2 receptor were used to predict turtles Turtles, green sea turtles, Chinese sturgeon) may also be potential intermediate hosts for transmission of the new crown virus to humans. [11]

                        Guo Deyin, Dean of the Medical College of Sun Yat-Sen University , told the China Science News: "Science is difficult to prove in a reproducible way, but it can be proved by science Evidence, with a complete logic to form a chain of evidence to confirm the results. "

                        Attacking humans: doubts about the seafood market

                        What happened to New Coronavirus entering humans from wild species across species? Where did it happen?

                        Microbiology research at the molecular level is an important way to answer basic scientific questions. On February 21, researchers at West Lake University used cryo-electron microscopy to find that the new crown virus spike protein resembles a bridge across the surface of ACE2 and grips ACE2 like a virus. [12]

                        At the same time, the consensus based on sequencing results is that the virus enters the human body at one time and then is transmitted from person to person.

                        A domestic virologist told China Science News: "The virus that is currently transmitting originates from the same 'ancestor'. The path of transmission may be that the virus accidentally transmitted from an animal to a specific person, mutated, and then started Human-to-human transmission. So if you can find the 'patient zero' who has the earliest infection, the source of the virus will be found. "

                        With the task of finding the "zero patient", epidemiologists are involved. Of course, for them, what makes more sense is the "index case", which refers to the first case that can be observed.

                        With the early disclosure of cases, the search target is focused on the South China seafood market. "China News Weekly" interviewed Ai Fen, director of the emergency department of Wuhan Central Hospital, mentioned that on December 18, 2019, the hospital received the first patient as a delivery person in the South China Seafood Market. On December 27, 2019, "the first person to report the epidemic" Zhang Jixian reported the first batch of four patients, including a merchant in the South China Seafood Market.

                        According to news from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention on January 26, out of 585 environmental samples from the South China Seafood Market, 33 samples were detected to contain novel coronavirus nucleic acids. [13]

                        However, there is also growing evidence that previous speculations may be wrong. Vice Wuhan Jinyintan hospital dean Huang Zhaolin et al in "The Lancet" published in the January 24 papers show that 41 cases only 27 cases had history of exposure seafood market. In particular, the first patient who developed the disease on December 1, 2019 had no history of seafood market exposure, and two of the three who developed the disease on December 10 were also unrelated to the seafood market. [14]

                        On February 26, the "Wuhan Post" Weibo announced that the earliest patient with new coronary pneumonia registered in Wuhan was Chen, and the onset time was December 8, 2019. He denied going to the South China seafood market.

                        The seafood market only played a role in "helping the flames" during the early outbreak. February 20, China Ke Xueyuan Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden offers published data to support this conclusion.

                        This study analyzed 58 haplotypes from 93 virus samples in the existing database to understand the evolutionary relationship of different virus samples. The results showed that the "ancestors" closely related to bat coronavirus were not related to the "grandchildren" of the South China Seafood Market. Researchers have inferred that the new crown virus of the South China seafood market was introduced from other places, and then spread and spread rapidly in the market. [15]

                        From bats to pangolins, to the South China seafood market, the origin and transmission path of the new crown virus is still confusing. All assumptions and inferences need time and research to confirm.


                        [1] ****** 20-2012-7

                        [2] /10.1007/s12250-018-0012-7

                        [3] c1302a219376 / page.htm

                        [4] 101 / 2020.02.17.951335v1

                        [5] buoTZ0EzybOKVrA

                        [6] 101 / 2020.02.13.945485v1

                        [7] JWhFKSekXMd9IA

                        [8] 101 / 2020.02.18.954628v1

                        [9] / 11/979

                        [10] 1101 / 2020.02.07.939207v1

                        [11] 1X8V9VCbKOBWTo-g

                        [12] 017 / 4353.htm

                        [13] ttp: // 2001 / t20200127_211469.html

                        [14] 101508497.html

                        [15] 13i7NGH-pXOt1Kaw
                        Related topics: Focus on Wuhan's new coronavirus pneumonia epi

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