J Clin Med

. 2021 Jan 16;10(2):E318.
doi: 10.3390/jcm10020318.
Prognostic Factors at Admission for In-Hospital Mortality from COVID-19 Infection in an Older Rural Population in Central Spain

Modesto M Maestre-Muñiz 1 , Ángel Arias 2 3 , Laura Arias-González 4 5 , Basilio Angulo-Lara 1 , Alfredo J Lucendo 3 4 5



Background: Risk factors for in-hospital mortality from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection have been identified in studies mainly carried out in urban-based teaching hospitals. However, there is little data for rural populations attending community hospitals during the first wave of the pandemic.
Methods: A retrospective, single-center cohort study was undertaken among inpatients at a rural community hospital in Spain. Electronic medical records of the 444 patients (56.5% males) admitted due to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection during 26 February 2020-31 May 2020 were reviewed.
Results: Mean age was 71.2 ± 14.6 years (rank 22-98), with 69.8% over 65. At least one comorbidity was present in 410 patients (92.3%), with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) present in 21.7%. Overall in-hospital mortality was 32%. Multivariate analysis of factors associated with death identified patients' age (with a cumulative effect per decade), COPD as a comorbidity, and respiratory insufficiency at the point of admission. No additional comorbid conditions proved significant. Among analytical values, increased serum creatinine, LDH > 500 mg/dL, thrombocytopenia (<150 × 109/per L), and lymphopenia (<1000 cells/µL) were all independently associated with mortality during admission.
Conclusions: Age remained the major determinant for COVID-19-caused mortality; COPD was the only comorbidity independently associated with in-hospital death, together with respiratory insufficiency and analytical markers at admission.

Keywords: COVID-19; Spain; mortality; predictors; risk factors.